Origin of secessionist ideas
Reactions from the actors involved
1) The historical evolution of the
secessionist threat from the XinJiang Uyghur
2) Current tensions post July 5, 2009
3) Impacts on Chinese Foreign Policy &
International Relations (IR)
Ethnic Groups: Uyghur, Han, Kazakh, Hui, Kyrgyz, Mongol
First documented incidents of violent Uyghur separatist
1933-34 First East Turkistan Republic
1944-49 Second East Turkistan Republic
1958-61 Great Leap Forward
1966-76 Cultural Revolution
1990-2001 Over 200 recorded Uyghur separatist attacks
Sept. 1933 - Feb. 1934 Nov. 12, 1944 - Oct. 20, 1949
TURKISH ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF EAST
EAST TURKESTAN REPUBLIC
Advocates of an
Not to be confused with
the East Turkistan Islamic
A Chain of Actions & Reactions
Argument causing death of 2
Uighur workers in Guangdong
Organized Protests in Urumqi,
Xinjiang, July 5, 2009.
Protests sparked riots and
Within 300 hundred dead; On 26 June Han and Uighurs at a toy factory in the
between 800-2000 injured. Guangdong town of Shaoguan fought each other for hours,
leaving at least two dead and 118 injured. - BBC
The Official Details
24 HOURS LATER...
"To prevent further unrest, the government blocked access to the Web and
suspended international calls and short message services in the region 24 hours
after the July 5 riot because they were vital tools used by ringleaders to
instigate the riots in Urumqi, capital of the region,"
Yang Maofa, director of the regional telecommunications administration
International Response to 7.5
Diplomatic envoys from 26 countries and regions in China began a ﬁve-day
visit to better understand the situation.
Representatives included those from Kuwait, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan,
Syria, Turkey, Afghanistan, Sweden, Australia, and the United States.
Don’t Twist Facts
Mr Erdogan's description of the riots in Xinjiang as "a kind
of genocide" is an irresponsible and groundless accusation.
The fact that 137 of the 184 persons killed in the riots are Han
Chinese speaks volumes for the nature of the event.
Zhang Ning | Source: China Daily
Don’t Twist Facts
The efforts the central and local governments have been making to
restore order and clear the misunderstanding between the Uygur
and Han communities are what local residents of different ethnic
groups really want and need for leading a peaceful and happy life.
Zhang Ning | Source: China Daily
Other Actors &
the «Hidden Agenda»
World Uyghur Congress (WUC)
National Endowment for Democracy (NED)
•Formed in April 2004, Munich,
•Current President Rebiya Kadeer
•Funded by US organization: the
National Endowment for Democracy
•Designated as a terrorist
organization by the Chinese gov’t
A private, nonprofit foundation dedicated to the growth and strengthening of
democratic institutions around the world. Each year, with funding from the
US Congress, NED supports more than 1,000 projects of non-governmental
groups abroad working for democratic goals in more than 90 countries.
A Need for Policy Adjustments
"The policies (towards ethnic minorities) themselves will definitely
need adjustments. We have to adjust to the actual situation. China is a
multi-ethnic society... If adjustments are not made promptly, there will
be problems." Wang Yang to Hu JinTao, July 2009
Affected Policy Areas
Economics & Development
Influence on PRC’s Agenda
War on Terror
National Defence Mobilization Law
China’s “anti-secession law”
Sovereignty & Territorial Integrity
Anti-secession law, Article 8
In the event that secessionist forces should act under any
name or by any means to cause a region’s secession from
China, or that major incidents entailing a region's secession
from China should occur, or that possibilities for a peaceful
reunification should be completely exhausted, the state shall
employ non-peaceful means and other necessary measures to
protect China's sovereignty and territorial integrity.
Russia:Treaty of Good-Neighbourliness and Friendly
Cooperation Between the People's Republic of China and the
USA: Sino-American counter-terrorism cooperation
International Community & Institutions
N.B. year indicates proposed operational date
China, Russia, Kazakhstan,
Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and
Iran, Pakistan, India and Mongolia
Relations with the Muslim World
China's policy of total control has upset Islamic states,
especially in the past week. Protesting Muslims in Indonesia
called for a jihad against China on Monday, clashing with
police outside the Chinese embassy in Jakarta.
Core of China’s Foreign Policy
China has unswervingly pursued an independent foreign policy of peace.
Its basic objectives center on safeguarding national independence and state sovereignty, and
creating an international environment favorable to its reform, opening and modernization
efforts, as well as maintaining world peace and promoting common development.
Maintaining world peace.
Friendly relations and cooperation.
Good-neighborly and friendly relations.
Enhanced unity and cooperation with developing countries.
Maintaining an open policy to both developed and developing
Towards a New Order
Five principles of peaceful coexistence
and other international norms:
1.Mutual respect for each nation's sovereignty
and territorial integrity
3.Non-interference in each other's internal affairs
4.Equality and mutual benefits, and
«We all look up to Turkey as an example of where we want to be,
but there’s also the possibility of becoming the next Afghanistan»
~Liu Sichen, March 4, 2010
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