BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 1 (ARC 1523)
BSC (HONS) ARCHITECTURE 2013
MS. AMANDA TAN
MR. LEE XIA SHENG
AR. CHIN TUCK HING
Amelia Michelle Bernard 0310316 | Ch’ng Xing Yue 0310425 | Elaine Bong Poh Hui 0310432 |
Fam Li Kian 0310639 | Goh Chin Zhi 0314562 | Lau Ee Tian 0309596 |
Wesley Hew Xin Han 0307585 | Yaseen Fatimah Syed 0309021 Kathleen 1002P78214
Introduction - Amelia
Site Layout - Ch'ng Xing Yue
Site Safety - Wesley & Lau Ee Tian
Site Machinery - Fam Li Kian
Marking - Elaine Bong
Earthwork - Yaseen
Services - Goh Chin Zhi
Overall Structure - Fam Li Kian
Foundation (from site visit and reference) - Ch'ng Xing Yue
Superstructure (from site visit and reference)
Beam - Fam Li Kian
Slab - Fam Li Kian
Column - Fam Li Kian
Floor System - Amelia
Wall - Elaine Bong & Lau Ee Tian
Staircase - Wesley
Door and Window
Door construction process (from site visit and reference) - Kathleen
Window construction process (from site visit and reference) - Goh Chin Zhi
Roof - Yaseen
Ceiling - Lau Ee Tian & Elaine Bong
Conclusion - Lau Ee Tian
SITE MAP (SITE A)
Glenmarie Cove, Klang, Selangor Darul Ehsan.
Site A is located in Glenmarie Cove, Klang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
Glenmarie Cove is a high class residential living area. It is developed by
Glenmarie Cove Development. Glenmarie Cove is easily accessible from Jalan
Telok Gong and Pulau Indah Highway where it is located near townships such
as Botanic town and Bukit Tinggi Town. The architect in charge is LEOWYC
Architect and the owner is known as James A.A. While, Essential Design
Integrated as their interior architect. Besides that, its’ interior consultant
includes Essential Design Integrated Sdn. Bhd.
SITE MAP (SITE B)
Taman Bukit Segar, Cheras, Selangor Darul Ehsan.
Site B is located in Taman Bukit Segar where it lies as a residential area in Cheras, Selangor Darul Ehsan. The developer for this area is Jaguh
Gemilang. Its’ architects are PPB Hartabina Sdn. Bhd, DMP Architects Sdn. Bhd. And Semangat Reka Sdn. Bhd. Besides that, their consultants in
mechanical and electrical consultants are Juaraconsults Sdn. Bhd. and Prudenergy Sdn. Bhd. And KPK Quantity Surveyors (Semenanjung) Sdn. Bhd as
their quantity surveyors. Lastly, Nissin Builders Sdn. Bhd as their contractor.
Glenmarie Cove, Klang
Discarded construction wastes and soil
after excavation are placed at the vacant
land next to the site.
Temporary toilet for the
Concrete mixer is located here
because it is near to where the
materials are unloaded.
Only road access
to the site.
Open storage area for gravels and bricks and a lockable
storage hut for security and weather protection.
Sands and construction
materials are unloaded at
the main entrance of
building since it is easier
to transport the materials
to other parts of the
Workbench to cut the pipes.
Taman Bukit Segar, Cheras
Retaining wall for the
site to prevent
landslide since it is
located on the hill.
Boundary line for the
site where it is
hoardings and fences.
Main entrance, only in
and out access for the
Guard house is
located at the
only access to
Storage area for floor
tiles along the road
Portable toilet located in the
middle of the site for the
convenience of the workers.
Dump site for the wastes.
The amount of materials
to be stored in this site is
a lot so there are a lot of
storage area distributed
along the site according
to where the materials are
needed the most.
Canteen and accommodation for
workers where the toilet is next
Slowest progress of all construction of the houses.
Location to unload materials since it
has a bigger space and the buildings
here are mostly still in earlier stages.
Reinforced steel bars are placed
here as beams and columns are
still constructed in this part of
Location of steel bars cutter and bender.
Materials are unloaded here
because it is near to where the
The loss of construction equipment from theft being one of the major source that causes a construction
project to be more expensive and may also result in the delay of production whilst waiting for new
equipment as well as the paperwork of said stolen equipment. As such people with control of the workplace
are normally there to ensure that unauthorized personnel not be given access to the site.
Construction sites are better known as one of the most dangerous environments to work in due to the high possibility of being seriously injured. With the presence of
high voltage areas, falling debris and heavy equipment, it's important to make sure that construction workers and anyone in or near the site are made aware of the
With that in mind, safety signs are normally present in numerous locations on both sites to remind the contractors or other people in the vicinity of the site regarding
the safety and restrictions.
To achieve their objective, Meetings should be structured communication sessions, with an agreed goal and outcomes. People have to be led in order to function efficiently
and reach decision appropriate to the organization.
advance of commencement of work on site.
Meetings help the principle contractors to explain the role of safety, health and environmental management, together with any specific requirement related to the project.
A copy of the completed agenda should be signed off and retained on file for record and audit purposes.
A pre-start meeting are normally held by principle contractors on a specific location on site with each contractor in order to discuss the overall site safety plan through the
Head protection :- Function to provide protection against sun and rain, and against impact damage to the head. A regular safety helmet has a life span of 3 years but can be
shortened by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light and repeated minor or major impact damage.
Footwear :- Provide protection for feet especially for the toes, if material should drop onto them. Also provide protection against penetration from beneath the sole of the foot,
be reasonably waterproof, provide good grip and designed to comfort.
Gloves :- Carefully selected on consideration of cause and hazards likely to be encountered by wearer in order to ensure compatibility with field of construction.
Mask :- Use to purify the air by drawing it through a filter to remove contaminants, breathing apparatus, which supplies clean air for wearer from uncontaminated external source.
Making proper choice of mask provide efficiency when used correctly.
any fall, and to assist in rescues from confined spaces. Belts are preferable compared to harnesses as for the movement needs of the work. Harnesses are to withstand the snatch
load of any fall, by basically attach the securing lanyard to a fixing point as high as possible over work area.
Harness :- Only use on platforms, nets or other access and personal suspension equipment is impracticable is their use permissible. Belts and harnesses are limit to the height of
As electrical installations on construction and demolition sites may pose serious risks to the safety of construction and demolition workers., several simple precautions are normally
taken in order to reduce the risk of electrical injury to the contractors and people on site.
Regular visual inspection of electrical equipment will identify most faulty items, but not all faults can be seen. Because of this, testing at appropriate intervals is required, depending
upon the treating the equipment receives in use.
Work near overhead and underground lines requires planning. Carrying metal ladders and scaffolding tubing near overhead wires can provoke arcing – safe clearance distance must
The best options in advert ant context can be prevented by choosing traffic roots to avoid, or building goal post or collapsible barriers beneath them on either side so that the barrier
is hit before the cable.
Traffic management plan is an important aspect at a construction site and should be included in every project safety plan.
With main access and egress point to the site, there needs to be good visibility and room for manoeuvring wherever possible as it is important to keep pedestrian footways and
vehicle path physically separated. This is most commonly done by identifying and marking entry and exit point with reels or barrier.
using pedestrian footways while crossing.
Banksmen should allows assist drivers in reversing, and to be trained in traffic management plan and signalling. Additionally, high-visibility clothing should be worn by everyone
All construction sites should have a planned maintenance program by which dumpers will operate in enclosed areas within building structures, or in confined spaces, adequate
ventilation must also be ensured.
Dumpers must secure vehicles when loading, tipping or parked. Drivers must wear safety helmets, and dismount during loading.
Ladders and step ladders must be checked to ensure correct length, type and condition for use. It should be subjected to a planned maintenance program. Length must be extend to a
sufficient height above the step-off point when used for access. Step ladder must be placed at right angles to the work and the users hips should be below the top platform to ensure
stability and prevent side loading. In Site A, uses wooden self-made ladder in the beginning to mobilize to the next level after a certain period, they use aluminium ladder using the
scaffolding to support the ladder. After realizing that the wooden ladder could no longer reach a certain height. For Site B, in comparison to the aluminium ladder in site A they use
the wooden self-made stairs in order to reach higher platforms.
Fall prevention is far more effective than fall protection. Reliance on people to make the “right” decision about wearing personal protective equipment as to be shown by events to
be unsatisfactory –they forget, decide to not wear it in view of the expected short exposure time, of wearing it incorrectly.
Methods to prevention :• Use a working a platform fitted with guard rails and toe boards where practical.
• Only when the situation is not practicable, or when protection has been removed for a period, a method of arresting falls must be used.
• Harnesses and lines do not prevent falls but do provide protection for those falling.
An effective barrier can be provided by sheeting below the guard rails down to floor level.
All holes should be protected properly, either by guard rails if they are large enough, or by securing a cover above them that is prominently not ‘Danger-hole beneath.’
Cranes are lifting devices designed to raise materials by
means of rope operation and move the load horizontally within the
limitations of any particular machine. (cite) Lorry mounted crane is one of the
example mobile cranes which can be found on site, where it consists of a lattice
boom mounted on a lorry. It has two operating positions, the front cab where
driver drove and another parts where crane is being controlled. It is suitable to
be used in short hire period because it took less time in site preparation process.
▲Example of excavating front bucket
Backhoe loader is one of the common construction plants that has been used in
site B. It is used in small excavation works. It is fitted with one excavating
front bucket and a rear backhoe attachment. When using the rear backhoe
attachment, the machine is raised off its axles by rear mounted hydraulic
outriggers. Most of them can be fitted with different size of buckets and various
attachments, such as bulldozer blades, scarifiers, grab buckets and post hole
Dumpers are used for the horizontal transportation of materials on or off
the construction site. Highway dumper has a better function than a typical
dumper because it is larger in size. This helps the highway dumper in
carrying other materials such as excavated spoil along the roads. It has a
rear tipping skip which is useful in discharging the materials.
Lorry Mounted Crane
This machinery is only used in
site B. Compare to Site A, Site B
has a larger scale in project size.
Unlikely to the lorry mounted
crane, self-propelled crane is a
mobile cranes mounted on a
wheeled chassis and have only
one operator position from which
the crane is controlled and the
vehicle driven. A variety of self
propelled crane formats are
available ranging from short
height lifting strut booms of fixed
length to variable length lattice
booms with a fly jib attachment.
Most cement mixers in general use will have a rotating drum designed to
produce a concrete without segregation of the mix. Output performances of a
cement mixer is always the main consideration in designing it. Generally a
batch mixing time of 5 minutes per cycle or 12 batches per hour can be
assumed as a reasonable basis for assessing mixer output. (cite)
This cutter is a rare machinery used in construction site. Due to the special
design of Site A’s façade, which is covered by aluminium panels, the cutter is
needed for so. It is used to cut an edge by the sides of the panels so that it
could be bent into shape. Picture at the right shows how the workers use the
Rebar Cutter and Bender
Rebar cutter (left) and bender (right) are important tools in handling the
reinforcement bars. For example, when the bars need to be shaped, the bender
plays an important role on it. In another hand, rebar cutter helps in cutting the bars
into ideal length. Both of the machines need electricity supply to function.
The function of face shovel is to excavate above its own track or wheel level. This
builder plant is preferably to be used in excavating any type of soil but not hard
object such as rock. Basically, it requires a haulage vehicles nearby to carry the
spoil away. It has a limit where it could not reach 300mm-400mm below its wheel
Aluminium panel cutter
The electricity supply is not always available on a construction site, therefore, portable generators are needed to provide electricity for some tools
application. In compare to site A, site B has a generator with higher voltage (Image in the middle) as to support the larger site electricity requirement. Care
is always needed while setting up the generators under advise of expert to ensure site safeness. For example, the location of placing the generators has to be
taken into consideration, such as, placing them away from drains or watercourses. Maintenance has to be frequently done to ensure the generators work
Since Site A is more towards a finishing period, it uses more hand tools
compare to Site B. This is because less external works and structure parts are
to be done. Drill is one of the hand tools that can be used to drill holes on a
surface. As figure shown above, drill helps in making a small drainage for the
connection of wire.
Nail gun is one of the hand tools that is used in driving nails into the surface of
some specific materials, which are mostly hard surface materials. In site A, this
tool is to be applied on concrete wall. Permit is needed in using this tool due to
the bullets contain gun powder inside. Picture above shows the bullet of the nail
gun. Two bullets at the middle with red colour tips are those which have not
been use yet.
External Work -Marking
External work starts with plotting the site and site clearing. Based on plan drawn on paper, the boundaries of the
land has to be identified. The plotted land is the place where construction will be initiated. Before the construction
can begin, the trees and bushes within the boundaries have to be removed so that construction can progress
smoothly. Pay special attention to the roots of trees which might damage the structure in the future if they are not
Marking the excavation site by pegging in the ground OR to mark the floor for the erection of the walls.
Marking the boundaries requires a few steps.
Determine the positions of the corners
and the distance between them. Then
mark the positions of foundations,
footings and walls (including the
thickness) by pegging in the ground.
For buildings that are small like the houses in site A
and site B may marked directly on the flat ground.
But for site B the uneven ground may have to be
Mark the location and measurement of the
foundation on the ground using the plumb bob and
dig the trenches.
During setting out in site B, the distance between 2 horizontal
points is used, not the distance along the slope. The points have
to be extended upwards using a plumb bob and then the
distance between 2 points is measured.
When setting a boundary along a slope, this method is used
together with the 3-4-5 method. Right angle can be
constructed as long as all the lines are straight. The length of
the pegs might have to be different to keep the lines straight
and off the ground.
The idea of 3-4-5 method is the use the Pythagoras theorem
to acquire the right angle of the boundaries. The first
horizontal line that is peg on the ground is called front line.
The front line is measured 4 metres in total length. Then the
2nd line, which is 3 metres, is pegged vertically from the
starting point of the front line. To make sure that front line
and the second line is right-angled to each other, the ending
points of the front line and the second line has to be 5 metres.
This is the theory of Pythagoras theorem. It should be easy to
form a rectangle. If the marking is done correctly, the
diagonals should be equal.
Earthwork: the processes whereby the surface of the earth is excavated and transported to and compacted at another location.
It ranges from works such as the excavation of ditches and trenches for drainage and pits and
trenches for foundations.
It is usually carried out at an early stage in a construction project, completion of the earthworks within
the scheduled time is often the key to the completion on time of the whole project .
Before excavating any land , planning , designing , construction , environmental and geological conditions are taken into
consideration . The land must be cleared off well , before any type of construction can take place.
The stability of the slopes were controlled by the density and strength of the materials that were used to form the
slope and the groundwater conditions.
Successfully controlling the surface water and maintaining the moisture range can lead to a successful earthwork
When the excavated material is not placed far enough away from the edge of the excavation.
The recommended minimum distance for location of excavated soil (spoil) from the edge of
the excavation is equal to or greater than the excavation depth.
Another one is when common in clay-type soils when excavation walls are too steep, or
when moisture content increases rapidly.
The earthworks should not disfigure but rather blend into the environment.
Transportation and minimize disruption of the local environment.
Consider natural and waste resources in the area , such as are produced from the pits and quarries and other
machinery used on the site.
Septic tanks consist of two chambers and do not fully treat sewage. Septic tank is better waste
water management compare to other system due to few reasons.
Can be built and repair with locally available materials
Little space require due to underground construction
No energy required
Decrease speed of incoming wastewater and reduce the disturbance of settled sludge
Prevent solid from leaving septic tank
Protect drain field from clogging
Maintain scum and solid waste in tank
Wastewater that sending drain field and broken down by aerobic process ,filter through soil and return to groundwater to
Contains of detergent, grease and other chemicals that less dense than wastewater
Prevents oxygen from dissolving in the sewage and cause anaerobic process take place
High cost compare to other systems such as dry or composting toilet
Sufficient amount of piped water is required constantly to send the waste
to treatment unit
Only suitable for
As volume of sludge and scum increase, the time and space for the solid to separate before wastewater leave the tank decreases. The septic tank has become less effective. Solids
should be removed by periodic pumping to avoid clogging and prevent overflow of drain field. Each septic tank has to be pumped every 3 years to 5 years. The cleaning period
depends on the size of septic tank, type of solid waste in septic tank and amount of solid waste in septic tank.
There are two types of method to set up of a septic tank:
1. Gravity-fed system
2. Alternative septic system
Site A and Site B share same method to set up septic tank which is gravity-fed system.
1. Assemble equipment and machinery require for excavation such as backhoe tractor, shovel, contractors’ dummy level and rod.
2. Success permit process which include a test to determine type and size of drainage field require in the installing system in Site A and Site B.
3. Plan the flow to go downhill as gravitational force will make the flow to move faster and to discharge the waste from tank. Concrete aerobic divided tank and perforated pipe
embed in gravel.
4. Excavate a whole large enough to set the septic tank below ground. The size of septic tank is calculated to be at least twice the accumulating sludge volume. The maximum
amount of sludge that a septic tank can store is approximately a third of its volume (Iwk.com.my, 2013).
5. Place rock from nearby gravel pit around the pipe to hold the pipe in position.
6. Cover up the pipe and tank once
Sump pump functions to collect water around the foundation and redirect it away from foundation. There are two types of sump pumps that are usually installed:
1. Submersible pumps
Allow fluid to flow in one direction
Direct the discharge away from foundation
- Prevent overflow of water
- Connect to sump pit
The setting up begins after the foundation is complete. The drain pipe is installed under the gravel around the entire perimeter of the home.
1. Excavate sump pump pit for sump pump liner and sump pump to be placed.
2. Use jackhammer to break the floor around the edge of concrete flooring and a layer of clean stone is placed. Perimeter drain is installed at this place to collect water from
the wall floor joint and direct it to the installed sump pump pit.
3. A special outlet connects the perimeter drain to sump pump and gravel is placed around sump pump liner to keep sump pump as clean as possible. Airtight sump pump
lid around all pipes and wire prevent from rising out of sump pit and prevent anything to fall into foundation.
4. Connect the check valve and attach PVC discharge piping. Run the piping up the wall and out through the hole that drill in the rim joist.
7. Extend piping to outside to allow water to remove from foundation.
8. Seal around hole in rim joist with caulk.
9. Plug the sump pump into GFCI receptacle. Fill the basin with water and test pump.
1. Cut a 2-inch hole through the bottom plate of the wall behind the toilet with a hole saw. Secure the toilet flange to the floor with deck screws. Be certain that the slots provided
in the flange for the base of the toilet are in the correct position to insert the bolts for the base of the toilet.
2. Cut a short section of the 1½-inch pipe with the skill saw. Be certain it is long enough to fit from underneath the floor into the wall. Slip it through the 2-inch hole. The rest of
the drain line will be installed from under the house.
3. Apply PVC cleaner (or primer) to the elbow and the flange followed by the glue. Install the elbow onto the flange from underneath the floor giving it a slight twist. Be certain
it "seats" and is facing the correct direction.
4. Install the reducer to the short section of the reduced size vent pipe you cut in Step 2. Install the "T" on the end of the elbow so that one end of it points up for venting and the
other is down. Secure the reducer to the "T" facing up.
5. Install sections of the toilet drain pipes using the method described in Step 2. Break up the different sections of pipe as needed to connect to the line leading to the sewer or
septic tank. Be certain there is enough of a descent to keep the water flowing to its destination.
6. Install plumbers strap around the pipe under the house. Measure a piece long enough to reach around the pipe and secure to the floor joists. It can be secured with box nails or
7. Cut a hole through the top plate of the wall for the vent pipe. Secure a pipe coupler to the end of the pipe coming up from the floor. Cut a piece of vent pipe long enough to
reach above the ceiling. From there, cut and secure enough vent pipes to go through the roof.
There are many types of waste pipes in different dimension of sizes. Before installation of waste pipe, the degree of slope is an important aspect to be considered.
Piping from the toilet should take several precautions:
a. Piping should be 45 degree slope or more to vertical or at 2 to 3 degree to ensure the waste able to flow through.
b. Piping should not slope upward
c. Connections should be snug to avoid “hang up” where pipes meet connector.
d. Use sealant such as silicon for the connection of waste pipes to the connecting unit to ensure the composing unit is able to move
First floor level
→ Arrow shows the movement of loads being transferred into the foundation
Being the lowest part of a building, constructed partially or wholly below the ground surface, foundation is used to:
To support and anchor the superstructure above.
To transmit all the dead and imposed loads safely to the ground causing no or minimal settlement or other movement.
Differential settlement which would
impair the building structure
ii) Subsoil movements are due to changes in volume when the subsoil becomes wet or dry and occurs near the upper surface of the soil. Compact granular soils such
as gravel suffer very little movement where as cohesive soils such as clay suffers changes in volumes.
A chart on the bearing capacity based on types of soil
Problems faced by foundations:
i) The subsoil beneath foundation is compressed and reacts by exerting an upward pressure to resist foundation loading. If foundation load exceeds maximum passive
pressure of ground a downward movement of the foundation could occur. Solution for this is to increase the plan size of foundation to reduce the load per unit area
or alternatively reduce the loadings being carried by the foundations.
The soil type for both sites is generally soft clay or laterite soil which is common in
west coast of the peninsular of Malaysia.
of soft clay
High compressibility: higher chances of settlement to occur.
Low permeability: Might retain water and make changes to the soft clay as it is very sensitive to the level of moisture content.
Low residual strength: The soil strength of soft clay decreased if it is disturbed.
Low soil strength: Could not withstand the heavy load from the building structure.
Direct physical contact by tree roots could do damage to the substructure of buildings. The effect of the shrinkage or heave of moisture level in the soil, especially
clay subsoil will also impair the foundation system.
Trees up to 30 m distance may have an effect on foundations, therefore reference to local authority building control policy should be undertaken before specifying
Both sites used combined pilings and raft foundations.
Raft foundation normally consists of a concrete slab extending over the entire loaded. It is used to spread the load of a structure over a large base to reduce the load per
unit area being exerted on the ground. It is usually used when individual column loads or other structural loads are heavy.
Raft foundations have the advantage of reducing differential settlements as the concrete slab resists differential movements between loading positions. They are often
needed on soft or loose soils with low bearing capacity as they can spread the loads over a larger area.
The edge of the raft foundation is determined by the nature of the
1. Light load
2. Light load and point load
3. Heavy uniform load
4. Heavy and isolated point load
Plan for raft foundation
Perspective of raft foundation
The raft foundation for the Glenmarie Cove site is the fourth because the
building structure is heavy and the columns are all isolated.
Cross section of raft foundation with beam at the bottom
Why raft foundation with pilings are used?
inadequate bearing capacity of shallow foundations
to prevent uplift force
to reduce excessive settlement (Consolidation - soils decrease in volume when stress is applied to a soil that causes the soil particles to pack together more
Glenmarie Cove, Klang:
The poor soft clay soil condition of Port Klang
The site is very near to the river
The building is 3 storeys in height which exerts huge loads on the foundation
There are two ways on how the piling system works to transfer loads to the ground:
i) End Bearing
Piles are driven down to a point where they bear on bedrock or dense granular soil at the foot of the pile.
Piles can be driven into soil far enough that the friction of the soil against the sides of the pile is enough to resist any downward movement.
End bearing pile
Taman Bukit Segar, Cheras:
low bearing capacity of soft clay soil at the site
situated on the hill top and have slopes
Heavy loads as the buildings range from three to four storeys in height
There are two methods on how the piles are installed:
Driven pre-cast pile: The pile is casted in a yard brought to the site and driven by some mechanism into the soil
Driven Cast-in-situ pile: A casing plugged at bottom is driven into the ground and then the pile is casted by removing or retaining the casing
Bored Pre-cast pile: A bore is made and the soil inside is removed and then a pile casted in some yard is put into the bore
Bored Cast -in-situ pile: A bore is made the soil is removed and the pile is casted at site in the bore.
Both sites used driving method with hydraulic jack-in pile machine for the piling system, as the site at Taman Bukit Segar, Cheras used pre-cast concrete piles.
Both sites used end bearing piles.
Patented grip jacking
The reasons hydraulic jack-in pile machine is used:
i) Lower noise and vibration as both sites are located in the middle of the residential areas
ii) Faster construction rate
iii) Higher quality control
iv) Lower damage to the piles
v) Cleaner construction method
Heavy counter weights to
prevent the rig from being
lifted when the piles are
jacked into the ground
Hydraulic jack-in pile machine
Taman Bukit Segar, Cheras
Driving shoe to drive
the pile into the soil
Reinforced cages used for pile caps.
Ground beam can be seen in the picture.
Reinforced steel bar used in the foundation, 250mm in
Starter bars to make column stump to
join the foundation with the column
Reinforced steel cage
Starter bars from the pile
Concrete slab approximately 10cm
Pile caps are linked together with reinforced concrete ground beams.
The usual minimum spacing for piles is:
i) Friction Piles
1100mm or not less than 3x pile diameter, whichever is the greater.
ii) Bearing Piles
750 mm or not less than 2x pile diameter, whichever is the greater.
For the site at Glenmarie Cove,
the distance between the piles on the site is 400mm each, twice the diameter of one pile which is 200mm, as they are end bearing piles.
No pile cap was used but through the drawings, extra reinforced steel bars were added into the concrete ground beam structure to increase the strength of that particular part
that has piles.
Elevation of the raft foundation
Extra reinforced steel bars
Section of the raft foundation
Reinforced steel bars
50mm lean concrete
• 16mm reinforced steel bars are used in the foundation.
• The thickness of the ground beam is generally 600mm as it needs to increase the surface area in contact with the soil to be more stable while the concrete slab is only
150mm in thickness. The reason why the concrete slab doesn’t need to be as thick as the ground beam because it’s not the supporting structure for the building.
• Hardcore is the infill of materials such as broken bricks, stone or concrete, which are hard and do not absorb water or deteriorate. It is spread over the site within
the external walls of the building to a required thickness to raise the finished surface of the foundation concrete. Hardcore bed is usually 100 to 300 mm thick.
• Hardcore should be clean and free from old plaster or clay that sticks on broken bricks as those materials might decrease in volumes over a period of time.
• Lean concrete is used to prevent the direct contact of the foundation concrete with the soil.
Process of constructing a foundation:
1. Soil tests are being conducted before excavation is started.
5. The soil is marked and concrete piles are driven into
the ground according to the ground plan using hydraulic
jack pile driver.
6. Holes are dug for the pile caps and formworks are set up so that the concrete can be mold. Reinforced cage are installed. Reinforcement for column stump is
Pile caps are then casted with concrete on top of the piles. Pile cap is left till the concrete hardens and formworks are removed.
7. Formworks for stump are set up and stumps are formed.
Trenches are dug and lean
concrete is poured to form a
layer on the ground. Reinforced
steel bars are placed in it.
Concrete is poured to form the
ground beams and concrete slabs
and steel mesh are placed in
between the slabs.
Once the foundation is done,
columns and walls can be erected.
3. Topsoiling (removal of a desirable soil
surface) is carried out because topsoil
contains organic matter which makes it
unsuitable to be load bearing soil.
2. Appropriate site investigation works need to be carried out to determine
depths of filled ground, bearing capacity of soils, soil type and any existing
workings or services that may clash with pile locations.
In both Site A and Site B, they share
a similar building process of
◄ Column stump is a lower structure which is built above a foundation pad
constructing building frameworks,
and it’s located in the ground below the waterproof layer at ground floor
which is built in-situ reinforced
slabs. The column stump are useful in transferring the loads of a building
concrete. Before any construction of
into the foundation and it acts as a supporter for ground beams and ground
beams and slabs, a column stump is
floor column construction.
needed to be built on top of a pad
foundation which extended from the
piling below foundation.
First of all, ground beam are first built before any structures. Ground must be cleared before ground beam is built followed by a blinding layer on top of the surface. The ash
blinding plays a role in preventing the concrete from losing moisture.
▲ Set up of beam reinforcement.
▲ Example of beam formwork structure
After the blinding process, the reinforcement will be tied to the column stump to hold them in position. Reinforcement steel
bars is useful in providing the tensile strength which plain concrete lacks off. Formworks which are made from plywood are
then set at the surrounding of the reinforcements of the ground beams together ground floor slabs. Plywood is one of the
most convenience materials of formwork and it has a lower cost, hence, it is widely used in construction including both
Site A and B. Lastly, concrete mixed will be poured into the formworks. The curing period will took around 2 to 3 weeks. Once
the concrete are dried up, the formworks can be taken off and are reusable for up to three time at least.
▲ Example of ground beams in Site B
▲ Process of beam construction
▲ Reinforcing steel bars
ribbed steel bars
are used in both
▲ Starter bars are extruded out from
the formwork to provide connection
for the next structure.
▲ Reinforcing steel mesh
As reinforcements inside the ground beams set before, they are tied with extended reinforcement bar for a better
connection to the ground floor slabs. Such extended reinforcements are called starter bars. A new reinforcement
mesh is then places between the ground beams and is tied to the starter bars of the ground beams. Similar process
is repeated, where the concrete is poured into the reinforcements which are surrounded by the plywood formwork.
Compare to any other slabs at different levels, ground floor slab will usually have damp proof property. This is
very useful in withstanding the forces of the slabs and to prevent greens grow underneath them.
that is different from Site A
which is the houses have
overhang slab at the top
ceiling area which near the
roof level. The slab is
extruded from indoor ceiling
to outdoor. It has a function of
blocking rain water from
▲ Image above shows how reinforcing steel mesh are tied to beams
spreading to the house.
▲ Scaffoldings set below the first
floor slab acts as a supporting system
In Site B, there is one feature
Columns are the last framework that will be built in the on the ground floor area. Although they have the similar construction process as both beams and slabs, but column is a
vertical structure whereas the other two are horizontally built. Since columns are built above the column stump, reinforcements steel bars of columns will be tied to the starter
bars on column stump. This can ensure that the beams load and weight are transferred down to the foundation. Columns are usually built in storey height, therefore it is
important to ensure the structural continuity of the reinforcements. Steps that have been applied on beams and slabs are repeated again at where formworks are set up continued
with concrete pouring into it. Although the plywood formworks are taken off after the curing period, they are once again set of the edge of the built column. These formworks set
play an important role in continuing the construction of the formworks for building first floor beams.
First floor slab
First floor beam
▲ Structure of column formwork
▲ First floor column are set above
Starter bar that connect
column reinforcing bar to
▲ Image shows the structural
continuity of the concrete
reinforcement from foundation, to
ground and level and followed by
first floor level.
▲ Figure above shows the relationship between beams, columns and slabs.
Concrete is a heavy, rough building material made from a mixture of broken stones or gravels, sand, cement
and water spread and hardened.
Through self-placing and self-leveling concretes (concrete that is placed without vibration).
Step 1 :
The site needs to be cleared.
Step 3 :
After the sub base is compacted and the forms are set concrete mix are placed. Concrete is poured directly
from the chute of the ready mix truck, wheeled into place with a buggy, or pumped into place with a concrete
boom pump. Concrete is normally specified at a 4-5 slump.
Step 4 :
Once wet concrete has been placed into the forms, a large metal or wood board is used to screed the top of
the concrete. This screeding process helps compact and consolidate the concrete, and begins the smoothing
and leveling of the top of the concrete. Once the surface has been screeded, the concrete is floated. This
involves using a special trowel called a float. Floats can be a small hand held trowel for edges and detail
work, or a large trowel called a bull float for working large areas of the concrete surface.
Step 5 :
Floating and troweling is a process of compacting and smoothing the surface which is performed as the
concrete starts to harden.
Step 6 :
Once all the troweling (float or steel) is complete the final finish can be applied to the concrete. The most
basic type of finish is known as a "broom finish". A special broom is pulled across the concrete surface
creating a rough textured surface.
Step 7 :
Once concrete has been placed and consolidated it must be allowed to cure properly to develop good final
properties. As the concrete hardens and gains strength it becomes less and less vulnerable, so the critical
time period is the first hours and days after it is placed. Proper curing of concrete generally comes down to
two factors, keeping it moist and keeping it supported. To cure properly, the cement paste much be fully
saturated with water.
Step 2 :
Forming. Once the sub base is prepared, forms can be set.
Forms are attached to stakes with screws or special nails to allow easy removal of forms after the concrete
IS THIS METHOD APPLICABLE FOR INDOOR?
Tough and resilient and is able to withstand heavy pressure.
Materials are in high quality and won’t get damage easily.
• Yes. It uses the same method indoors.
Easy To Maintain :
Need to be sealed every 3 to 9 months depends on how often it is step on.
Use a neutral cleaning agent to mop the floor.
• Indoor flooring in bungalow unit.
• Stable land.
Glenmarie Cove, Klang.
Taman Segar, Cheras.
Long Lasting :
A sealed and properly maintained concrete floor can last indefinitely.
• Stable land.
• Bungalow units.
The hardness of concrete also makes it uncomfortable to stand on for long periods of time.
Environmentally Unfriendly :
Due to the presence of cement, it requires a significant expenditure of energy and carbon dioxide in order to manufacture.
Step 1 :
Remove old floorings.
Step 2 :
Ensure the subfloor is level and solid.
Step 3 :
Spread a layer of thinset on the floor.
Step 4 :
Tape and mud all the seams. It helps to solidify the floor.
Step 5 :
Now substrate is in place. Lay out the tiles.
Step 6 :
Mix thinset, trowel and spread out thinset and start placing the tiles.
Step 7 :
Wait for it to dry and pull out tile spacers and clean out the grout joints prior to grouting. Now that the joints are clean, it is time to mix and spread the grout. Let grout set up for
about ten minutes after spreading and start wiping off with clean water and sponges.
Step 8 :
After tile has been grouted, wait for it to harden. Wipe it off with clean water. Grout sealer should be applied one week after installation.
Glenmarie Cove, Klang, Selangor Darul Ehsan.
• General characteristics are brittle, do not conduct
heat or electricity very well and can withstand
Granite tiles are used as the flooring in the
master bedroom and the other bedrooms.
• Made from limestone or dolomite rock.
• Colour of marble ranges from purest white to
• Is a natural stone such as marble, granite and
• Formed in hot springs or limestone caves.
• Standard size is 0.5 inches thick.
Marble tiles are used as the flooring in the bathroom in the main bedroom.
Based on my knowledge, I do not think it is suitable to make it as the
flooring in the bathroom. Because when it gets wet, someone might trip and
fall down. On the contrary, it is suitable as the wall tiling.
• Granite is a hard, coarse-grained rock.
• Contains three main minerals such as quartz,
alkali feldspar, and plagioclase feldspar.
• Strong and durable.
• The most size of granite used for domestic
applications is 305x305x10mm.
Travertine tiles are used as the flooring in the bathroom of the other
bedrooms. It is suitable to be used as the flooring in the bathroom since it
has a rough surface which prevents people from slipping over the floor.
Granite tiles are used for the flooring outdoor. It is used widely as an
elegant and many practical solution to design issues.
Taman Segar, Cheras, Selangor Darul Ehsan.
Wall structure is important for every construction as it carries the weight of the whole building. There are many ways to construct the wall based on the requirement of the
client along with the design from the designer. Judging from our sites, we were able to learn more on the types of wall structure and how unique each construction is.
There are 2 types of walls:
Load-bearing wall (Site A and B)
Load-bearing wall is a structural element. It carries loads from the roof and upper front floors and its own weight. This type of wall have to be able to resist side pressure
from wind and sometimes imposed loads within the building. With trussed roof construction, external walls are known as part of load-bearing wall.
Non load-bearing wall
A non load-bearing wall can be removed or altered. It is free standing and only carries own weight The wall is mostly built internally and is described as a partition. Being
part of internal wall, piers and slabs are not required.
•Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) Blocks (SITE A)
•Material was chosen for its greener advantages
• Non-toxic and energy efficient as it consumes less energy in manufacturing process
•Made from recycled aggregate
•Good thermal insulation and low thermal conductivity
•Made from a mixture of inert aggregate and cement (causes the formation of
bubbles and expand around 5 times its original volume) and cured by natural
weathering or in a pressured autoclave
•Has a higher fire resistance
•Has better water permeability, making it suitable for its site by being by the lakeside
•A mixture of sand and lime or sand and cement with or without lime
ratio and composition:
Cement mortar (cement : sand)
1:3 — suitable for brickwork in exposed conditions such as parapets and
brickwork in foundation.
Lime mortar (lime : sand)
1:3 — for internal use only
Gauged mortar (cement : lime : sand)
1:1:6 — suitable for most conditions of severe exposure;
1:2:9 — suitable for most conditions except those of severe exposure;
1:3:12 — internal use only
Clay Brick (SITE B)
•A basic and cheaper alternative from SITE A, with
contractor being more familiar with material
•Used in general work with no special appearance
•Type of brick used, solid clay bricks were used in site
•Absorbs moisture easily thus plastering or rendering and
finishing are required
•Does not require skilled labour to assemble
Constructing a Brick Wall
Lay a solid footer or foundation wall and
then allow footer to cure for at least 2 full
days before beginning to lay brick.
Measure the two point as guideline
to keep the wall centred.
Mix the mortar according to the
Bricks are lay on the mortar. Starting
from the second brick, mortar is applied
to head joint end of each brick.
Level is used to make sure bricks
When removing brick, trowel handle
is gently tap on to avoid breaking the
•The use AAC bricks
•Technique of using ‘thin-bed’ mortar is used
making construction process to be skimming it.
•Clay bricks are also used on site, creating man hole. It is done this way to save
•Mortar work is not neat as some parts the can drooling out.
•Brick work is roughly done, with some bricks ‘popping’ out
•Excess mortar isn't removed as plastering will be done later onto brick wall,
avoiding any unwanted sight of brick wall.
A mortar line
Hose the bricks down before beginning
laying the brick to stop the bricks from
absorbing moisture from the mortar.
•Used in both Site A and B
•Most common bond
•Consists of stretchers only
•Usually uses reinforcing ties to strengthen the bond because there is no header involved
•Top level’s brick are placed 45 degree slanting upward in order to joint both wall and beam together
as this is the solution to the lack of space that prevents using 2 layer of bricks.
Give extra protection against penetration of moisture or to provide desired texture on the outside of the wall
Wall is left for 3-5days to cure to for the first coat of render. Wet the wall thoroughly to prevent the bricks from absorbing moisture. Avoid rendering in full sun as the finish will
dry up before it can be worked with. Mortar mixture is mix until acquired mixture is obtained based on client's need. Level pack is placed onto brick wall as a guide for the
workers as a marking to indicate the plaster's thickness. Along with the angle bead, placed on the corner of the wall to ensure the vertical of the wall. Rendering, starts from the
corner, working on combining the brickwork with the rubber grout float by filling the joints. After finishing the first coating, allow coat to dry. “Scratch" the plaster in a crosshatch diagonal design before the plaster cures making sure the first coat bonds well with the second coat. As for the second coat, it's not important to have a thick coat like the
first coat, cause it's just as an additional cover. The number amount of coat depends on the designer, as to achieve the acquired wall.
Dampen the wall before beginning the work as there
is a risk of plaster drying up quickly resulting a
friable and deleterious material
Scratch coat (First coat)
It’s important to wet the substrate. Because if plaster is
applied to a dry masonry wall, the plaster will be dried
quickly resulting in possibility of shrinkage cracks and delamination. Using hawk and trowel to apply the plaster to
masonry. Fix level pack (ensure the plaster reach enough
thickness) and angle bead at the corner of the masonry
before plastering starts. Truing up takes place at the second
coat. Scratch coat is to put material on the wall in
preparation for the truing coat. “Scratch" the plaster in a
cross-hatch diagonal design before the plaster cures making
sure the first coat bonds well with the second coat. The
plaster need 7 days to cure depending on the conditions, so
second coat can be apply.
Brown Coat (Second coat)
Before applying the second coat, its important to
control the suction. If the plaster dries out too fast
proper bonding between 2 coats cannot take place.
at least 7 days needed to ensure slow cure of the
Finish Plaster (Third coat)
The wall thoroughly dampen before finishing the
plaster. Thin layer of plaster is applied using the
"putting on and taking off" technique for 3 layers to
have a smooth and flat surface. Ensuring a "tight"
plaster with good bonding. And when the plaster is
taking up, apply some water and polish the plaster
with a trowel to have a soft glass like finish.
Plastering is the mixture of gypsum with sand and
water that provides durable hygienic surface to wall.
Applying layers of mortar to masonry, wood, or
metal lath will form a finished wall surface. The 3
coat work is where the background requires an extra
coat of material and when the background is uneven,
with the mortar not evenly spread during the brick
wall process. Or background is lathing. The
background has variety of different materials, using
clay bricks, mortar and more.
Using sand paper to smoothen out the wall, vacuum away the dust. A thin set of
mortar layer onto the wall, using a tiling trowel to spread the mortar around the
wall. First few tiles are installed along straight edge to ensure that tiles would
not be crooked. Align the first tile along the edge of wall, then press it into
mortar after making sure it’s straight. Process is then repeated. Excess tiles are
then cut using machineries to fit into pattern. By marking the tile using a
pencil, holding it up to the installed area. This is then repeated. When it’s done,
installed wall are then left for 24 hours until the joint of the tiles are then grout.
Type of grout is based on the requirement of the client. Excess grout are then
cleaned out using sponge and water by gently rubbing it and often rinse.
Prepare the wall for the painting. By using sand paper to smoothen out the wall.
Then vacuum away the dust. Wall is firstly covered with a coat of primer.. It help
absorb the colour well. Start off from the edge of the wall and using an angled
brush to help ease the painting. Roller is then used for the centre part of the wall.
Wet the roller with different liquid for different paint based. Paint is then poured
onto tray. Excess paint are rolled out on tray to achieve even coat. Paint is then
left for hours to dry. Wall is then touched up using the second coat of paint. For
wall at the roof or swimming pool where it is expose to water, waterproof
membrane is applied to wall before painting.
Ensure the surface of the wall is cleaned and smooth and then cut the
veneer into specific shape and size by marking the cutting lines first and
run painter’s tape along the planned seam. After cutting, remove the tape.
This reduce breakage of veneer. Use glue roller to spread veneer glue onto
the wall and also the backside of the wood veneer. Place the veneer on the
surface and ensure that it’s set properly. Lastly gently apply pressure on
the veneer to remove air bubbles.
Aluminum sheets are measured and drawn using pencil then cut using the
aluminum panel cutter. Grooving and cutting the corner side of the panel to
enable us to fold it. After being folded it will be caulked to stabilize the
panel. Panels have been riveted interiorly, to secure it. Wall brackets, hold up
the sheets and jointing the aluminum sheets together, being bolted on the
wall. With galvanized steel tie hooked onto the aluminum sheets are then
inserted into the hook from bottom to top. Apply force upward to secure the
sheet onto hook. Sheets are bent 90 degrees to get the desired shape when
sheets reach the edge of façade.
A stair is a structural consists of a numbers of steps leading from one floor to another. The main function of a stairway being to provide means of communication
between the various floors for everyday use. As well as an escape route from upper floors in the case of a fire. A lot of measurements and calculations are required to
be done when constructing the staircase as to allow maximum comfort for the users which includes a suitable width as well as step sizes.
Types of Stairs
Stairs come in the various following types :
a ) Straight Stairs
Stairs that has no change in direction on any flight between two successive floors.
Stairs may permit a change in direction at an immediate landing such as parallel stairs, angle stairs, and scissors stairs.
Double “L” Stairs
b ) Curved Stairs
Stairs that when viewed from above appear to follow a curve with
two or more centers of curvature, such as an ellipse..
c ) Circular/Spiral Stairs
Stairs that when viewed from above appear to follow a circle with a single enter
of curvature and large radius. A spiral stair is slightly similar to the circular
stairs except that the radius of curvature is small and the stairs maybe supported
by a center pole.
All the stairs present in both site A and B whether indoor or outdoor are all half-turn stairs but differentiate in material and aesthetic qualities.
Prior to the construction of the stairway, several rules are established in order to make the stairs as comfortable to use as possible.
a) All the risers in the same flight must be equal; the same rules apply to threads.
b) Maximum height of riser is 8” and 9” for thread excluding the nosing.
c) The formula Minimum R + T = 17” and Maximum R + T = 18” is the most common stair ratio being used.
These rules being used better known as The International Residential Code which includes the change of allowable thread width and height of risers is updated every three
Main stairways are usually not built or installed until after interior wall surfaces are complete and ﬁnish ﬂooring or underlayment has been laid.
The dimension for the stairs are then measured in order to find the accurate riser and threads. The stringer layout is first determined by the riser height being measured
through the use of a story pole to mark the height of the top of the finished floor above. A straight piece of 2 x 10 or 2 x12 is then used to draw out the layout using the
framing square with the riser height and the step is repeated until complete.
The stair case in site A is a half-turn open riser stairs that rises up 3 story. The supports are first attached onto the wall following the initial measurements of riser and
thread. The solid timber threads are then added onto the surface of the support followed by the black anodized carbon steel hand and guard rail.
Both stairways in Site B are concrete inclined, one-way reinforced slab with the addition of steps on the upper surface. After the measurements in terms of risers,
thread and landing is determined through the general method as stated. The frame can then begin to be assembled.
When the form of the frame has been completed, concrete is then poured into it complete it’s basic structure for the stairs.
The handrails and guardrails are then added to the stairs within the cast-in-place sleeve. Using stainless steel for the handrail and tempered glass for the
guardrail as per design. Piece of cardboard are measured and cut to a exact size of the glass panels to be slotted into the in-cast sleeve at a later period.
Half completed example of outdoor stairs on site B
Completed example of indoor stairs on site B
Wooden thread is then lastly added onto the thread of the stairs as a finisher and adds to its aesthetic properties.
Wooden thread and stairs
Conform s to any figure and structure
Foundation or exterior surface damage
Naturally beautiful wood textures and
High cost to build
Cheap for amount of volume
Not as visually appealing as other
Easier to clean and maintain
Can be slippery
Water proof, no flood damage
Difficult to repair if damaged
Long lasting and durable
Good sound and heat insulation
Can be finished with a variety of
Can be decorated with colors and
design to match surroundings
Lightweight and strong
Require more maintenance
High strength to weight ratio
Easy to rust
Stainless Steel &Anodized Carbon Steel Hand railing
Site A - Indoor Stairway
Thread 250mm, Riser 167mm
Guardrail and Handrail
A door is an opening or closing structure used to block off an entrance. Doors typically consists of a panel that swings on hinges or that slides or spins inside a space. It is held
in position by doorframes, the members of which are located at the sides and top of the opening or doorway. The main function of a door in a building is to serve as a
connecting link between internal parts and to allow free movement to the outside of the building. They admit people, animals, ventilation and light. Doors have many uses
ranging from shutting out noise, to shutting out the atmosphere, to preventing fires from spreading, or simply separating two spaces.
There are many different types of doors that would suit different functions and styles, depending on the type of building they are used in.
Types of door found in Glenmarie Cove Klang Site 1
1. Double Leaf Hinged Door
2. Single Leaf Hinged Door
3. Sliding Glass Door
Diagram 1: Anatomy of a door
Installing Door Frames and Openings
For this site, the installation of the doors and doorframes were postponed until most of the construction is completed to avoid and prevent the woodwork from being damaged.
The measured to detail openings were made as the brick walls were built and left to be fitted later with frames and doors.
picture 1 - 2: Openings for doors during construction
The head of a small opening like the one above is supported by a concrete lintel. It is to bear the load from above the opening. It is a structural horizontal block that spans the
space between the two vertical supports.
Diagram 2: Lintel sitting above door frame.
Picture 3: Exposed concrete lintel
Alternatively, the head of any sized opening can also be supported from the floor above. This allows openings of any length. It requires the head to be aligned with the underside
of the floor slab or beam above. This is the case for one of the openings in Site 2 (Cheras), as shown below.
Door Opening in Brick Wall Construction
Picture 4 - 6: Unfinished opening in brick wall after temporary timber struts are removed.
In this case, the opening goes up to the beam (full height of the floor). To hold up the
temporary timber formwork in position during the following building operations, the workers
use struts. These are braces against blocks on the ground and lean up to the head of the frame,
where they are secured with two nails. The temporary formwork to make the opening are cut
to finished size and sanded. Nails are used to assemble the temporary door frame which is
then is raised into correct position. Bricks are then laid up to the frame on each side.
Diagram 3: Temporary formwork and
struts for door opening construction
Once the bricks are laid and the wall is done, the struts and temporary timber frame is removed. The brick wall is cemented and tiled with bathroom tiles on one side. Full
size tiles are laid leaving the access to be cut off later.
picture 7 - 9: Temporary timber door frames
A doorstep is then made with cement and tiled. When the access tile is cut and the opening is cleaned and ready, a selected door with its frame is chosen and installed. For
this opening, a hinged door would most likely be used.
Picture 10 -11: Bathroom tiles before excess is cut
The installation of the frames is postponed until most of the construction is complete in order to reduce the risk of damage to the woodwork. As seen in the picture above,
temporary timber door frames were used for most openings throughout the construction process until the door frames and doors were ready to be fixed.
Timber Frames for Openings
A door frame provides a secure attachment for the door. Depending on the type of door, its function, and its location, different types of door frames can be constructed. The most
common door frame consists of three members;
Two posts (a)
One head (b)
One member on the floor, called the threshold (c)
Diagram 4: Members of a timber door frame
However, there were also openings in the house that were just timber frames with no doors. For these frames there are no door jambs needed as no door is needed.
Picture 12 -13: Openings with Casings only
Hanging an Internal Hinged Door
• Once an opening in a wall is ready, the door frame and door can be fixed. A simple timber door frame, painted in white, is used for all the hinged doors found.
• A hinge is selected according to the size and weight of the door. The height and distance between each hinge is measured before it is screwed to the frame.
• The top hinge is marked 6 inches (150mm) down from the top and the bottom hinge 8 inches (210mm) up from the ground. The hinges are placed inside of the markings
and a pencil is used to draw around the hinge.
• The hinges are then screwed on and made sure and the hinges and screws are flush. The door is then propped up into the frame while resting on wedges and not on the
ground so that there is a correct gap at the bottom. Once the markings are made on the door frame, a single screw can be used to fasten the door first so that adjustments can
be made later.
Picture 14: Entrance door hinge
Diagram 6: A dissembled hinge
Diagram 7: Hinge when the door is
Diagram 5: An assembled hinge
For most doors in residential construction, the residential grade butt hinge is adequate. It s neat looking and consists of two rectangular leaves with screw holes.
The leaves are joined by a pin. Withdraw this pin and the leaves will separate. Both leaves are recessed; one into the door, the other into the jamb or framework.
When the door is closed, the leaves meet, as shown above, with only the pin showing.
Types of doors found in Taman Bukit Segar Site 2
1. Sliding Doors (Interior Sliding Glass Door)
2. Bi-fold Sliding Door.
3. Hinged doors for entry, store rooms, bedrooms, and smaller spaces.
4. Timber top-hung sliding door for wardrobe.
5. Openings only (with timber frame).
Interior Sliding Glass Door
The mechanism used to operate a sliding door is called sliding door gear. The first type of sliding door found on site is a bottom rolling system sliding door. When the weight
of the door cannot be supported from above, a bottom rolling system is used, such as in this case.
This system consists of two rollers at the bottom of the door, running on a track, and two rollers at the top running in a guide channel. All the weight of the sliding door is
concentrated on the bottom two rollers, therefore more force is needed than on a top hung system.
picture 14: Bottom tracks of the sliding door
To be more specific, a sliding glass door, as shown in the picture above, is a large framed glass in a structure that
provides door access from room to room or to outdoors.
There are two types of sliding glass doors found on site:
i) 2 panel sections
ii) 4 panel sections
In a two panel section sliding glass door, as sketched below, one panel is fixed while the other is mobile to slide open
and close. In a four panel section sliding glass door, the two outer panels are fixed, while the inner two are mobile to
slide open and close.
Picture 15: 4 section sliding glass door
Assembling and Installing a Sliding Door
•When installing a sliding door, there are two situations; the first being the sliding door is readily assembled and the other is having to assemble it on site.
• An opening in the wall would be cut or made to size. Once the opening is done, a header is placed above the opening. If the opening is made directly under a beam, this is
•A timber frame was used in this case and was lifted and set into the opening. A nail gun was then used to nail the top right side or the frame then the flanges.
Advantages of Sliding Doors
1. Sliding doors let a lot of sunlight in while being aesthetically pleasing.
2. Saves a lot a space as it does not require any space except for the opening.
3. Can see through from room to room or indoor to outdoor.
4. Also, creates the illusion of more space.
5. Allows larger objects to be moved in and out of the home or rooms.
•Wood shims are then used and shoved into any small gaps to make sure the frame is level and has right angle corners. Once the opening is done and ready, the assembled
sliding door and frame is lifted and fit into place. The sliding door will be secured with 12 inch screws. Lastly, the shims are trimmed and the timber frame is covered with
cement or plaster and painted.
Bi-fold Sliding Door or Bi-folding Door
Picture 16 - 18: Opened and closed Bi-fold sliding doors used on site
The bi-folding doors on site have a white aluminium frame. There are two types found;
i) Four Panel Sections
ii) Eight Panel Sections
A bi-fold sliding door is a type of door that opens by folding back in sections, while sliding to the side. On site, they are used as entrance doors, separating indoors from
outdoors. They are designed to provide quick and easy space division.
Advantages of Bi-fold Sliding Doors
1. Allows maximum or 100% clear opening.
2. Keeps doors out of the way and safe for children to run in and out.
3. Lets more air for ventilation into the house.
Diagram 8: Showing how a bi-fold door slides open
Top-hung Timber Sliding Door
This single panel, top-hung sliding door is used on site for all the bedroom wardrobes. It uses the tophung system and the door is hung by two trolley hangers at the top of the door, running on a concealed
track. All the weight is taken by the hangers therefore making it easy to move. There is not track at the
bottom of the sliding door and there is a slight gap between the door and the floor to ensure there is no
friction and obstruction in its mobility.
Picture 19 - 20: Opened and closed top hung sliding door
There is a track stopper or door stop at each end, as shown in the picture below, to absorb any impact if
the door is slammed and to hold the door in an open or closed position.
Diagram 10: Longitudinal section through tracks at the top of top hung sliding door.
Diagram 9: Section cutting through tracks at the top of top hung sliding doors
Picture 21: Showing position of the plastic floor guide
In most cases, a top-hung system also requires a guide at the bottom to prevent the sliding door from swinging sideways. In this case, a floor-fixed
plastic guide is fixed below the door at the mid-point of its run (marked in the picture below), and a groove is cut into the bottom of the door which
runs over this guide. This prevents any lateral movement. Because the door is always engaged in the guide, when the door is open the floor is clear
leaving a clear threshold.
These doors are hinged along the side to allow the door to pivot away from the opening in one direction but not the other. There are no swing doors that are also hinged doors, on
site. There are four types of hinged doors found on site;
i) Timber Bedroom Door (Single Leaf)
ii) Timber Entrance Door (Double Leaf)
iii) Maid’s Room Door
iv) Store Room Door
Hardware, Fixtures and Fittings
The various fixtures used are:
It is an attached mechanism used to open or
close a door. The keyhole is located below the
This is an interesting type of
door knob which can be pushed
in and out to open and close the
Lockset and keyhole
It is a metal plate affixed to a door jamb with a hole or holes for
the bolt of the door. When the door is closed, the bolt extends
into the hole in the strike plate and holds the door closed.
This consists of components that comprise the locking or latching
mechanism that can usually be found on a door or other hinged object
but can also include sliding doors.
This is the hinge used for the bedroom doors. It is
shorter than the ones used for the heavy timber
entrance door which has 5 screw holes. It is the
device that allows the turning or pivoting of the
The windows of houses in Site A and Site B have been installed by using sub-frame system.
To minimize damage during construction stage
Sub-frame can be installed before the main frame is readily available.
Hence, speed up the construction
More expensive compare to cast in system and
Extra care is needed to avoid damages during
Figure 1: Early Construction Stage
Figure 2: Complete Installation of Fixed Window
Space is required at the top sides, and bottom for leveling and shimming of the unit
Concrete post beam to support the brick above of the rough opening
Uppermost member of a window frame
Two side member of a window frame
Horizontal member beneath a window opening, having an upper surface sloped to shed rainwater
Fixed or movable framework
Site A and Site B
There are two stage in installing the windows:
Sub-frame has been installed by using lug system. Lug system is an installation of windows on brick wall. Several precautions should be taken before installing the
windows on brick wall. Lug system frame can be differentiating by the following properties:
V-shaped timber wedge
Figure 3: Sub-frame
Wall opening should be checked for any physical defects. Any defects should be rectified before installation proceeds
Wall opening should be cleaned and wetted
Window frame should be checked for any damages, and should come with the correct number / spacing of galvanized straps. Defective frames should be
Setting out of sub-frame
Check number of straps, dimensions, spacing of galvanized strips
Check dimension of ram setting
Checking the plumb, levelness and alignment of window frame
Use thread to mark position of sub-frame to ensure proper alignment shows in figure
Positioning of sub-frame using ride up block and aluminum shin plate
Fixing of window frame
Ramset the straps to the wall after confirming the positioning of the frame
Check diagonal dimensions after installation
Internal Wall (Smooth wall)
External Wall (Rough wall)
Sub-frame inside the
3. Plaster the sub-frame with brick wall
Setting up of main frame
Check sub-frame for any damage before putting on main frame
Screwing main frame into
The installation of main frame is usually done after completing plastering of sub-frame. In this case
as shown in figure above, the designer has planned to place the tiles on the wall, hence plastering
work cannot be done yet before that.
Installation of main frame
Verifying setting up of sub-frame
b. Clear dust and debris on sub-frame
Fit the main frame onto sub-frame
d. Fitting in the finishing trim, millet used to knock the finishing trim in the place
Glazing of glass to inner frame
Inserting glass panel onto the window frame
Use of spacer blocks to hold the glass panel in place
Securing the glass panel with beadings
Inserting glass panel
onto the window frame
Use of spacer blocks to
hold the glass panel in
Installation of gasket
Estimate the length of the gasket required
Splice the gasket to fit the corners of the glass panel
Tooling the gasket in place
Estimate the length of
Splice the gasket to fit the
corners of the glass panel
After setting out the window frames to the wall opening, there is gap between the frame and the wall.
The gap has to be properly sealed to avoid water leakage. Different type of sealant is used according
to size of the gap.
7-10mm gap - Sealant
Clean the aluminum frames with white spirit by using rag
The aluminum frame and wall surfaces around the gap should be sealed with protection tape
To avoid sealant from staining these surfaces
To obtain neat sealant joint.
Backer rod can be used
To have better compactness of the applied sealant.
Push the bead forward into the joint cavity to seal completely
The joint should have continuous caulking
To ensure that all areas are filled.
Remove the excess sealant and tool the joint
To achieve a smooth surface.
11-25mm gap - Grouting
Ensure the protective tape on the window frame is intact
To prevent staining on the frame
Wall surface that will receive the grout should be cleaned with water
To minimize water absorption from the grout by the concrete wall
To remove dust
Non-shrink grout should be used
To prevent cracks and water seepage around the window.
A layer of waterproofing casing can be applied over the external surface of the joint areas between the wall and window frames before plastering or skim coating of the external
walls to improve water tightness.
Installation of Window Inner Frame
1. Top Hung Window/ Lower Hung Window
The glass type of the windows is laminated glass, which is good in term of safety.
Top hung window has sash that swings outward on hinge attached to the top of the frame. The
ventilation can be directed when the sash is open.
Installation of inner frame
Check the position and function of window panel before and after installation
Fix the friction stay inner frame by using stainless screw as shown in the figure in sufficient sizes, depending the size and weight of inner frame.
2. Frameless Window
Frameless window consist of a frame and stationary sash. It consider as one of the fix window. The
frame of frameless window has blended into the wall and surround by window. This type of window
has maximized the exposure of sunlight and does not interrupt the view to exterior. The glass that
used for this type of window is laminated glass.
U channel frame is one type of sub-frame that used to construct frameless window. From the figure
above, the plastering layer is as thick as the frame in order to conceal the frame into wall.
U channel frame
3. Sliding Window
main frame of
There are two construction stages involve in installation of sliding window:
Installation of main frame with sliding track
Installation of sliding panel
Orientation of panel should be checked according to the labels
Clean the debris and dust on the track before installation of sliding panel
Slot the panel into the upper track
Slot the panel into the bottom track
Identify nogging on the sliding frame
Nogging should be cut out in the frame track to allow for the insertion of the panel
4. Fix window
Fix window has same installation method with top hung and low hung
window. Fix window does not have movable sash like frameless window.
Ventilation of a building will be affected by size of window and type of glass used. Insulating glass in Site A and Site B consistes of two or more sheets of glass
separated by a hermetically sealed air space to provide increased thermal insulation and restrict condensation. Clear insulating glass without tinted and coating in Site
A and Site B can reflect 14-15% visible light and 11-15% solar radiation (Francis DK Ching 2008)
Top hung window
The position of a window will be concerned according to different zone such as toilet.The windows in toilet are usually installing at higher
position at the wall. This is to conduct ventilation and reduce visibility from outside at the same time.
The roof system functions as theprimary sheltering element fortheinterior spaces ofa building. It usually controls theflowofwater aswell asthe passage ofwater ,air,heat andcold .Similar tothefloor system, aroof must
bestructured to span across space and carry both itsweight and liveloads such assnowand wind .itsstructural layout musttherefore correspond tothat ofthewall andcolumn systems through whichits loads are transferred
THE FOLLOWING TABLE SHOWS THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF USING A FLAT
They are very easy to put up
They lose heat
They can create extra usable
space if they are accessible
They are not as weatherproof
as pitched roofs
They are easily maintained
The finishes do not last as long
as roof tiles
In the construction process, the thermal insulation made from metal sheathing is laid beneath the roof deck, allowing the roof and
structure to be insulated from extremes of temperature, such as heat that enters into and out of the building .The insulating metal
sheathing also prevents the water entering into the roof during rainy weathers.
The roof is made slightly stiff , to avoid any wind uplifting forces . The deck slopes towards the gutter or drainage points at an angle
which is sufficient enough to drain the water that falls onto the roof.
FALL SHOWN AT AN ANGLE
SUITABLE ENOUGH TO
Structure of flat roofs
a deck or slab
a method for disposing of rainwater
a watertight covering
Assembling of truss
After the layering of the sheathing , there are battens placed to provide fixings . The assembling of the flat roof is very simple as a
roof truss is hollow and is made from steel . It is connected to one end of the structure . This causes a slant for easy water flow .
The other end of the roof is laid flat like a beam . The truss is connected using roof brackets . The truss is connected to the columns
of the building using a clip , which is nailed to the top of the wall , it turns up at 90 degrees to the truss with a slot in it . The metal
roofing used can resist high winds and stimulates other roofing materials.
ROOF TRUSS SHOWING BRACE
BRACKETS USED FOR
TRUSS ARRANGMENT OF THE FLAT ROOF
TRUSS AND COLUMNS CONNECTED
CLIP USED FOR CONNECTION
The roof is covered or finished by metal sheets , which act as membranes whose purpose is to waterproof the roof area . This makes it
easier for the water to run off from a slight inclination to the terrace , which allows flow to the gutter. Below the truss , there is space made
for an eave , which overhangs from the roof . Hence it is known as an eave overhang . The overhang ensures that when it rains , the walls
of the building are not wet or affected by the water that comes down . It also can be seen as a channel for water that is being sent to the
gutter . There is placement of a fascia board along the roof , it holds the gutter in place.
The ceiling of the second floor is a that of a skylight ceiling . It is made from tempered glass and is supported by metal beams . The use of tempered glass is because ,
if in any case the glass shatters , it will not be injurious , as the glass remains intact . It will appear as though it is just cracked . The 2 piece laminated glass is 12 mm
thick(each).With a frame of 50mm.It allows light to pass through into the house . It is visible on the terrace floor . Again ,it is raised to allow flow of water towards
the drain holes. For most of the ceilings inside the toilet , there are ventilation tubes and outlets placed . They are held in place by metal beams . After this the ceiling
and walls will be plastered . These vents permit the septic gases to escape to the outside and allows fresh air into the system.
For most of the ceilings inside the toilet , there are ventilation tubes and outlets placed . They are held in place by metal beams . After this the ceiling and walls
will be plastered.
DRAINAGE DETAILS WITH FILTER CAP
AS SEEN ON THE ROOF
The terrace flooring is made to slope at an angle , to allow flow of rainwater into the gutter.
On the terrace , there are drainage systems placed for the flow of water . They are made from plastic , and are
placed vertically . Due to construction purposes and safety purposes they have not been cut to their suited height
. This is because , there could be chances that they may have to be connected to another drainage pipe coming
from the bottom of the building.
However after completion , they are meant to be standing at a height of 50mm.They will be covered with filter
caps to prevent any dirt or objects falling through , as seen in the picture.
Flow of water on a flat
Section of a drainage pipe
with a filter cap(B)
AS SEEN FROM THE INSIDE
PITCHED ROOF SITE 2 –CHERAS
The main supporting structure is made from steel . The truss is a triangulated plane roof frame. A pitched roof is stable in most weather and its slope disposes of
An advantage with this kind of roof is that the space enclosed by the roof can add some extra living or storage space.
The roofs are pitched roofs with a square and rectangular base respectively.
COMMON RECTANGLE BASED PITCH ROOF
The pitched roof affects the structural design:
Span-the span is the distance between the masonry structures that support the
Pitch-the angle of the slope of the roof measured from the horizontal.
Roof covering-the roof covering material varies from light weight sheets.
After laying the under lays , most of the vents and pips were placed , to avoid any
The roof under lays provide the barrier to the entry of wind , rain , even snow
blown between the tiles or slates, It also prevents the entry of water.
The use of bitumen sheets are being used , as they are permeable to water vapor
and do not need to be perforated to ventilate the roof spaces.
THE TRUSS IS CONNECTED
TYPICAL TRUSSED RAFTER DETAIL
CONNECTING THE TRUSS
The use of gang nail plates help to secure the truss together . These are often used to secure wooden trusses . The Gang Nail Plates are made from galvanized steel and have
projecting nails . They are placed across the truss members to be connected and the nails are forced in under pressure . A plate is put on each side of the joint.
On site , bearings were made and the purlins were screwed onto the roof trusses . Gables were erected and braced to avoid any lateral movement.
GANGNAIL PLATES USED FOR CONNECTING THE TRUSS(WOODEN TRUSSES)
The roof is constructed using the trussed purlin roof method . The trusses replace struts as support for the purlins . Trusses , which are spaced about 1200mm apart , are
braced against the external walls rather than internal load bearing walls.
The roof eave is made from timber strips or fascia boards . The ceiling inside is made from plaster which is
made up from mortar and fine sand. The eaves being the lower borders of the roof, are horizontal and
overhang the walls and casts off the water that falls on the roof. Roof eaves protect the brickwork from rain
and supports the wall.
Using tiles as roof coverings
There are two layers of tiles covering any part of the roof . Each tile has at least two nibs on battens nailed over the rafters . The two nail holes provide the means of
fixing the tile to the batten. The type of tiles used on the roof are known as “tile and a half tile”.
The roof tiles are made from clay or concrete that are molded into suitable shapes . Their main function is to keep the roof watertight as well as enhance the appearance
of the roof.
The tiles are overlapped so that the rain water flows down the slope of the roof and the roof structure underneath remains dry . The tiles are fitted closely together to
prevent wind entering the spaces between them . Since there is a possibility of rain water that can be driven underneath the tiles , a layer of polythene is inserted over the
rafters . Hence if water flows through the tiles , then it will flow down this layer into the gutter.
The tiles are inserted . They have nails at the top so they can be nailed to battens.
Layers of reflective insulation made up of double sided highly reflective metal polyester are used to keep out the rain and wind while the tiling work is done during
construction . The tiles are placed in regular bond patterns , so that the edge joints between the tiles are in the centre of the tiles immediately below and above the course
Lightening arrestor is a device placed on the top of the roof to protect the insulation and conductors of
the system from the damaging effects of lightening . Its main function is that of insulation . And to
avoid any effects of lightning as the space is open.
Gutter and Drainage
The roof is designed with a suitable fall towards the surface water
collection channel or gutter which in turn is connected to vertical
rainwater pipe which conveys the collected discharge to the drainage
The material used for the eaves gutters and rainwater pipes is cast iron
but uPVC systems are also being used because of their simple
installation and low maintenance costs . The materials used are of
adequate size , strength and durability.
ROOF DRAINAGE SYSTEM
GUTTER BOXES USED AROUND THE
EAVE AND ROOF
THE FINAL DISCHARGE OF WATER IS DIRECTED TO THE BOX DRAINAGE PIPE.
The gutter is that of a box gutter which is within the eaves of the roof . The gutter continues under the foundation and leads to a
drain passage(as seen).The drain passage is going to be covered after complete construction , to avoid a “messy” look . Another
advantage of this type of gutter as shown in the picture is that , when the water flows down the drain , it reaches the drain passage
and does not allow excess water to flow by the doors , so as to cause puddles of water.
Gypsum Ceiling Board
Firstly, ceiling panels is installed first, then the wall panels. Constructing the ceiling grid, using the steel brandering and form a perimeter around room. Once board is cut
to size, position gypsum boards into place without forcing them. Similar edges and ends, like tapered to tapered, square-cut ends to square ends are matched and put
together. Span the entire length of ceilings or walls with single boards if possible to reduce the number of butt joints, which are more difficult to finish. Stagger butt joints
and locate them as far from the center of the wall and ceiling as possible so they will be inconspicuous. Using the screw gun to drives all types of gypsum board screws
through gypsum board and into framing or substrate. For a single-ply application, position all board ends and edges over parallel framing members to ensure that the
joints are supported. Whereas in a two-ply assembly, with adhesive between the plies, the ends and edges of face layers need not fall on supporting members. Using a
temporary T-brace to support the weight of the ceiling .
Mechanical and electrical equipment should be put into consideration at all times, at the proper distance relative to the framing to allow for the gypsum board thickness
so that the trim components, such as cover plates, registers, and grilles, fit correctly. It is dangerous for the depth of electrical boxes to exceed the framing depth and
avoid placing boxes on opposite sides of a wall in the same stud cavity space.
ROOF / CEILING
Ventilation Outlets , these are placed on the roofs between the tiles right above the toilet under in the house
With this project we were able to understand the basic procedures and profile of construction process through real life project, by exposing students to construction
technology and method responding to site context.
With Site A as a private triple storey bungalow in Glenmarie Cove, Klang. Offering a green view as it's at the lakeside. While Site B, a private property with 13 unit of triple
storey bungalows, offers an overview of the hill which is filled with residential houses, Bukit Segar. Even when both located in different site, they use the same type of
foundation, deep foundation. From the roof, we can learn two contrasting genre of roof, Site A using the unique flat roof where we can hardly see this type of roof based on
Malaysia's climate. And Site B uses the classic pitch roof. In bricks, Site A uses AAC bricks as it help ease up the installation of the aluminium cladding, while Site B uses
solid clay brick as part of their wall system. Huge contrast can be seen in the construction of stairs as even though both uses half turn stairs as part of their design, Site A
used the concept of open riser with timber as their medium. Whilst, Site B uses concrete stairs with wooden thread. Sub frame was used as their window system, this
applied to both site.
From both construction site, we were able to understand construction technology on local construction sites based on the unique climate in Malaysia. Enabling us to
comprehend the current material and technology in relevance to present construction industry.
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