Ne water


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Ne water

  1. 1. NEWater<br />Done by: Li Xin(12)<br />
  2. 2. What is NEWater?<br />NEWater is the brand name given to reclaimed water produced by Singapore's Public Utilities Board. More specifically, it is treated wastewater (sewage) that has been purified using dual-membrane (via microfiltration and reverse osmosis) and ultraviolet technologies, in addition to conventional water treatment processes. The water is potable and is consumed by humans, but is mostly used for industry requiring high purity water. <br />
  3. 3. Processes of NEWater<br />Water Reclamation Plant<br />Micro-filteration<br />Reverse Osmosis<br />Ultraviolet<br />
  4. 4. Water Reclamation Plant <br />Water reclamation is a process by which wastewater from homes and businesses is cleaned using biological and chemical treatment so that the water can be returned to the environment safely to augment the natural systems from which it came. It is used today as both an aquifer and stream enhancement strategy.<br />
  5. 5. Micro-filteration<br />Filtration is commonly the mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by interposing a medium through which only the fluid can pass. Oversize solids in the fluid are retained, but the separation is not complete; solids will be contaminated with some fluid and filtrate will contain fine particles (depending on the pore size and filter thickness). Filtration is also used to describe some biological processes, especially in water treatment and sewage treatment in which undesirable constituents are removed by adsorption into a biological film grown on or in the filter medium.<br />
  6. 6. Reverse Osmosis<br />Reverse osmosis (RO) is a filtration method that removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying pressure to the solution when it is on one side of a selective membrane. The result is that the solute is retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side. To be "selective," this membrane should not allow large molecules or ions through the pores (holes), but should allow smaller components of the solution (such as the solvent) to pass freely.<br />
  7. 7. Ultraviolet<br />Black light fluorescent tubes, a common source of long wave (UVA) ultraviolet. Ultraviolet (UV) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays, in the range 10 nm to 400 nm, and energies from 3eV to 124 eV. It is so named because the spectrum consists of electromagnetic waves with frequencies higher than those that humans identify as the colour violet.<br />
  8. 8. History of NEWater<br />Singapore's first water masterplan was drawn up in 1972. In 1974, PUB built a pilot plant to turn used water into potable water. This was the precursor of today's NEWater factories. But it was ahead of its time. The costs were astronomical and the membranes were unreliable, so the idea was shelved to await further technological advancement. In 1998,the necessary technology have matured and driven production costs down, In May 2000,the first NEWater plant was completed.<br />Currently, there are 5 NEWater plants in Singapore. The fifth and the largest NEWater plant at Changi with a capacity of 50mgd was opened in May 2010. With this addition, coupled with the expansion of the existing plants, NEWater now meets 30% of Singapore’s total water demand. By 2060, NEWater is projected to meet 50% of Singapore’s future water demand. NEWater factory is build to meet water demand too.<br />