Outline● Project evolution● Framing our study ○ specific scenarios & examples ○ research questions● Study methodology ○ rationale - how did we make design decisions● Mechanics ○ what we did & how we did it
Outline● Data / thought analysis● Interview highlights● Thoughts on Siri● Thoughts on Kinect● Future work● Lessons learned
Project Beginnings● Original idea: "something" with Kinect ○ Maybe interface related, or social interactions● Devices beyond the Kinect: iPhone 4S (Siri)● How people choose between one of several interaction modes ○ Do I talk to my phone? Use the touchscreen? ○ Do I wave at my Xbox? Shout at it? Use a controller?
Possible Topics of Interest● Collaborative vs. Competitive games (social component)● Voice communication in collaborative games● Activity-driven games & activity coordination● Engaging & encouraging long-term involvement● What is unique about the Kinect? (hands-free, no- controller... what are the implications of this?)
Project Evolution● Use of technology: ○ Driven by utility ○ Related to activity going on in the space ○ May be bounded by physical space● Contradictions ○ Based on role ○ Based on activity ○ Based on perceptions
Framing our Study1. Physical vs social space ● Is there any difference how people perceive them? ● How do they define?2. Choice of devices ● Screen size, keyboard/touch screen, gestures, dictation, etc ● goals ● embodiment
Framing our Study3. Appropriateness ● What is appropriateness ● Whats not4. Perception of other people using technology ● What is appropriate ● Any difference of rules for self and others?
Methodology - RationaleSemi-structured interview technique● Highly contextualized area(s) of interest● Not sure what we will find out● Limited initial understanding● Multiple hypotheses● Elicit creative, open-ended responses
Selection Criteria● Very open-ended● Didnt want to limit prematurely● People with high exposure to the settings / environments of interest
Places / Settings of Interest 1. Classroom - lecture environment 2. Airport 3. Coffee shop 4. Church / religious building 5. Movie theater 6. Library
Place Dimensions● Small vs. large● Public vs. private● Focus of attention● Cooperation level● Visibility
Demographic / Background Data● Could become relevant, based on what we find● Could help refine future groups of interest● Specific device usage / familiarity● Will talk to users about w/e they have experience with● Ideal candidates familiar with a majority of settings / devices
Example Questions / Scenarios● "Bluetooth headset guy" at the coffee shop Wired magazine, August 2009
Example Questions / Scenarios● iPads in Church rightreactions.blogspot.com
Study Mechanics● 2 "pilot test interviews"● Refinements to interview questions & approach● 4 additional interviews
Data Collection● Demographic data ○ Age ○ Gender ○ Occupation● Background questionnaire ○ Devices ○ Places● Audio recordings of interviews● Hand-written notes by interviewers
Interview Highlights● Barista: Petes Coffee (SF Financial District) ○ Business people tip well ○ BlueTooth less annoying for business ■ "BlueTooth people still pay attention to other things, its like they have evolved"● Cell phones at the concert (instead of cameras) ○ The lone iPad ○ Light and Sound Pollution: Movie theater vs Concert● Technology and God ○ The book, like the e-reader or the iPad, is technology
Interview Highlights● Office worker: Toshiba● Privacy Concerns● "Tunnel vision"● Technology can create "social strain"● Devices are too portable - you cant get away from them!
Interview Highlights● Banker: U.S. Bank● Doesnt have a smartphone - but soon! ○ iPhone: "its replaced most of the electronics that you need"● Doesnt like the phone - but with video calls, you cant "blame the technology"● Generational differences● On Kinect: ○ pretty expensive for just one game you want to play ○ "I dont want to Just Dance"Bluetooth: Headphones: Coffee Shop Crew:
Interview Highlights1. How participants differentiate places● "Libraries are supposed to be more quiet, while coffee shop can be noisy"● "Coffee shop is casual, so series business are not appropriate, library is for studying, it would be awkward to play games, airport has no focus at all, so you can do whatever"● "In the airport, the first thing is to find a safe place, as I always have expensive belongings with me in the airport"
Interview Highlights2. Self and others● "I wont let myself play games in the library, but I dont care if others are playing"● "I wont make any video calls at the coffee shop, others can do, but I found myself always distracted by them"● "Its cool to read Bible on Kindle, I saw such cases and its totally fine, I have Kindle, but I wont do this"
Interview Highlights3. Perceived privacy● "In the library, I like the place where you know others are there, but you cant see them"● "Dont really care if its a corner in the airport, people come and people go, it doesnt make a difference"● "In a place where I am not familiar with, I will use less complicated apps"
Thoughts on Siri● Only used when not accompanied● Experience is severely limited by functionality● Helpful when cant look at the screen, or with sight impair
Thoughts on Kinect ● Why we wanted to study the Kinect ○ Offers new interaction styles with devices ○ Brings the virtual environment into the spacial ● Why it didnt really work ○ The Kinect is not widespread ○ It is used primarily in the home ● What this meant for our study ○ Interest in broader range of interaction ○ Spatial relation being key in Kinect ○ Kinect questions became hypothetical
Kinect Caveat● One interviewee did have interesting ideas about future applications of Kinect technology ○ Artificial creation of concise keyword structured language ○ Reduction of sense of touch ■ Reduced physical closeness with others ■ Desensitization to tactile stimulus ■ Disallow keyed movements in watched areas ○ Possible benefit of increased ability for disabled
Initial Analysis● Brainstorming ○ Initial analysis based on our own understanding ○ Comparison of interview notes and ideas● Interviews ○ Rough notes ○ Important ideas
Future Work● Analyze Data ○ Collect all similarities and attempt to rationalize them in a meaningful way ○ Brainstorm to evolve ideas further ○ Reconsider audiences to target in the future● Record Data ○ Create logs of our interesting findings to facilitate future work
Lessons learned● Designing the study is HARD!● So many good & interesting ideas● Difficult to narrow down what is one "unit" of focused, measurable work● Its tricky to help people summarize their opinions while not biasing them
Lessons learned● Transcribing audio / video recordings is time- consuming● Knowing what to code for is challenging● Consolidating ideas uncovered & deciding what to do next is hard