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Dynamic and Control of
Nature
“Balan
ce of
Nature
”
“Cha
os!”
The Devine Power: Genesis
BBA Part1_3 (Gajaseni, 2009)BBA Part1_3 (Gajaseni, 2009) 44
Dynamic of the Physical
Earth: Plate Tectonic
Is the geologica...
BBA Part1_3 (Gajaseni, 2009)BBA Part1_3 (Gajaseni, 2009) 55
Dynamic of
Biological Earth
How do they liveHow do they live
t...
66
Man-made environmentMan-made environment
Biotic environmentBiotic environment
Physical environmentPhysical environment
...
77
Solar capital
Energy budget
Energy in = Energy ou
Earth capital
Water budget
Water up = Water down
Environmental
dynamic
at various spatio-
temporal scales!
hypothesis
(Lovelock,
1979)
‘The biosphere is a
self-regulating
entity with the
capacity to keep the
Earth healthy by
Can we
“falsify” the
Gaia
hypothesis by
“scientific
method”?
Yes, no,
or
unlikely!
Comparative study of the
atmosphere of
the Earth, Venus and Mar
• Low CO2 and high O2 and N of the Earth VS. the
reverse o...
Comparative study of the
atmosphere
of the Earth, Venus and Mar (co
ntinue)• Without chemical
transformation by biotic co
...
Gaia isGaia is
““non-sense”!non-sense”!
Domination
of the Earth
by human
mind or
“Noosphere!”
What would be the best
survival strategy?
Non
believer
–business as
usual
–if the
hypothesis is
false - fine no
problem
–i...
Hierarchy
of Nature
Ecological
hierarchy
Biological
hierarchy
Chemical-
physical hi
erarchy
Each level possess
control mechanism!
Deviation at higher
level will be less!
therefore,
Higher level sets
Controls in Ecological
Hierarchy
Resilience vs. Resistance
Resilience: The ability of a
system to return to its original
position after
disturbance.
“Which...
Control of Ecosystem by
Organisms
Top down vs. Bottom up
controls
Top down =
predation
Bottom up =
nutrients,
photosynth
e...
Feedback Controls: Positive
and negative
Input Outp
ut
System
Input Outp
ut
System
1ry Sub-system
2ry Sub-system
Outp
utGo...
functional
components
• Different
components with
similar function
• These components
can compensate for
one another
• Pro...
Conclusion
‘Because of the
functional
redundancy in
ecosystem,
therefore,
decreasing in
biotic
components will
have no eff...
Greenhouse gasses disrupt
energy balance!
What would be the
consequences?
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  • Carrying capacity concept!
  • Transcript of "Dynamic And Control Of Nature (2010)"

    1. 1. Dynamic and Control of Nature
    2. 2. “Balan ce of Nature ” “Cha os!”
    3. 3. The Devine Power: Genesis
    4. 4. BBA Part1_3 (Gajaseni, 2009)BBA Part1_3 (Gajaseni, 2009) 44 Dynamic of the Physical Earth: Plate Tectonic Is the geological evolution
    5. 5. BBA Part1_3 (Gajaseni, 2009)BBA Part1_3 (Gajaseni, 2009) 55 Dynamic of Biological Earth How do they liveHow do they live together on thetogether on the planet?planet? Natural selection
    6. 6. 66 Man-made environmentMan-made environment Biotic environmentBiotic environment Physical environmentPhysical environment Local Region Country Global DistanceDistance FutureFuture IntermediateIntermediate FutureFuture PresentPresent Ultimate goal??? Spatio-temporalSpatio-temporal dynamic ofdynamic of the environment!the environment!
    7. 7. 77 Solar capital Energy budget Energy in = Energy ou Earth capital Water budget Water up = Water down
    8. 8. Environmental dynamic at various spatio- temporal scales!
    9. 9. hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979) ‘The biosphere is a self-regulating entity with the capacity to keep the Earth healthy by
    10. 10. Can we “falsify” the Gaia hypothesis by “scientific method”? Yes, no, or unlikely!
    11. 11. Comparative study of the atmosphere of the Earth, Venus and Mar • Low CO2 and high O2 and N of the Earth VS. the reverse on Venus and Mar • Photosynthesis removes C02 and add O2 to the Earth Atmosphere • This biotic community is responsible over time for: the built up of O2 and reduction of CO2
    12. 12. Comparative study of the atmosphere of the Earth, Venus and Mar (co ntinue)• Without chemical transformation by biotic co mmunity, soils and waters w ould be so acidic that only f ew organisms now on the Ea rth could survive-no life-sup port • A variety of specialized microorganisms keep the vit al compounds moving betw een organic and inorganic s tates,
    13. 13. Gaia isGaia is ““non-sense”!non-sense”! Domination of the Earth by human mind or “Noosphere!”
    14. 14. What would be the best survival strategy? Non believer –business as usual –if the hypothesis is false - fine no problem –if the Believer – Respect the Mother Earth – Protect the Earth’s norm- biodiversity – if the hypothesis is false-fine no probl em
    15. 15. Hierarchy of Nature Ecological hierarchy Biological hierarchy Chemical- physical hi erarchy
    16. 16. Each level possess control mechanism! Deviation at higher level will be less! therefore, Higher level sets
    17. 17. Controls in Ecological Hierarchy
    18. 18. Resilience vs. Resistance Resilience: The ability of a system to return to its original position after disturbance. “Which one we are very familiar wit
    19. 19. Control of Ecosystem by Organisms Top down vs. Bottom up controls Top down = predation Bottom up = nutrients, photosynth esis
    20. 20. Feedback Controls: Positive and negative Input Outp ut System Input Outp ut System 1ry Sub-system 2ry Sub-system Outp utGoal System Controller Input Sub-system being controlled Control specification
    21. 21. functional components • Different components with similar function • These components can compensate for one another • Providing alternative pathways for energy flow and material cycling • Achieve controlled
    22. 22. Conclusion ‘Because of the functional redundancy in ecosystem, therefore, decreasing in biotic components will have no effect on control of the ecosystem!’
    23. 23. Greenhouse gasses disrupt energy balance! What would be the consequences?
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