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  • Carrying capacity concept!


  • 1. Dynamic and Control of Nature
  • 2. “ Balance of Nature” “ Chaos!”
  • 3. The Devine Power: Genesis
  • 4. BBA Part1_3 (Gajaseni, 2009) Dynamic of the Physical Earth: Plate Tectonic Is the geological evolution still continuing?
  • 5. BBA Part1_3 (Gajaseni, 2009) Dynamic of Biological Earth How do they live together on the planet? Natural selection
  • 6. Man-made environment Biotic environment Physical environment Local Region Country Global Distance Future Intermediate Future Present Ultimate goal??? Spatio-temporal dynamic of the environment!
  • 7. Solar capital Energy budget Energy in = Energy out Earth capital Water budget Water up = Water down
  • 8. Environmental dynamic at various spatio-temporal scales!
  • 9. The Gaia hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979) ‘ The biosphere is a self-regulating entity with the capacity to keep the Earth healthy by controlling the chemical and physical environment.’
  • 10. Can we “ falsify ” the Gaia hypothesis by “ scientific method ”? Yes, no, or unlikely!
  • 11. Comparative study of the atmosphere of the Earth, Venus and Mar
    • Low CO2 and high O2 and N of the Earth VS. the reverse on Venus and Mar
    • Photosynthesis removes C02 and add O2 to the Earth Atmosphere
    • This biotic community is responsible over time for: the built up of O2 and reduction of CO2
    • Gaseous nitrogen could not accumulate in the Earth atmosphere without life-Nitrogen Fixers
  • 12. Comparative study of the atmosphere of the Earth, Venus and Mar (continue)
    • Without chemical transformation by biotic community, soils and waters would be so acidic that only few organisms now on the Earth could survive- no life-support
    • A variety of specialized microorganisms keep the vital compounds moving between organic and inorganic states,
    • Without “buffering capacities” by the biotic community, physical factors fluctuation and conditions on the Earth would be similar to Venus- very hot, with no oxygen in the atmosphere.
  • 13. Gaia is “ non-sense”! Domination of the Earth by human mind or “Noosphere!” Vernadsky, 1945
  • 14. What would be the best survival strategy?
    • Non believer
      • business as usual
      • if the hypothesis is false - fine no problem
      • if the hypothesis is true - face the judgement day
    • Believer
      • Respect the Mother Earth
      • Protect the Earth’s norm-biodiversity
      • if the hypothesis is false- fine no problem
      • if the hypothesis is true- the Mother Earth might “buffer” the impacts of global changes- Life-support !
  • 15.
    • Hierarchy of N ature
    • Ecological hierarchy
    • Biological hierarchy
    • Chemical-physical hierarchy
  • 16. Each level possess control mechanism! Deviation at higher level will be less! therefore, Higher level sets constrain to lower levels!
  • 17. Controls in Ecological Hierarchy
  • 18. Resilience vs. Resistance
    • Resilience: The ability of a system to return to its original
    • position after disturbance.
    • Resistance: T he ability of a system to resist disturbance.
    “ Which one we are very familiar with?”
  • 19.  
  • 20. Control of Ecosystem by Organisms Top down vs . Bottom up controls
    • Top down = predation
    • Bottom up = nutrients, photosynthesis
  • 21. Feedback Controls: Positive and negative Input Output System Input Output System 1ry Sub-system 2ry Sub-system Output Goal System Controller Input Sub-system being controlled Control specification
  • 22. Redundancy in functional components
    • Different components with similar function
    • These components can compensate for one another
    • Providing alternative pathways for energy flow and material cycling
    • Achieve controlled response without feedback
  • 23. Conclusion ‘ Because of the functional redundancy in ecosystem, therefore, decreasing in biotic components will have no effect on control of the ecosystem! ’ Right or Wrong?
  • 24. Greenhouse gasses disrupt energy balance ! What would be the consequences?