Dynamic And Control Of Nature (2010)

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  • Carrying capacity concept!
  • Dynamic And Control Of Nature (2010)

    1. 1. Dynamic and Control of Nature
    2. 2. “Balan ce of Nature ” “Cha os!”
    3. 3. The Devine Power: Genesis
    4. 4. BBA Part1_3 (Gajaseni, 2009)BBA Part1_3 (Gajaseni, 2009) 44 Dynamic of the Physical Earth: Plate Tectonic Is the geological evolution
    5. 5. BBA Part1_3 (Gajaseni, 2009)BBA Part1_3 (Gajaseni, 2009) 55 Dynamic of Biological Earth How do they liveHow do they live together on thetogether on the planet?planet? Natural selection
    6. 6. 66 Man-made environmentMan-made environment Biotic environmentBiotic environment Physical environmentPhysical environment Local Region Country Global DistanceDistance FutureFuture IntermediateIntermediate FutureFuture PresentPresent Ultimate goal??? Spatio-temporalSpatio-temporal dynamic ofdynamic of the environment!the environment!
    7. 7. 77 Solar capital Energy budget Energy in = Energy ou Earth capital Water budget Water up = Water down
    8. 8. Environmental dynamic at various spatio- temporal scales!
    9. 9. hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979) ‘The biosphere is a self-regulating entity with the capacity to keep the Earth healthy by
    10. 10. Can we “falsify” the Gaia hypothesis by “scientific method”? Yes, no, or unlikely!
    11. 11. Comparative study of the atmosphere of the Earth, Venus and Mar • Low CO2 and high O2 and N of the Earth VS. the reverse on Venus and Mar • Photosynthesis removes C02 and add O2 to the Earth Atmosphere • This biotic community is responsible over time for: the built up of O2 and reduction of CO2
    12. 12. Comparative study of the atmosphere of the Earth, Venus and Mar (co ntinue)• Without chemical transformation by biotic co mmunity, soils and waters w ould be so acidic that only f ew organisms now on the Ea rth could survive-no life-sup port • A variety of specialized microorganisms keep the vit al compounds moving betw een organic and inorganic s tates,
    13. 13. Gaia isGaia is ““non-sense”!non-sense”! Domination of the Earth by human mind or “Noosphere!”
    14. 14. What would be the best survival strategy? Non believer –business as usual –if the hypothesis is false - fine no problem –if the Believer – Respect the Mother Earth – Protect the Earth’s norm- biodiversity – if the hypothesis is false-fine no probl em
    15. 15. Hierarchy of Nature Ecological hierarchy Biological hierarchy Chemical- physical hi erarchy
    16. 16. Each level possess control mechanism! Deviation at higher level will be less! therefore, Higher level sets
    17. 17. Controls in Ecological Hierarchy
    18. 18. Resilience vs. Resistance Resilience: The ability of a system to return to its original position after disturbance. “Which one we are very familiar wit
    19. 19. Control of Ecosystem by Organisms Top down vs. Bottom up controls Top down = predation Bottom up = nutrients, photosynth esis
    20. 20. Feedback Controls: Positive and negative Input Outp ut System Input Outp ut System 1ry Sub-system 2ry Sub-system Outp utGoal System Controller Input Sub-system being controlled Control specification
    21. 21. functional components • Different components with similar function • These components can compensate for one another • Providing alternative pathways for energy flow and material cycling • Achieve controlled
    22. 22. Conclusion ‘Because of the functional redundancy in ecosystem, therefore, decreasing in biotic components will have no effect on control of the ecosystem!’
    23. 23. Greenhouse gasses disrupt energy balance! What would be the consequences?

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