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Dynamic And  Control Of  Nature (2010)
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Dynamic And Control Of Nature (2010)

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  • Carrying capacity concept!
  • Transcript

    • 1. Dynamic and Control of Nature
    • 2. “Balan ce of Nature ” “Cha os!”
    • 3. The Devine Power: Genesis
    • 4. BBA Part1_3 (Gajaseni, 2009)BBA Part1_3 (Gajaseni, 2009) 44 Dynamic of the Physical Earth: Plate Tectonic Is the geological evolution
    • 5. BBA Part1_3 (Gajaseni, 2009)BBA Part1_3 (Gajaseni, 2009) 55 Dynamic of Biological Earth How do they liveHow do they live together on thetogether on the planet?planet? Natural selection
    • 6. 66 Man-made environmentMan-made environment Biotic environmentBiotic environment Physical environmentPhysical environment Local Region Country Global DistanceDistance FutureFuture IntermediateIntermediate FutureFuture PresentPresent Ultimate goal??? Spatio-temporalSpatio-temporal dynamic ofdynamic of the environment!the environment!
    • 7. 77 Solar capital Energy budget Energy in = Energy ou Earth capital Water budget Water up = Water down
    • 8. Environmental dynamic at various spatio- temporal scales!
    • 9. hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979) ‘The biosphere is a self-regulating entity with the capacity to keep the Earth healthy by
    • 10. Can we “falsify” the Gaia hypothesis by “scientific method”? Yes, no, or unlikely!
    • 11. Comparative study of the atmosphere of the Earth, Venus and Mar • Low CO2 and high O2 and N of the Earth VS. the reverse on Venus and Mar • Photosynthesis removes C02 and add O2 to the Earth Atmosphere • This biotic community is responsible over time for: the built up of O2 and reduction of CO2
    • 12. Comparative study of the atmosphere of the Earth, Venus and Mar (co ntinue)• Without chemical transformation by biotic co mmunity, soils and waters w ould be so acidic that only f ew organisms now on the Ea rth could survive-no life-sup port • A variety of specialized microorganisms keep the vit al compounds moving betw een organic and inorganic s tates,
    • 13. Gaia isGaia is ““non-sense”!non-sense”! Domination of the Earth by human mind or “Noosphere!”
    • 14. What would be the best survival strategy? Non believer –business as usual –if the hypothesis is false - fine no problem –if the Believer – Respect the Mother Earth – Protect the Earth’s norm- biodiversity – if the hypothesis is false-fine no probl em
    • 15. Hierarchy of Nature Ecological hierarchy Biological hierarchy Chemical- physical hi erarchy
    • 16. Each level possess control mechanism! Deviation at higher level will be less! therefore, Higher level sets
    • 17. Controls in Ecological Hierarchy
    • 18. Resilience vs. Resistance Resilience: The ability of a system to return to its original position after disturbance. “Which one we are very familiar wit
    • 19. Control of Ecosystem by Organisms Top down vs. Bottom up controls Top down = predation Bottom up = nutrients, photosynth esis
    • 20. Feedback Controls: Positive and negative Input Outp ut System Input Outp ut System 1ry Sub-system 2ry Sub-system Outp utGoal System Controller Input Sub-system being controlled Control specification
    • 21. functional components • Different components with similar function • These components can compensate for one another • Providing alternative pathways for energy flow and material cycling • Achieve controlled
    • 22. Conclusion ‘Because of the functional redundancy in ecosystem, therefore, decreasing in biotic components will have no effect on control of the ecosystem!’
    • 23. Greenhouse gasses disrupt energy balance! What would be the consequences?