Spanish Heritage Spain ruled the Philippines for three centuries (1565-1898) Spain’s cultural legacywas more beneficial and comprehensive than her political and economic endowments.
Christianity Spain’s greatest legacy The Roman Catholic religion - originated in Asia, being founded by Jesus Christ in Palestine; spread to Western Europe after Christ’s crucifixion, in the 16th and 17th centuries, propagated across the Atlantic to the New World and across the Pacific to the Philippines, making her then the greatest power. --- the most outstanding achievement of Spanish missionaries who came with the Spanish conquistadores.
Diet and DRESSDiet Spain introduced new food plants (wheat, corn, patatas, cacao, coffee, cabbages, chicos, papayas, guavas). The Filipinos learned to : Eat Bread, ham, longanizas,beef(cattle’s meat), mutton(sheep’s meat) and European canned goods drink coffee, cacao & foreign wines Use drinking glasses, table knives & napkins while eating
DRESS For MEN: Western coat [called americana for it was introduced from America (Mexico)], & trousers replaced jacket & bahag Began to wear hats instead of putong Used slippers and shoes for footwear For WOMEN: -replaced the sarong & used the saya (skirt) as lower apparel; used the camisawith long & wide sleeves in place of the old short-sleeved jacket
Wore jewelry (gold earrings, rings, pendants, necklaces, bracelets) but not armlets and leglets Used slippers, stockings, hair combs, mantillas & panuelos like Spanish women By the middle of 17th century, the dress of Filipinos had become “almost Spanish”, according to Father Colin.
FAMILY LIFE Simple & wholesome because of Christianity’s influence The father was the master of the family yet he consults his wife regarding family matters The mother was the first TUTOR of the children (taught them the alphabet & Christian prayers), and the custodian of the family fund & keys Parents & children prayed the Angelus & rosary every night, prayed before each meal, and went to Church every Sunday, town fiestas & religious holidays
Broken homes were rare Children kiss their parents’ hands after evening prayers, upon leaving their home & upon returning home
Filipino WOMEN Position of Filipino WOMEN were elevated Respected by men If unmarried, they were chaperoned in attending social gatherings Had NO freedom to study in universities, engage in professions (law, medicine, engineering,etc.) and to mix freely with men Permitted to engage in business Entered exclusive schools for girls operated by nuns were they were trained on the “HOW To’s” of being a good wife or mother
Those who had no intention of marrying entered the nunnery in service of GOD Maria Clara of Rizal’s novels represented the Filipino womanhood of the Spanish era – with traits of charm, modesty and religious devotion
Introduction of the GREGORIAN CALENDAR Until 1845, the Phil. Calendar was 1 day behind that of European time Gov. Gen. NarcisoClaveriacorrected the Philippine Calendar. Aug. 16,1844 - He issued an order proclaiming Tuesday, Dec.31,1844, to be Wednesday, Jan.1,1844, advancing the calendar by one day so that it would be in accord with world standard time.
Spanish surnames for filipinos First names of Filipinos were from the saints ex. Juan from San Juan Gov. Gen. NarcisoClaveriaissued an order on Nov. 21, 1849 which gave Spanish surnames to the Filipino families. He sent lists of Spanish family names to the authorities of provinces & towns (ex. Gomez, Reyes, Santos). Many Filipino families became loyal to their Malayan descendants’ surnames (ex. Batungbakal, Magbanua, Sumulong, Tonogbanua, Kalaw, Makapagal)
LATIN ALPHABET & SPANISH LANGUAGE Filipinos easily adopted Latin alphabet & Spanish language Enriched our national language called PILIPINO– there are 5,000 Spanish loan-words in our national language Filipinos became the sole Spanish-speaking nation in Asia.
Preservation of philippine languages Spanish friars studied & used our native language in spreading Christianity instead of the Spanish language Spanish missionaries were the first to write grammars & dictionaries for Filipino languages 1610 – 1sttagalog grammar was published, entitled Arte y reglas de la lenguatagala, written by Fr. Francisco Blancas de San Jose, a Spanish Dominican missionary, who was known as the “Demosthenes of the Tagalog Language”, because of his mastery in Tagalog
Printing 1593- the Dominicans in Manila established the 1st Filipino press (47 years before the appearance of the 1st printing press in U.S) Printed books by means of old xylographic method (printing using engraved wood blocks). It still exists at the University of Santo Tomas Press & is one of the oldest printing establishments in the world.
Early filipino printers Tomas Pinpin– 1st Filipino printer, “Prince of Filipino Printers”. -- 1stTagalog author, wrote the first tagalog book published entitled, Librongpag-aaralannangmangaTagalognanguicangCastila(Book that the Tagalogs Should Study to Learn Spanish), w/c was printed in Bataan in 1610. --- had a worthy son, Simon, who was also a good printer. Other pioneer Filipino Printers : Diego Talaghay, Nicolas de la Cruz bagay, Laureano Atlas, Domingo Loag & CiprianoBagay.
1st books printed in the philippines Doctrina Christiana en lenguaespañola y tagala, (Manila, 1593) Doctrina Christiana en letra y lengua China (by Keng Yong (Chinese), in the Parian, Manila Tratado de la Doctrina de la Santa Iglesia y de Cienciasnaturales(by Fr. Juan de Cobo, O.P., Manila, 1593)
Education Spain introduced the European system of education in the Philippines First schools established were parochial schools, with Spanish missionaries as teachers. Filipino children were taught the Catholic doctrine, the 3 R’s (reading, writing, arithmetic), music, arts and trades
The JESUITS: Founded the 1st college for boys(1589). -- originally called College of Manila, the name was changed to Colegio de San Ignacio. Founded College of San Ildefonso in Cebu(1595) Founded College of San Jose in Manila --took charge of EscuelaPia, public school for boys in Manila & transformed it into Ateneo de Manila
The DOMINICANS: College of Our Lady of the Rosary(1611), whose name later changed to College of Santo Tomas and still later, University of Santo Tomas College of San Juan de Letran (1630) -- oldest existing college for boys in the Philippines
UNIVERSITIES University education in the Philippines is much older than the U.S 1st university: University of San Ignacio – oldest university in the Philippines ; founded in 1589 as a college but was elevated to university rank by Pope Gregory XV in 1621. It was closed in 1768 when Jesuits were expelled in the Philippines.
The College of San Ildefonso also closed but was reopened in 1783 as Colegio-Seminario de San Carlos (became University of San Carlos in 1948) 2nd university: University of Santo Tomas -- originally founded as a college in 1611 by Miguel de Buenavides, a Domincan prelate who is also the third Archbishop of Manila -- raised to university rank in 1645 by Pope Innocent X upon request of King Philip IV of Spain, making it the only Royal & Pontifical University in all Asia.
UST is 25 years older than Harvard University, the oldest university in the U.S 3rd University: University of San Felipe -- a government sponsored university, established in Manila by a royal decree of King Philip V of Spain. -- never gained popularity & was closed in 1726 ALL universities during the Spanish times were exclusively for MEN.
2 KINDS OF SCHOOLS FOR GIRLS colegio,a regular school for girls beaterio, a combined school nunnery Schools for girls in Manila: College of Santa Potenciana (1594) College of Santa Isabel (1632) Beaterio de la Compania de Jesus (1694) Beaterio de Santa Catalina (1696) Beaterio de San Sebastian (1719) College of Santa Rosa (1750) College of La Concordia (1869) Assumption Convent School (1892)
College of Santa Isabel -- later absorbed the College of Santa Potenciana ; oldest existing college for girls in the Philippines Beaterio de la Compania de Jesus -- founded by a Filipino nun, SorIgnacia de Espiritu Santo -- the only college exclusively for FILIPINO GIRLS -- is now St. Mary’s College in Quezon City
The 1st public school system was established by Spain in accordance w/ the Educational Decree of 1863, which provided the foundations of separate public elementary schools for boys and girls. There was no co-education in the Philippines during the Spanish regime
VOCATIONAL EDUCATION 19th century – various vocational & technical schools were established by the Spanish gov’t. Among them were: Nautical Academy (1820) School of Commerce (1840) Academy of Fine Arts (1849) School of Agriculture (1889) School of Arts and Trades (1890) -- all of these schools were in Manila
March 16, 1861 – two Filipinos, Fr. Juan P. Zita and Felino Gil founded a private school of arts & trades in Bacolor, Pampanga. It is now the Pampanga School of Arts & Trades, a public school
EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS UNDER SPAIN Schools established by Spain contributed the Filipinos’ intellectual growth In 1843, the percentage of literacy in the country was relatively high. In 1867, there were 593 elementary schools with 133,990 children enrolled. In 1898, at the end of the Spanish rule, the schools numbered to 2,150, with a total enrolment of 200,000. The schools founded in the Philippines were highly defective yet they were better than school in other Spanish colonies
JOURNALISM Del Superior Govierno(Of The Supreme Government) – 1st newspaper in the Philippines with Gov. Gen. Manuel Gonzales de Aguilar as editor. -- appeared for the first time in Manila in on August 8, 1811. -- last issue came out on July 4, 1813
Other Newspapers: La Esperanza (1846) – 1st daily newspaper La Illustracion Filipina (1859) – 1st illustrated periodical El Catolico Filipino (1862) – 1st religious newspaper La Opinion (1887) – 1st political newpaper El Ilokano (1889) – 1st vernacular newspaper; founded & edited by Isabelo de los Reyes El Hogar (1893) – 1st women’s magazine
LITERATURE Phil. Literature were religious in character (ex. Prayer books, doctrinas, novenas, biographies of saints, etc.) in order to propagate Christianity. AWITS (chivalric-heroic poems) and CORRIDOS (legendary-religious poems) became popular among the masses. Ex. SieteInfantes de Lara, IbongAdarna, Bernardo Carpio They were filipinized versions of Spanish & French medieval romances.
The Pasion -- favorite reading material during LENTEN SEASON -- depicts the story of Christ’s life, suffering & crucifixion Gaspar Aquino de Belen – wrote the 1stTagalogpasion which was published in 1704.
Florante at Laura -- poetical masterpiece of Francisco “Balagtas” Baltazar, the “Prince of Tagalog Poets”. BALAGTASAN, the modern Tagalog poetical joust, was named in his honor. Urbana at Feliza -- a book on proper behavior of women, written by Father Modesto de Castro, a Tagalog priest.
Biagni Lam-ang -- an Ilocano epic which recounts the deed of the legendary Ilocano hero, Lam-ang. -- popularized by Pedro Bukaneg, a blind poet known to be the “Father of Ilocano Literature” Gonzalo de Cordova -- a stirring metrical romance of Pampanga written by Father AnselmoFajardo, a Pampango priest-writer.
Spanish-Educated Filipinos who were talented in literature: Dr. Jose Rizal -- greatest Filipino genius who excelled both in prose & poetry Dr. Pedro A. Paterno– wrote the 1st Filipino novel , Ninay in 1885 CecilioApostol, Fernando Ma. Guerrero, Jose Palma – composed the trinity of Filipino poets; won endearing fame in Spanish poetry Jose Palma’s Spanish poem, Filipinas, became the lyrics of the Phil. Nat’l Anthem
THEATRE Early forms of drama: duplo and karagatan Duplo – a poetical debate held by trained men & women on the 9th or last night of the mourning period of the dead. Male participants were called bellocos, the female participants, bellacas. Karagatan - a poetical debate, like duplo, but it was participated by amateurs.
1st recorded drama in Cebu (1598) -- a comedia written by Vicente Puche -- performed in honor of Msgr. Pedro de Agurto, Cebu’s 1st bishop In 1609, a play portraying the life of St. Barbara was staged in Bohol.
3 kinds of play: Cenaculo – depicts the life & sufferings of Christ; performed during the Lenten season Moro-moro - depicts the wars between Christians & Muslims where Christians were always victorious - Fr. Jeromino Perez wrote the 1stmoro-moro which was staged in Manila in 1637 to commemorate Gov. Gen. Corcuera’s victory against the Moros of Mindanao. - favorite play of the people, especially during town fiestas. Zarzuela - musical comedy - Rizal wrote a zarzuela entitled, Junto al Pasig (Beside the Pasig)
MUSIC Filipino music was enriched by Spanish & Mexican influences. Filipino songs like Sampaguita(composed by Dolores Paterno) & Bella Filipina (by T. Masaguer) were Hispanized The Phil. Nat’l Anthem composed by Julian Felipe shows similarity to the Spanish Nat’l Anthem
The violin, flute, piano, harp, guitar & other musical instruments came from Mexico & Europe. Filipinos made replicas of the foreign instruments using bamboos MusikongBuho(bamboo musicians) -could not read notes but can play European music on their bamboo musical instruments.
Learned any kind of music by ear.
Spanish missionaries contributed greatly to the development of Philippine music
Fr. Geronimo de Aguilar
Founded a music school in the Franciscan Convent of Manila
A music conservatory established in 1742 in the Manila Cathedral by Arch. Juan Angel Rodriguez.
Poor yet gifted boys studied in this conservatory such as Marcelo Adonay“Palestrina of the Philippines” from Pakil, Laguna, the foremost Filipino composer of church music & a splendid organist.
The Bamboo Organ of Las Pinas - built in 1818 by Fr. Diego Cerra, a Recollect priest-musician - one of the living glories of Philippine musical art, remaining intact for over 100 years.
ARCHITECTURE houses of well-to-do families were in Spanish styles, with characteristics of Azotea and Andalucian court Churches were also of Spanish expression
PAINTING Damian Domingo – “Father of Filipino Painting” 2 Greatest Filipino Painters: Juan Luna Felix Resureccion Hidalgo Their paintings were recognized not just in the Philippines, but also all over Europe
SCULPTURE FILIPINO SCULPTORS: IsabeloTampingco – wood carvings in the Jesuit Church of St. Ignacius Manuel Asuncion, Jose Arevalo, Romualdo de Jesus – carvers of beautiful saints Jose Rizal Mariano Madrinan – his materpiece, Mater Dolorosa, was awarded a diploma of honor & gold medal
SCIENCES The 1st scientists in the Philippines were the Spanish friars Filipino scientists distinguished themselves in botanical research Establishments of courses in medicine & pharmacy in UST fostered scientific knowledge The 1st sundials were built in 1871 at Tagudin, Ilocos Sur by Fr. Juan Sorolla Observatory of Manila – oldest observatory in Asia; forecasts typhoons & earthquakes
SPANISH BLOOD Spanish-Filipino marriages improved the Filipino racial stock by assimilating Spanish traits like religious devotion, delicadeza(honor), romanticism, loyalty to family, and urbanidad(good manners) Spanish –Filipino mestizas were noted for their beauty & charm Notable Spanish-Filipinos: Father Gomez,Burgos, Zamora (GomBurZa) Manuel A.Roxas Manuel L. Quezon
HOSPITALS & ORPHANAGES The 1st hospital in Manila was founded by a Franciscan lay brother, Juan Clemente, in 1578, in Manila Hospitals were also established in provinces Orphanages were founded during the Spanish period Real Hospicio de San Jose – 1st regular orphanage established in 1810 in Manila
FIESTAS Every town or barrio had its own patron saint and each year, the feast day of the patron saint was celebrated with a fiesta Official holidays were implemented during the Spanish times COCKFIGHTS - Existed in the Philippines before the coming of Magellan; Pigafetta saw it in Palawan Spain introduced cockfighting as legalized gambling
HORSE RACES Horse racing – “the sport of kings”; past time of the elite The hippodrome(race track) was located at the suburb of Sta. Ana, Manila Horse racing season lasted for three days THE MANILA LOTTERY Spain introduced lottery as legalized gambling for government revenues purposes
THE CARILLO A unique cardboard puppet show Other Amusements During the Spanish Regime: Parties celebrating birthdays, baptisms, weddings &siyaman(9th day after burial of family member) Flores de Mayo & Santacruzanin May Indoor games (storytelling of legends & ghost stories, dramatic debates, card games) and outdoor games(swimming, patintero, sipa)
SPAIN’S CONTRIBUTION TO FILIPINO NATIONALISM Because of Spain’s three-century colonization, the country came to be known to the world as the Philippines & the people, the Filipinos Spain caused the diverse native tribes (Tagalog, Visayans, Bicolanos, Ilocanos, etc.) to unite one people