Our Spanish Heritage

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  • "But fortunately, you have an imbecile government! While Russia enslaves Poland by forcing the Russian language upon it, while Germany prohibits French in the conquered provinces, your government strives to preserve yours, and you in return, a remarkable people under an incredible government, you are trying to despoil yourselves of your own nationality! Spanish will never be the general language of the country, the people will never talk it, because the conceptions of their brains and the feelings of their hearts cannot be expressed in that language — each people has its own tongue, as it has its own way of thinking! '''WHAT ARE YOU GOING TO DO WITH CASTILIAN, THE FEW OF YOU WHO WILL SPEAK IT'''? Kill off your own originality, subordinate your thoughts to other brains, and instead of freeing yourselves, make yourselves slaves indeed!"-JoseRizal,ElFilibusterismo
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  • thanks .. toodles
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  • this also my report .. haha :D very greatful co'z its already have.
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  • 1. Our Spanish Heritage
  • 2. Spanish Heritage
    Spain ruled the Philippines for three centuries (1565-1898)
    Spain’s cultural legacywas more beneficial and comprehensive than her political and economic endowments.
  • 3. Christianity
    Spain’s greatest legacy
    The Roman Catholic religion
    - originated in Asia, being founded by Jesus Christ in Palestine; spread to Western Europe after Christ’s crucifixion, in the 16th and 17th centuries, propagated across the Atlantic to the New World and across the Pacific to the Philippines, making her then the greatest power.
    --- the most outstanding achievement of Spanish missionaries who came with the Spanish conquistadores.
  • 4. Diet and DRESSDiet
    Spain introduced new food plants (wheat, corn, patatas, cacao, coffee, cabbages, chicos, papayas, guavas).
    The Filipinos learned to :
    Eat Bread, ham, longanizas,beef(cattle’s meat), mutton(sheep’s meat) and European canned goods
    drink coffee, cacao & foreign wines
    Use drinking glasses, table knives & napkins while eating
  • 5. DRESS
    For MEN:
    Western coat [called americana for it was introduced from America (Mexico)], & trousers replaced jacket & bahag
    Began to wear hats instead of putong
    Used slippers and shoes for footwear
    For WOMEN:
    -replaced the sarong & used the saya (skirt) as lower apparel; used the camisawith long & wide sleeves in place of the old short-sleeved jacket
  • 6. Wore jewelry (gold earrings, rings, pendants, necklaces, bracelets) but not armlets and leglets
    Used slippers, stockings, hair combs, mantillas & panuelos like Spanish women
    By the middle of 17th century, the dress of Filipinos had become “almost Spanish”, according to Father Colin.
  • 7. FAMILY LIFE
    Simple & wholesome because of Christianity’s influence
    The father was the master of the family yet he consults his wife regarding family matters
    The mother was the first TUTOR of the children (taught them the alphabet & Christian prayers), and the custodian of the family fund & keys
    Parents & children prayed the Angelus & rosary every night, prayed before each meal, and went to Church every Sunday, town fiestas & religious holidays
  • 8. Broken homes were rare
    Children kiss their parents’ hands after evening prayers, upon leaving their home & upon returning home
  • 9. Filipino WOMEN
    Position of Filipino WOMEN were elevated
    Respected by men
    If unmarried, they were chaperoned in attending social gatherings
    Had NO freedom to study in universities, engage in professions (law, medicine, engineering,etc.) and to mix freely with men
    Permitted to engage in business
    Entered exclusive schools for girls operated by nuns were they were trained on the “HOW To’s” of being a good wife or mother
  • 10. Those who had no intention of marrying entered the nunnery in service of GOD
    Maria Clara of Rizal’s novels represented the Filipino womanhood of the Spanish era – with traits of charm, modesty and religious devotion
  • 11. Introduction of the GREGORIAN CALENDAR
    Until 1845, the Phil. Calendar was 1 day behind that of European time
    Gov. Gen. NarcisoClaveriacorrected the Philippine Calendar.
    Aug. 16,1844 - He issued an order proclaiming Tuesday, Dec.31,1844, to be Wednesday, Jan.1,1844, advancing the calendar by one day so that it would be in accord with world standard time.
  • 12. Spanish surnames for filipinos
    First names of Filipinos were from the saints
    ex. Juan from San Juan
    Gov. Gen. NarcisoClaveriaissued an order on Nov. 21, 1849 which gave Spanish surnames to the Filipino families. He sent lists of Spanish family names to the authorities of provinces & towns (ex. Gomez, Reyes, Santos).
    Many Filipino families became loyal to their Malayan descendants’ surnames (ex. Batungbakal, Magbanua, Sumulong, Tonogbanua, Kalaw, Makapagal)
  • 13. LATIN ALPHABET & SPANISH LANGUAGE
    Filipinos easily adopted Latin alphabet & Spanish language
    Enriched our national language called PILIPINO– there are 5,000 Spanish loan-words in our national language
    Filipinos became the sole Spanish-speaking nation in Asia.
  • 14. Preservation of philippine languages
    Spanish friars studied & used our native language in spreading Christianity instead of the Spanish language
    Spanish missionaries were the first to write grammars & dictionaries for Filipino languages
    1610 – 1sttagalog grammar was published, entitled Arte y reglas de la lenguatagala, written by Fr. Francisco Blancas de San Jose, a Spanish Dominican missionary, who was known as the “Demosthenes of the Tagalog Language”, because of his mastery in Tagalog
  • 15. Printing
    1593- the Dominicans in Manila established the 1st Filipino press (47 years before the appearance of the 1st printing press in U.S)
    Printed books by means of old xylographic method (printing using engraved wood blocks). It still exists at the University of Santo Tomas Press & is one of the oldest printing establishments in the world.
  • 16. Early filipino printers
    Tomas Pinpin– 1st Filipino printer, “Prince of Filipino Printers”.
    -- 1stTagalog author, wrote the first tagalog book published entitled, Librongpag-aaralannangmangaTagalognanguicangCastila(Book that the Tagalogs Should Study to Learn Spanish), w/c was printed in Bataan in 1610.
    --- had a worthy son, Simon, who was also a good printer.
    Other pioneer Filipino Printers : Diego Talaghay, Nicolas de la Cruz bagay, Laureano Atlas, Domingo Loag & CiprianoBagay.
  • 17. 1st books printed in the philippines
    Doctrina Christiana en lenguaespañola y tagala, (Manila, 1593)
    Doctrina Christiana en letra y lengua China (by Keng Yong (Chinese), in the Parian, Manila
    Tratado de la Doctrina de la Santa Iglesia y de Cienciasnaturales(by Fr. Juan de Cobo, O.P., Manila, 1593)
  • 18. Education
    Spain introduced the European system of education in the Philippines
    First schools established were parochial schools, with Spanish missionaries as teachers. Filipino children were taught the Catholic doctrine, the 3 R’s (reading, writing, arithmetic), music, arts and trades
  • 19. The JESUITS:
    Founded the 1st college for boys(1589).
    -- originally called College of Manila, the name was changed to Colegio de San Ignacio.
    Founded College of San Ildefonso in Cebu(1595)
    Founded College of San Jose in Manila
    --took charge of EscuelaPia, public school for boys in Manila & transformed it into Ateneo de Manila
  • 20. The DOMINICANS:
    College of Our Lady of the Rosary(1611), whose name later changed to College of Santo Tomas and still later, University of Santo Tomas
    College of San Juan de Letran (1630)
    -- oldest existing college for boys in the Philippines
  • 21. UNIVERSITIES
    University education in the Philippines is much older than the U.S
    1st university: University of San Ignacio
    – oldest university in the Philippines ; founded in 1589 as a college but was elevated to university rank by Pope Gregory XV in 1621. It was closed in 1768 when Jesuits were expelled in the Philippines.
  • 22. The College of San Ildefonso also closed but was reopened in 1783 as Colegio-Seminario de San Carlos (became University of San Carlos in 1948)
    2nd university: University of Santo Tomas
    -- originally founded as a college in 1611 by Miguel de Buenavides, a Domincan prelate who is also the third Archbishop of Manila
    -- raised to university rank in 1645 by Pope Innocent X upon request of King Philip IV of Spain, making it the only Royal & Pontifical University in all Asia.
  • 23. UST is 25 years older than Harvard University, the oldest university in the U.S
    3rd University: University of San Felipe
    -- a government sponsored university, established in Manila by a royal decree of King Philip V of Spain.
    -- never gained popularity & was closed in 1726
    ALL universities during the Spanish times were exclusively for MEN.
  • 24. 2 KINDS OF SCHOOLS FOR GIRLS
    colegio,a regular school for girls
    beaterio, a combined school nunnery
    Schools for girls in Manila:
    College of Santa Potenciana (1594)
    College of Santa Isabel (1632)
    Beaterio de la Compania de Jesus (1694)
    Beaterio de Santa Catalina (1696)
    Beaterio de San Sebastian (1719)
    College of Santa Rosa (1750)
    College of La Concordia (1869)
    Assumption Convent School (1892)
  • 25. College of Santa Isabel
    -- later absorbed the College of Santa Potenciana ; oldest existing college for girls in the Philippines
    Beaterio de la Compania de Jesus
    -- founded by a Filipino nun, SorIgnacia de Espiritu Santo
    -- the only college exclusively for FILIPINO GIRLS
    -- is now St. Mary’s College in Quezon City
  • 26. The 1st public school system was established by Spain in accordance w/ the Educational Decree of 1863, which provided the foundations of separate public elementary schools for boys and girls.
    There was no co-education in the Philippines during the Spanish regime
  • 27. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
    19th century – various vocational & technical schools were established by the Spanish gov’t. Among them were:
    Nautical Academy (1820)
    School of Commerce (1840)
    Academy of Fine Arts (1849)
    School of Agriculture (1889)
    School of Arts and Trades (1890)
    -- all of these schools were in Manila
  • 28. March 16, 1861 – two Filipinos, Fr. Juan P. Zita and Felino Gil founded a private school of arts & trades in Bacolor, Pampanga. It is now the Pampanga School of Arts & Trades, a public school
  • 29. EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS UNDER SPAIN
    Schools established by Spain contributed the Filipinos’ intellectual growth
    In 1843, the percentage of literacy in the country was relatively high.
    In 1867, there were 593 elementary schools with 133,990 children enrolled.
    In 1898, at the end of the Spanish rule, the schools numbered to 2,150, with a total enrolment of 200,000.
    The schools founded in the Philippines were highly defective yet they were better than school in other Spanish colonies
  • 30. JOURNALISM
    Del Superior Govierno(Of The Supreme Government)
    – 1st newspaper in the Philippines with Gov. Gen. Manuel Gonzales de Aguilar as editor.
    -- appeared for the first time in Manila in on August 8, 1811.
    -- last issue came out on July 4, 1813
  • 31. Other Newspapers:
    La Esperanza (1846) – 1st daily newspaper
    La Illustracion Filipina (1859) – 1st illustrated periodical
    El Catolico Filipino (1862) – 1st religious newspaper
    La Opinion (1887) – 1st political newpaper
    El Ilokano (1889) – 1st vernacular newspaper; founded & edited by Isabelo de los Reyes
    El Hogar (1893) – 1st women’s magazine
  • 32. LITERATURE
    Phil. Literature were religious in character (ex. Prayer books, doctrinas, novenas, biographies of saints, etc.) in order to propagate Christianity.
    AWITS (chivalric-heroic poems) and CORRIDOS (legendary-religious poems) became popular among the masses.
    Ex. SieteInfantes de Lara, IbongAdarna, Bernardo Carpio
    They were filipinized versions of Spanish & French medieval romances.
  • 33. The Pasion
    -- favorite reading material during LENTEN SEASON
    -- depicts the story of Christ’s life, suffering & crucifixion
    Gaspar Aquino de Belen – wrote the 1stTagalogpasion which was published in 1704.
  • 34. Florante at Laura
    -- poetical masterpiece of Francisco “Balagtas” Baltazar, the “Prince of Tagalog Poets”.
    BALAGTASAN, the modern Tagalog poetical joust, was named in his honor.
    Urbana at Feliza
    -- a book on proper behavior of women, written by Father Modesto de Castro, a Tagalog priest.
  • 35. Biagni Lam-ang
    -- an Ilocano epic which recounts the deed of the legendary Ilocano hero, Lam-ang.
    -- popularized by Pedro Bukaneg, a blind poet known to be the “Father of Ilocano Literature”
    Gonzalo de Cordova
    -- a stirring metrical romance of Pampanga written by Father AnselmoFajardo, a Pampango priest-writer.
  • 36. Spanish-Educated Filipinos who were talented in literature:
    Dr. Jose Rizal
    -- greatest Filipino genius who excelled both in prose & poetry
    Dr. Pedro A. Paterno– wrote the 1st Filipino novel , Ninay in 1885
    CecilioApostol, Fernando Ma. Guerrero, Jose Palma – composed the trinity of Filipino poets; won endearing fame in Spanish poetry
    Jose Palma’s Spanish poem, Filipinas, became the lyrics of the Phil. Nat’l Anthem
  • 37. THEATRE
    Early forms of drama: duplo and karagatan
    Duplo – a poetical debate held by trained men & women on the 9th or last night of the mourning period of the dead. Male participants were called bellocos, the female participants, bellacas.
    Karagatan - a poetical debate, like duplo, but it was participated by amateurs.
  • 38. 1st recorded drama in Cebu (1598)
    -- a comedia written by Vicente Puche
    -- performed in honor of Msgr. Pedro de Agurto, Cebu’s 1st bishop
    In 1609, a play portraying the life of St. Barbara was staged in Bohol.
  • 39. 3 kinds of play:
    Cenaculo
    – depicts the life & sufferings of Christ; performed during the Lenten season
    Moro-moro
    - depicts the wars between Christians & Muslims where Christians were always victorious
    - Fr. Jeromino Perez wrote the 1stmoro-moro which was staged in Manila in 1637 to commemorate Gov. Gen. Corcuera’s victory against the Moros of Mindanao.
    - favorite play of the people, especially during town fiestas.
    Zarzuela
    - musical comedy
    - Rizal wrote a zarzuela entitled, Junto al Pasig (Beside the Pasig)
  • 40. MUSIC
    Filipino music was enriched by Spanish & Mexican influences.
    Filipino songs like Sampaguita(composed by Dolores Paterno) & Bella Filipina (by T. Masaguer) were Hispanized
    The Phil. Nat’l Anthem composed by Julian Felipe shows similarity to the Spanish Nat’l Anthem
  • 41. The violin, flute, piano, harp, guitar & other musical instruments came from Mexico & Europe.
    Filipinos made replicas of the foreign instruments using bamboos
    MusikongBuho(bamboo musicians)
    -could not read notes but can play European music on their bamboo musical instruments.
    • Learned any kind of music by ear.
    • 42. Spanish missionaries contributed greatly to the development of Philippine music
  • Fr. Geronimo de Aguilar
    • Founded a music school in the Franciscan Convent of Manila
    • 43. First to teach music to Bicolanos
    Colegio de Niños Triples
    • A music conservatory established in 1742 in the Manila Cathedral by Arch. Juan Angel Rodriguez.
    • 44. Poor yet gifted boys studied in this conservatory such as Marcelo Adonay“Palestrina of the Philippines” from Pakil, Laguna, the foremost Filipino composer of church music & a splendid organist.
  • The Bamboo Organ of Las Pinas
    - built in 1818 by Fr. Diego Cerra, a Recollect priest-musician
    - one of the living glories of Philippine musical art, remaining intact for over 100 years.
  • 45. ARCHITECTURE
    houses of well-to-do families were in Spanish styles, with characteristics of Azotea and Andalucian court
    Churches were also of Spanish expression
  • 46. PAINTING
    Damian Domingo – “Father of Filipino Painting”
    2 Greatest Filipino Painters:
    Juan Luna
    Felix Resureccion Hidalgo
    Their paintings were recognized not just in the Philippines, but also all over Europe
  • 47. SCULPTURE
    FILIPINO SCULPTORS:
    IsabeloTampingco – wood carvings in the Jesuit Church of St. Ignacius
    Manuel Asuncion, Jose Arevalo, Romualdo de Jesus – carvers of beautiful saints
    Jose Rizal
    Mariano Madrinan – his materpiece, Mater Dolorosa, was awarded a diploma of honor & gold medal
  • 48. SCIENCES
    The 1st scientists in the Philippines were the Spanish friars
    Filipino scientists distinguished themselves in botanical research
    Establishments of courses in medicine & pharmacy in UST fostered scientific knowledge
    The 1st sundials were built in 1871 at Tagudin, Ilocos Sur by Fr. Juan Sorolla
    Observatory of Manila – oldest observatory in Asia; forecasts typhoons & earthquakes
  • 49. SPANISH BLOOD
    Spanish-Filipino marriages improved the Filipino racial stock by assimilating Spanish traits like religious devotion, delicadeza(honor), romanticism, loyalty to family, and urbanidad(good manners)
    Spanish –Filipino mestizas were noted for their beauty & charm
    Notable Spanish-Filipinos:
    Father Gomez,Burgos, Zamora (GomBurZa)
    Manuel A.Roxas
    Manuel L. Quezon
  • 50. HOSPITALS & ORPHANAGES
    The 1st hospital in Manila was founded by a Franciscan lay brother, Juan Clemente, in 1578, in Manila
    Hospitals were also established in provinces
    Orphanages were founded during the Spanish period
    Real Hospicio de San Jose – 1st regular orphanage established in 1810 in Manila
  • 51. FIESTAS
    Every town or barrio had its own patron saint and each year, the feast day of the patron saint was celebrated with a fiesta
    Official holidays were implemented during the Spanish times
    COCKFIGHTS
    - Existed in the Philippines before the coming of Magellan; Pigafetta saw it in Palawan
    Spain introduced cockfighting as legalized gambling
  • 52. HORSE RACES
    Horse racing – “the sport of kings”; past time of the elite
    The hippodrome(race track) was located at the suburb of Sta. Ana, Manila
    Horse racing season lasted for three days
    THE MANILA LOTTERY
    Spain introduced lottery as legalized gambling for government revenues purposes
  • 53. THE CARILLO
    A unique cardboard puppet show
    Other Amusements During the Spanish Regime:
    Parties celebrating birthdays, baptisms, weddings &siyaman(9th day after burial of family member)
    Flores de Mayo & Santacruzanin May
    Indoor games (storytelling of legends & ghost stories, dramatic debates, card games) and outdoor games(swimming, patintero, sipa)
  • 54. SPAIN’S CONTRIBUTION TO FILIPINO NATIONALISM
    Because of Spain’s three-century colonization, the country came to be known to the world as the Philippines & the people, the Filipinos
    Spain caused the diverse native tribes (Tagalog, Visayans, Bicolanos, Ilocanos, etc.) to unite one people