ASSESSMENT:FORMATIVE & SUMMATIVE Practices for the Classroom
What is Assessment?The word „assess‟ comes from the Latinverb „assidere‟ meaning „to sit with‟.In assessment one is supposed to sit withthe learner. This implies it is something wedo „with‟ and „for‟ students and not „to‟students (Green, 1999).
Assessment in education is the process ofgathering, interpreting, recording, andusing information about pupils‟ responsesto an educational task. (Harlen, Gipps,Broadfoot, Nuttal,1992)
The State of Assessment“A wealth of research – a poverty of practice.” (Black and Wiliam, 1998)Shift from “teaching” to “learning”Preservice and inservice trainingConfusion of terms and conditions Evaluation Assessment Formative Summative
Formative and summative assessment areinterconnected. They seldom stand alone inconstruction or effect.The vast majority of genuine formativeassessment is informal, with interactive and timelyfeedback and response.It is widely and empirically argued that formativeassessment has the greatest impact on learningand achievement.
Values and Attitudes about Assessment1. Teachers value and believe in students.2. Sharing learning goals with the students.3. Involving students in self-assessment.4. Providing feedback that helps students recognize their next steps and how to take them.5. Being confident that every student can improve.6. Providing students with examples of what we expect from them.
Formative AssessmentAssessment for learningTaken at varying intervals throughout a course to provide information and feedback that will help improve the quality of student learning the quality of the course itself
“…learner-centered, teacher-directed, mutually beneficial, formative, context- specific, ongoing, and firmly rooted in good practice" (Angelo and Cross, 1993).Provides information on what an individual student needs To practice To have re-taught To learn next
Key Elements of Formative Assessment1. The identification by teachers & learners of learning goals, intentions or outcomes and criteria for achieving these.2. Rich conversations between teachers & students that continually build and go deeper.3. The provision of effective, timely feedback to enable students to advance their learning.4. The active involvement of students in their own learning.5. Teachers responding to identified learning needs and strengths by modifying their teaching approach(es). Black & Wiliam, 1998
Summative Assessment Assessment of learning Generally taken by students at the end of a unit or semester to demonstrate the "sum" of what they have or have not learned. Summative assessment methods are the most traditional way of evaluating student work. "Good summative assessments--tests and other graded evaluations--must be demonstrably reliable, valid, and free of bias" (Angelo and Cross, 1993).
Formative Summative„… often means no more than „…assessment (that) hasthat the assessment is carried increasingly been used to sumout frequently and is planned at up learning…‟(Black and Wiliam,the same time as teaching.‟ 1999)(Black and Wiliam, 1999) „… looks at past achievements„… provides feedback which … adds procedures or tests toleads to students recognizing existing work ... involves onlythe (learning) gap and closing it marking and feedback grades to… it is forward looking …‟ student … is separated from(Harlen, 1998) teaching … is carried out at intervals when achievement has„ … includes both feedback to be summarized and reported.‟and self-monitoring.‟ (Sadler, (Harlen, 1998)1989)„… is used essentially to feedback into the teaching andlearning process.‟ (Tunstall andGipps, 1996)
The Garden AnalogyIf we think of our children as plants …Summative assessment of the plants is the process ofsimply measuring them. It might be interesting tocompare and analyze measurements but, in themselves,these do not affect the growth of the plants.Formative assessment, on the other hand, is theequivalent of feeding and watering the plants appropriateto their needs - directly affecting their growth.
Factors Inhibiting Assessment A tendency for teachers to assess quantity and presentation of work rather than quality of learning. Greater attention given to marking and grading, much of it tending to lower self esteem of students, rather than providing advice for improvement. A strong emphasis on comparing students with each other, which demoralizes the less successful learners.
Self-evaluationWhere would you place your assessment practice on thefollowing continuum? Quantity of work/ Quality of learning Presentation Marking/Grading Advice for improvement Comparing students Identifying individual progress
Effective Assessment of Learning tasks are open-entry (students with various prior learning levels can begin them and they cater for different learning preferences and interests); open-ended (no single right answer, multiple pathways and products are possible); build students’ capabilities; provide space for student ownership and decision- making; … and
Multi-domain Assessment Tasks are authentic (engage students in relevant, integrative and worthwhile problems that result in students producing, not reproducing, knowledge); productive (have intellectual challenge, are connected to students‟ worlds and other parts of the curriculum, respect differences among students); require deep understanding of important ideas; and are often performance or portfolio assessment.
Performance Assessment• values the work done over a longer time scale• can assess complex skills and allow students toshow their achievement in a variety of ways• can be used to evaluate both the process and theproduct of an assessment task (Albert Oosterhof, 2003)• students can do something in front of an audience(e.g. solve, dance, act, talk, weigh …)make a product (e.g. device, model, webpage …)or both(e.g. create a piece of music in groups and play it for an audience).
Portfolio Assessment• involves students in making decisions, selecting, andjustifying the inclusion of samples of their work thatshow achievement over a period of time (i.e. they areselections not collections)• usually requires students to meet guidelines orparameters set by, or negotiated with, the teacher:e.g. include:- at least 2 pieces that show improvement over time- at least 1 …. or 1 …
Design assessment of learning tasks The assessment task is designed using the student learning outcomes from the curriculum planning. Student learning outcomes (from step 1) are used to ask: “What would count as evidence of student learning?” (i.e. what would they have to do, say, write, make or show me?) Then an idea for an assessment task is generated (sometimes quickly, at other times after brainstorming ideas). “How can we bring this together into a coherent whole?” The task is “spelled out” in a flowchart: “What exactly will students have to do - and by when?” A creative version to engage students is prepared.
“Spelling out” the task - a flowchart (Hildebrand, 2005) Add your description of the assessment task hereAdd your instructions Add step 2for the first step inhere Think about …. Add what will actually Add step 3, etc be assessed in here …. 24
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