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  • 1. MECHANICALCONCEPT REPORT OCTOBER 2012 Ibn SinaGeneral Teaching Hospital
  • 2. T ABLE OF C ONTENTSTable of Contents............................................................................................................................................ 21.0Introduction............................................................................................................................................... 42.0 Regulations, Standards, & References...................................................................................................... 5 2.1 HVAC Codes & Standards...................................................................................................................... 5 2.2 Plumbing Codes & Standards................................................................................................................ 5 2.3 Fire Safety Codes & Standards............................................................................................................... 5 2.4 Medical Gases Codes & Standards........................................................................................................ 53.0 Air Conditioning & Ventilation Systems.................................................................................................... 6 3.1 Design Parameters................................................................................................................................ 6 3.1.1 Design Conditions........................................................................................................................... 6 3.1.2 Ventilation Requirements............................................................................................................... 9 3.1.3 Noise Levels.................................................................................................................................. 11 3.1.4 Pressure Philosophy...................................................................................................................... 13 3.1.6 Air Filtration.................................................................................................................................. 13 3.1.7 General......................................................................................................................................... 13 3.2 System Description.............................................................................................................................. 14 3.2.1 Chilled Water Generation............................................................................................................. 14 3.2.2 Air Side System............................................................................................................................. 14 3.2.4 Ventilation.................................................................................................................................... 16 3.2.5 Operating Theatres Ultra-Clean HVAC Design.............................................................................. 174.0 Plumbing (Water Supply & Drainage) Services........................................................................................ 20 4.1 Water Supply ...................................................................................................................................... 20 4.1.1 Design parameters........................................................................................................................ 20 4.1.2 System Description....................................................................................................................... 21 4.2 Drainage Services................................................................................................................................ 24 4.2.1 Design Parameters........................................................................................................................ 24 4.2.1 System Description....................................................................................................................... 24 4.3 Rainwater Evacuation.......................................................................................................................... 25 4.4 Plumbing Services Appendix................................................................................................................ 26 Appendix A: ASPE Data Book, Vol4, Chapter 10..................................................................................... 26 Appendix B: ASPE Data Book, Vol3, Table 2-2........................................................................................ 27 Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 2 of 38
  • 3. Appendix C: Fixture Units Against Gallons Per Minute .......................................................................... 28 Appendix D: Hot water demand per fixture for various types of buildings ............................................29 Appendix E: Fixture Units Per Fixture or Group ..................................................................................... 30 Appendix F: Building Drains and Sewers & Horizontal Fixture Stacks ................................................... 31 Appendix G: Horizontal Circuit and Loop Vent Sizing Table ................................................................... 32 Appendix H: Size and Length of Vents................................................................................................... 335.0 Fire Safety & Protection Services............................................................................................................ 34 5.1 System design...................................................................................................................................... 346.0 Medical Gases, Vacuum, & Anesthetic Gas Scavenging.......................................................................... 35 6.1 General Description............................................................................................................................. 35 6.2 System Design..................................................................................................................................... 35 6.2.1 Medical Plant................................................................................................................................ 35 6.2.2 Medical Gas Distribution............................................................................................................... 38 Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 3 of 38
  • 4. 1.0 I NTRODUCTION The intent of this concept report is to establish key design criteria and guidelines, which areadopted for the preparation of the final mechanical design for the Ibn Sina 600-bed General TeachingHospital project. This report also describes the mechanical design analysis, elaborating design concepts,principles, and systems design that will serve as basis for development and further calculations duringthe next stage of detailed design. Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 4 of 38
  • 5. 2.0 R EGULATIONS , S TANDARDS , & R EFERENCESThe mechanical works within the project shall be designed to comply with the following codes andstandards:2.1 HVAC C ODES & S TANDARDS2.1.1 ASHRAE HVAC Design Manual for Hospitals & Clinics2.1.2 AIA/AHA Draft Interim Sound and Vibration Design Guidelines for Hospital and Healthcare Facilities2.1.3 ASHRAE Handbook: HVAC Systems and Equipment2.1.4 ASHRAE Handbook: HVAC Applications2.2 P LUMBING C ODES & S TANDARDS2.2.1 National Plumbing Code (U.S.)2.2.2 ASPE Plumbing Engineering Design Handbook2.2.3 ASPE Plumbing Systems Data Book2.3 F IRE S AFETY C ODES & S TANDARDS2.3.1 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)2.4 M EDICAL G ASES C ODES & S TANDARDS2.4.1 HTM 02-01 Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: Medical Gas Pipeline Systems2.4.2 HTM 2022 Health Technical Memorandum 2022: Medical Gas Pipeline Systems - Design, Installation, Validation and Verification2.2.3 ASPE Special Plumbing Systems Data Book Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 5 of 38
  • 6. 3.0 A IR C ONDITIONING & V ENTILATION S YSTEMS3.1 D ESIGN P ARAMETERS3.1.1 D E S I G N C O ND I T I O N SOutdoor Conditions:Outdoor Conditions in Iraq for the HVAC load calculations are as follows:Summer Conditions: Dry Bulb Temperature: 48.0 deg.C Wet Bulb Temperature: 25.8 deg.C Daily Range: 18.9 deg.CWinter Conditions: Dry Bulb Temperature: 0 deg.C Wet Bulb Temperature: -2.8 deg.CIndoor Conditions:For typical spaces, the indoor conditions are: - Design Temperature: [20 – 23.9] deg.C - Relative Humidity: 50 % (±10%)For hospital spaces, ASHRAE HVAC Design Manual for Hospitals and Clinics, Table 4-1 provides thedesign temperatures, relative humidity, pressurization requirements, fresh air requirements, and allindoor conditions necessary for design: Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 6 of 38
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  • 9. 3.1.2 V E NT I L A T I O N R E Q U I R E M E N T SHealthcare facilities require large amounts of fresh, clean, outside air for breathing, and for control ofhazards and odors through “dilution ventilation” and exhaust makeup. Under normal circumstances,outside air contains much lower concentrations of aerosols than indoor air. When filtered by high-efficiency filtration, such as is mandated by various codes and standards, outside air can be regardedas virtually free of micro-organisms and particulates. When outside air is not at an acceptable qualitylevel, as may occur in industrialized areas, further process filtration is required.In addition to a good source of outside air, adequate ventilation requires the careful location ofintakes to avoid contamination, exhaust of contaminants, an adequate and controlled quantity ofmakeup air, and good distribution and mixing of the clean air throughout the spaces served.As stated under section 2.0, “ASHRAE Standard 62-2001, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality”is the reference for the minimum design requirements.Quantity of Ventilation AirThe ventilation rates shall cover ventilation for comfort, as well as for asepsis and odor control inareas of acute care that directly affect the patients.The ventilation requirements for hospital space are available above in ASHRAE HVAC Design Manualfor Hospitals and Clinics, Table 4-1. For each space, the minimum air changes of outdoor (fresh) airand the minimum total air changes per hour are listed. Ventilation rates in accordance with ASHRAEStandard 62, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality, are used for areas for which specificventilation rates are not given.Location of Outside Air IntakesAir intakes shall be located at an adequate distance away from potential contamination sources.Typically, minimum separation shall be 25 feet (7.6m) as established by the AIA Guidelines, and 30feet (9.1m) as established by ASHRAE Handbook. For safety, the design shall proceed according to themore conservative specification. However, even the “safer” ASHRAE separation distance is onlypreliminary, and greater separation may be required depending several factors, including but notlimited to:- Nature of contaminant- Direction of prevailing winds- Relative locations and placements of the intake and the contamination sources Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 9 of 38
  • 10. The design shall also follow the guidelines listed herein:- Intakes shall be at an adequate distance away from stack vents, equipments vents, and cooling towers.- Adequate vertical distance from ground level shall be insured to avoid contamination (0.9m to 1.2m FFL).- Adequate access to outside air intake plenums shall be insured in the design process. Also, measures to minimize the possibility of access by unauthorized personnel shall be taken into considerations for security purposes.Exhaust of Contaminants and OdorsThe design shall provide exhaust systems for the removal of contaminants and odors, preferably asclose to the source of generation as practically possible (Refer to AGS system section 6.0). Some majorsource exhaust in a hospital facility include:- Chemical fume hoods and biological safety cabinets (typically used in laboratories)- Trunk ducts in surgical applications (removes anesthetic gases and aerosols)- “Wet” X-Ray film development machines (chemical fumes)- Cough inducement booths or hoods (as used in contagious respiratory disease therapy)When contaminants and odors cannot be practically captured at the source, the space of generationshall be exhausted (eg. Laboratories, soiled laundry, waste storage, dirty process, anesthesia storage,and disease isolation spaces). Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 10 of 38
  • 11. 3.1.3 N O IS E L E V E LSMaximum permissible background noise levels for most spaces are established using room criteria(RC) or noise criteria (NC) curves. The HVAC design takes into consideration the following issues: - Equipment Noise: From fans, FCUs, and AHUs - Air Transfer Noise: Ductwork, dampers, louvers, grills, & diffusers.All equipment included in the design shall take into consideration room noise limitations andmanufacturers’ proper installation data. Excessive noise generation in ductwork will be avoided bylimiting the flow velocities as per ASHRAE Handbook, HVAC Applications. Also, supply, return, exhaust,and fresh air terminals, including all grills, diffusers, and louvers shall be designed in-parallel withnoise-limiting criteria.Table 1.4-1 of the 2006 AIA/AHA Draft Interim Sound and Vibration Design Guidelines for Hospital andHealthcare Facilities lists maximum allowable levels of noise generated by health care facilities:The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a limit of 40 dBA (comparable to a residentialarea at night) for maximum nighttime noise levels in hospitals and 30 dBA in patient rooms. Thedesign of mechanical systems shall ensure that mechanical background sound levels do not exceed therecommended design criteria for room noise levels listed in Table 3.3-1 of the 2006 AIA/AHA DraftInterim Sound and Vibration Guidelines for Hospital and Healthcare Facilities: Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 11 of 38
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  • 13. 3.1.4 P R E S S UR E P H I L OS O PH YPressure gradients among rooms and spaces rule the direction of air infiltration, and thus all aerosolsthat are carried by the air of the spaces.Positive pressurization of a space prevents the air from neighboring spaces to infiltrate, and advocatesevacuation of aerosols. De-pressurization (negative spaces) prevents the air of the space fromescaping or “contaminating” neighboring spaces.The table (ASHRAE HVAC Design Manual for Hospitals and Clinics, Table 4-1 – APPENDIX A) lists thepressure relationship to adjacent areas of all hospital spaces.Boundaries between functional areas (wards & departments) shall have directional control byproviding air movement, which is generally from clean to less clean. Where continuous directionalcontrol is not required, variations should be minimized, and in no case should a lack of directionalcontrol allow the spread of infection from one area to another.3.1.6 A I R F I L T RA T I O NMinimum levels of air filtration efficiency are available in AIA 2001 “Guidelines for the Design andConstruction of Hospitals and Healthcare Facilities”. The air filtration must be read in lieu of the spaceair changes per hour ventilation requirements, provided in ASHRAE HVAC Design Manual for Hospitalsand Clinics, Table 4-1 listed in section 3.1.2.Medical facilities HVAC systems require two filter beds, one upstream of the coil, and a final filter bankdownstream of the coil.In orthopedic, bone marrow transplant, and organ transplant suits and recovery rooms, an additionalstage of HEPA filtration is recommended at the air outlets.ASHRAE Standard 52.1- 1992 provides dust spot efficiency rating for filter testing. Minimum efficiencyrating value MERV 7 is required before the coil, and MERV 14 as the final or secondary filter.Refer to section 3.2.5 for the design of operating theatres, that require a special ultra-clean spaceHVAC design.3.1.7 G E NE R A LThe HVAC design procedure takes into consideration other design parameters including the following: - Envelope U-Values: Including walls, partitions, windows, doors, floors, ceilings Data to be extracted from Architectural & Structural details. - Equipment Loads: The heat dissipation from mechanical and medical equipment - Lighting Loads The heat dissipation from lighting - Occupancy Loads The heat dissipation from people (sensible & latent) Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 13 of 38
  • 14. Despite the fact that the ventilation requirements are more likely to exceed the thermal loads in mostspaces, the HAP load calculation will account for the aforementioned parameters at later stages of thedesign procedure.3.2 S YSTEM D ESCRIPTION3.2.1 C H IL L E D W A T ER G E N E R A T I O NA central chilled water plant, located in the plant building adjacent to the hospital, follows thePrimary/Secondary Variable Flow Design, which has become the standard approach for large centralchilled water plants using multiple chillers with multiple cooling loads, and their respective coolingtowers.The primary loop is hydraulically independent (de-coupled) from the secondary loop for the loads, andtherefore the primary circulating pumps are constant-speed, relatively low-head, and intended toprovide constant flow through the chiller’s evaporator.The secondary pumps deliver the chilled water from the plant to the AHUs and FCUs of the sitebuildings. An independent secondary circulation loop will be designed for each zone/building.Note: Guard Shacks shall have mini-split heat pump units.3.2.2 A I R S I D E S Y S T E MThe hospital - once properly zoned - shall be climatized with fan-coil units and air handling units, fedwith a 4-pipe system: Chilled Water Supply & Chilled Water Return for the cooling mode, HeatingWater Supply & Heating Water Return for the heating mode.Air handling units will be selected, arranged, and distributed to serve defined areas of similarfunctions and operations and according to orientation.Air handling units (double skin with thermal and acoustical insulation) will be located in plant rooms ineach department, to ease the access for maintenance.Also, the fan-coil units and air handlers shall have proper fresh air supply to meet the ventilationstandards discussed above. Fresh air intake will be mainly from the nearest façade available in thedepartment. Air is returned from the space to the air handling unit for recirculation or exhaust. Mixingof return air among zones shall not be allowed.AHUs will be provided with sound attenuators to reduce noise transmission to the spaces they serve.Ducting for air distribution shall follow SMACNA standards, and sized to provide the required air flowand acceptable velocities that shall limit the noise to the acceptable values listed in section 3.1.3. Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 14 of 38
  • 15. In the operating rooms, the Air handling unit will be located directly above the operating room andthe access to it for maintenance will be from outside the O.R. They will be 100% fresh air units andcounter flow heat recovery section is required. Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 15 of 38
  • 16. 3.2.4 V E NT I L A T I O NClean exhaust fans, dirty exhaust fans and special exhaust fans will mainly be located on roof takinginto consideration the wind direction and the minimum distance allowable between all of thesedifferent fans.Re-circulation of air in ventilation systems will be employed only in areas where the conditions areclean and the air is suitable for re-circulation.The air might be contaminated and is unsuitable for re-circulation.The dirty exhaust system will provide mechanical ventilation for the removal of unpleasant odors andcontaminated air, dirty utility rooms, cleaner’s rooms, bathrooms, showers and disposal roomsirrespective of their location. These rooms will always be maintained at a negative pressure.Dirty and special extract fansDirty and special extract fans will be located externally on the roof close to the areas to be ventilated.The secondary vertical shafts between patient bedrooms will be used mainly for the exhaust duct.Discharge from dirty and special exhausts will be kept as far away possible from the supply air inlets toavoid contamination. Intake louvers and exhaust fan outlets will be sited to take account of winddirections and surrounding buildings.Dirty exhaust will have 100% standby fans with automatic change over controls.Ventilation of special areasVentilation of special areas such as operating rooms, isolation rooms, will be designed to maintainpositive or negative pressure within the space.Operating rooms will be maintained under positive pressure by an excess of supply air with a low flowrate extracted at low level to clear anesthetic gases.The surplus of supply air will exhaust via pressure stabilizers (relief flaps) with extract provided outsidethe theatre.The pollution rooms in ICU will be provided with positive pressure and negative pressure as specifies.The positive pressure rooms will be achieved by means of supply derived from the general ICU supplysystem. This branch will be fitted with a HEPA filter and dedicated boosts fan with variable speeddrive. A dedicated extract fan will be provided operating at a lower duty than the supply air system.The negative pressure rooms will be achieved by means of a dedicated extract fan discharging toatmosphere. The extract will not be filtered as it is not anticipated that seriously infection diseaserequiring this will be located in this unit. Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 16 of 38
  • 17. Supply air will be provided to control temperatures and satisfy fresh air requirements.The isolation rooms will be provided with reheat batteries to control temperatures as required by inroom set point adjustment.3.2.5 O P ER A T I N G T H E A TR E S U LT R A -C L E A N HVAC D E S I G NContinual advances in medicine and technology necessitate constant revaluation of the airconditioning needs of hospitals and medical facilities. Conditioning in the operating theatres standsout for its complexities and stringent demands on: - Air-quality - Airflow pattern - Temperature Control - Humidity control - Bacterial control - Cross-contamination control - Special air-filtration - Exhaust system.The Laminar Air-flow SystemThe Laminar Air-flow System provides aseptic condition and has been found effective in the treatmentof patients who are highly susceptible to infections, like those undergoing organ transplant, openheart surgery or any major or minor operation.In laminar flow, air conditioned air enters the room through filters covering ceiling area over theOperation Table (O.T.), is exhausted through the four return air ducts near the floor, with air flowingin parallel lines and at uniform velocity of 0.45 m/s. Thus any air makes only one pass through theroom and any contamination created in the room is carried out. This type of design is therefore alsocalled “displacement flow”.Velocities in laminar flow range are necessary to prevent setting out of dust particles. With this type ofdirect flow areas of different velocities are minimized, reducing turbulence. Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 17 of 38
  • 18. The ceiling above O.T. table is entirely taken up with filters, and return air ducts are used to exhaustthe air. The air shower created above the O.T. helps sweep contamination to the floor and out, thusavoiding any contamination build up. Particles generated at one workstation are removed withoutaffecting others:Air Quality & CleaningVarious types of filters are installed at air intakes, double skin air handling units to maintain indoor airquality levels and also at exhaust outlets to prevent the release of inborn pollutants outdoors .Three-level filtration can be used instead of two-level filtration where necessary:Pre Filters: Efficiency of 90% down to 10 micron, used in addition to above filters.Fine Filters: Efficiency of 99% down to 5 micron, used for balance areas & exhaust points.HEPA filters: With efficiency of 99.97% down to 0.3 micron used for Operating rooms & I.C.U’s. These are special high flow types with more media to handle higher air quality.Three-stage filtration ensures longer life of high cost filters and easy maintenance. HEPA filters retainall type of bacteria & viruses, as their size is greater than 0.3 micron.The Air Handling units used are of double skin type having thermal break profile with direct driven“German plug fan” so that no belt carbon is being transmitted in the air. Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 18 of 38
  • 19. Further, the AHU is being operated through variable frequency drive which helps in maintainingconstant air flow velocity throughout the filter life.Also continuous supply of fresh air is recommended to remove the anesthetic gases and to maintainair quality.Higher recirculation ensures continuous filtration of bacteria and particulate generated inside O.T.,while positive pressure inside the O.T. ensures that no outside air leaks in during door opening andthrough cracks.Low-level extraction ensures minimization of turbulent air pockets, which are regarded ascontaminating: Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 19 of 38
  • 20. 4.0 P LUMBING (W ATER S UPPLY & D RAINAGE ) S ERVICES4.1 W ATER S UPPLY4.1.1 D E S I G N P AR A M E T E R SThe domestic water consumption for the hospital is based on 225gal/bed/day as per ASPE plumbingfixtures volume 4 (refer to appendix A).The domestic water consumption for the residential building is based on 60gal/day/person (227.4l/day/person but we will consider that the daily water consumption is 250 l/day/person) as per ASPEplumbing fixtures volume 4 (refer to appendix A).The daily soft water consumption for the project is based on the number of meals per day and on theconsumption of soft water by the laundry machines and the medical equipment.The estimated soft water consumption for kitchen is based on the rate: 10gal/meal and the hot waterdemand is 4gal/day as per “National Plumbing Code”.The consumption of the laundry machines and the medical equipment is based on the “EDIMmanuals” per the medical consultants specifications.R.O water estimation is based on the flow rate required and on the consumption per cycle for eachtype of medical equipment as per “EDIM manuals”.The demand for hot and cold water supply is calculated according to the fixture-unit method asdefined in the National Plumbing Code (NPC).The demand for hot and cold water supply for hospital plumbing fixtures is calculated according to thefixture-unit method or the flow method as defined in the ASPE Data Book-Volume 4, where thehospital’s plumbing fixtures and their Fixture-Unit requirement are provided in Table2-2: HospitalPlumbing Fixtures – APPENDIX C.Knowing the number of FU for every fixture, APPENDIX D gives the gallons per minute against fixtureunits. Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 20 of 38
  • 21. 4.1.2 S YS T E M D E S CR I P T I O N4.1.2.1 Cold Water SystemThe cold water supply to the site is obtained from the municipality network and shall be stored in aconcrete water tank (untreated water tank located in the plant room. This tank will be sized for oneday reserve.Untreated water is conveyed by means of a booster pump to a treatment plant. Filtered water(domestic water) shall be stored in a treated water tank sized for one day reserve.The domestic filtered cold water will be distributed from plant room to each building (residentialbuilding, hospital, morgue and guard shacks...).Booster sets for filtered water are dedicated for each building: • One booster set for the residential building • One booster set for the hospital and guard houses • One booster set for the morgue • One booster set for the plant room buildingWater Treatment Plant for Soft WaterAfter testing the city water, a proper treatment should be adopted to afford soft water in severalpoints in the hospital building and in the morgue; therefore a softener will be installed for thispurpose. One booster set is dedicated to feed these buildings with soft water such as the main kitchenand laundry. Also, medical equipments require soft water for their good running. A concrete Softwater tank sized for 2 days reserve of soft water demand required to feed the hospital and shall belocated in the plant room.Water Treatment Plant for Reverse Osmosis Water (R.O)Medical equipments require R.O water for their good running, so another water treatment set (R.Opackage) shall be installed for this purpose.A concrete R.O water tank is required in the plant room and one booster set is dedicated to feed thehospital with R.O water.UV sterilizers are used after the R.O for potable water to feed the and the residential building. Apotable stainless steel tank shall be located in the plant room. Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 21 of 38
  • 22. Emergency PE Water Storage TanksEmergency PE water storage tanks located on roof are required, and are connected to the domesticwater system in order to afford water to the building in case of failure of domestic water pressurebooster set or in case of failure of electric power.Irrigation & Cooling TowersConcrete tanks and pumping sets will be provided for: - concrete irrigation water tanks - concrete cooling towers water tanks4.1.2.2 Hot water systemThe domestic hot water and hot water return will be distributed from hot water storage tanks (centralhot water storage heaters) installed in the plant room and heated by boilers to each building via thesite trench (residential building, hospital, morgue and guard shacks) and they run in the false ceiling ofthe buildings to the bathrooms or to others utilities.Hot water storage heaters are dedicated for each building and are heated by the fuel oil burner andhave electrical resistance as back up: • Hot water storage heaters for the residential building. • Hot water storage heaters for the hospital and the morgue.Soft hot water and soft hot water return pipes will be distributed too from the plant room to thebuildings.Hot water systems shall be central, pressurized by the cold water system. The (60°C) water systemshould serve the residential building, hospital toilets and employee toilets. The (80°C) water systemshould serve all kitchen and laundry fixtures where (80°C) hot soft water is required for dishwasherequipment and laundry machines.The hot water system should be mechanically circulated, and all high points automatically vented bymeans of float operated vent valves piped to drain. Hot water is distributed to all point of use underadequate pressure. Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 22 of 38
  • 23. Domestic hot water supply and return pipes shall be galvanized steel inside pump room, technicalareas and shafts.Domestic hot water storage heaters will be sized based on the ASHRAE HANDBOOK 1999, asmentioned in Table 1: Hot Water Demand in Fixture Units (listed below) and in Table 9: Hot waterdemand per fixture for various types of buildings. Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 23 of 38
  • 24. 4.2 D RAINAGE S ERVICES4.2.1 D E S I G N P A R A M E T E R SThe gravity evacuation design is divided into two separate systems:The soil water system: gathers soil water from building water closets and kitchens. (black water)The wastewater system: gathers waste water from lavatories, showers, bathtubs, laundries, and othergrey-water drains.The wastewater and soil water gravity evacuation systems and their venting system are sizedaccording to the National Plumbing Code. The tables below extracted from the code show the fixtureunit sizing parameters.The tables (from the National Plumbing Code) attached in the Appendices are as follows:Table 11.4.2 : Fixture Units per Fixture or GroupTable 11.5.2 : Building Drainage and SewersTable 11.5.3 : Horizontal Fixture Branches and StacksTable A : Horizontal Circuit and Loop Vent Sizing TableTable 12.21.5 : Size and Length of Vents4.2.1 S YS T E M D E S CR I P T I O NThe drainage services will comprise waste water (grey water) and soil water (black water) drainagewhich are separated inside buildings and independent rain water drainage from the roof of thebuilding.Access caps will be provided for rodding and cleaning purposes for all parts of the drainage services.No floor drains are allowed except in the dirty utilities.All drainage piping will be apparent and suspended under ceiling.The horizontal drainage network (internally and externally) will be oversized to minimize theprobability of blockage due to misuse of users.Special acid-resistant drainage pipes will be used for laboratories. Wastewater from laboratories shallbe treated in a neutralizing pit prior to discharge to the soil network.Waste water from kitchens has drainage to grease interceptor prior to connection to soil network. Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 24 of 38
  • 25. Plant room has drainage to oil separator prior to connection to soil manhole.The morgue will also be provided with a treatment system for organic materials in the drainage waste.The design concept provides 2 options: • Option 1In case there is no municipality sewer connection:Two independent gravity sewer networks serve the site, waste water network and soil water network.The waste water is conveyed to a treatment plant to be used for cooling towers make up water. Thesoil water is conveyed to a treatment plant to be used for irrigation make up water. • Option 2In case there is a connection to municipality sewer network:The two separate drainage systems (soil & waste) inside the buildings are joined together outside thebuildings in a gully-trapped manhole. The site sewer network is then connected to the existingmunicipal network at a convenient location or to a lifting station than to municipality sewer.4.3 R AINWATER E VACUATIONRain Water drainage shall be collected from roof, and discharged by gravity into an outdoor manhole.From the outdoor manhole water shall be led into the Municipality network or to a lifting station.Non return valve shall be installed between the buildings network and the Municipality network.If there is no municipal rainwater evacuation network, the rainwater discharge destination shall bedetermined by the contractor after on-site investigation, and the design will follow accordingly. Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 25 of 38
  • 26. 4.4 P LUMBING S ERVICES A PPENDIXA P P E ND I X A: ASPE D A T A B OO K , V O L 4, C H AP T E R 10 Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 26 of 38
  • 27. A P P E ND I X B: ASPE D A TA B O O K , V OL 3, T AB L E 2-2 Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 27 of 38
  • 28. A P P E ND I X C: F I X T U R E U N I T S A GA I N S T G A LL O NS P E R M I NU T E Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 28 of 38
  • 29. A P P E ND I X D: H OT WA T E R D E M A N D P E R F I X T U R E F OR V AR I O U S T YP E S OF B U IL D I NG S Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 29 of 38
  • 30. A P P E ND I X E: F I X T U R E U N I T S P E R F I X T U R E OR G R O UP Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 30 of 38
  • 31. A P P E ND I X F: B U I LD I N G D R A I N S AND S E WE R S & H O R IZ O NT A L F I X T U R E S T A C KS Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 31 of 38
  • 32. A P P E ND I X G: H OR I Z O N T AL C I R C U I T A ND L O OP V E NT S I Z I NG T A BL E Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 32 of 38
  • 33. A P P E ND I X H: S I Z E AND LENGTH OF V E NT S Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 33 of 38
  • 34. 5.0 F IRE S AFETY & P ROTECTION S ERVICES5.1 S YSTEM DESIGNWhile most occupancies rely mainly on evacuating occupants as part of their fire protection strategy,hospitals must rely on the building and the building systems to protect its occupants while theyremain in place. This is called “defend-in-place” strategy.The fire safety design, following the NFPA codes and regulations, and shall be per the Fire Consultantsguides, strictly followed per their instructions.The principles are described below:Full-coverage sprinklers with wet risers and independent zone valves for each floor and as needed,with landing valves in all staircases with dry risers, and Siamese connection for fire brigade located asconvenient.Fire hose reel cabinets arranged and positioned in the building near staircases, escape routes, andentrances as well as where necessary. Each cabinet will house a manual fire extinguisher – drypowder. The reel shall be complete with automatic valve (jet spray).Internal pipe work will run in the ceiling void in shafts with air release valves at all high points.An automatic dry powder extinguisher will be used for the control equipment and switchgear rooms.Portable fire extinguishers will be provided where necessary for areas such as electrical room,mechanical room and lifts rooms, and where needed, per the Fire Consultants requirements.Wet fire pipes are distributed inside the site trench from the plant room building to the residentialbuilding, hospital and morgue (refer to fire fighting schematic diagram and fire fighting dry & wet riserdiagram). Siamese connections for dry risers are installed for all buildings (refer to fire fightingschematic diagram).The fire fighting design shall be in full compliance with all relevant NFPA codes and regulations.All stairwells shall be pressurized by at least 25 Pa. The pressure difference shall not, in any case, bemore than that which permits the doors to begin to be opened by a force of 41 Joules (which is thecase when the pressure difference exceeds 62 Pa). Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 34 of 38
  • 35. 6.0 M EDICAL G ASES , V ACUUM , & A NESTHETIC G AS S CAVENGING6.1 G ENERAL D ESCRIPTIONThe Medical Gases Design aims to provide a safe and effective method of delivering medical gases,medical air and surgical air from the source of supply to the appropriate terminal unit by means of apipeline distribution system.Medical vacuum is also provided by means of a pipeline system.Anesthetic gas scavenging disposal systems are provided to control occupational exposure to wasteanesthetic gases and agents.The medical gases systems include the following: - Oxygen - Nitrous Oxide - Nitrous Oxide / Oxygen Mixture - Surgical Compressed Air (CA7) - Medical Compressed Air (CA4) - Vacuum - Anesthetic Gas Scavenging (AGS)6.2 S YSTEM D ESIGN6.2.1 M E D I C A L P L A N TThe medical gas plant is located at the morgue building. The design follows the regulations specified inHTM 2022 (Medical Gas Pipeline Systems - Design, Installation, Validation and Verification, HealthTechnical Memorandum 2022). It comprises the installation of all equipment needed for the plant ofeach system:6.2.1.1 Oxygen System: Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 35 of 38
  • 36. The system comprises a 2-bank manifold of J-sized oxygen cylinders, with automatic change-overactuator, and a twin-branch pressure regulating station. Provisions for bulk oxygen storage areintegrated into the design of the plant to allow for future connection.Refer to drawing #1140 for system schematic. Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 36 of 38
  • 37. 6.2.1.2 Nitrous Oxide:The system comprises a 2-bank manifold of G-sized nitrous oxide cylinders, with automatic change-over actuator, and a twin-branch pressure regulating station.Refer to drawing #1140 for system schematic.6.2.1.3 Nitrous Oxide:The system comprises a 2-bankmanifold of G-sized O2/NO2mixture cylinders, with automatic change-over actuator, and a 2-cylinder emergency reserve bank.Refer to drawing #1150 for system schematic6.2.1.4 Surgical Compressed Air:The system comprises a 2-compressor + after cooler installation, one main and one stand-by, acompressed air receiver reservoir, filtration station, and pressure regulation station.Refer to drawing #1160 for system schematic.6.2.1.5 Medical Compressed Air:The system comprises a multiple compressor + after cooler installation, a compressed air receiverreservoir, filtration station, and pressure regulation station.Refer to drawing #1160 for systemschematic6.2.1.6 Vacuum:The system comprises a multiple vacuum pump installation, a vacuum receiver reservoir, filtrationstation, and control unit.Refer to drawing #11706.2.1.7 Anesthetic Gas Scavenging:The design allocates de-centralized dedicated AGS stations within the hospital building, in plant roomsfor each ward that utilizes anesthetic gas. Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 37 of 38
  • 38. 6.2.2 M E D I C A L G AS D I S T R I B U T I O NPiping from the medical gas plant at the morgue building will reach the hospital building in the sitetrench. Refer to drawing# 1180 “Medical Gas Distribution Diagram” for sitelayout.In the hospital building, Area valve service units (valves in valve boxes) will be provided to all medicalgas and vacuum system in accordance with HTM2022A.AVSUs will be located at all departmental entrances with further AVSUs as follows to providesecondary isolation.Operating Theatres: AVSUs to each operating theatre suite to recovery bedsPCVICU, & CVICU: 2 sets of AVSUs each serving half the beds in each areaThe following table shows the required medical gas flows at the terminal units:Source: Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: Medical Gas Pipeline Systems Prepared by Type of doc Seq. # Rev. # Reference no Date Page SHZ REPORT 01 00 - OCT 2012 38 of 38