Homeland Security  A Paradigm Shift andIts Impact on Education      and Training                          Ramon Martinez  ...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingRamon Martinez, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF (Reti...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and Trainingthe North-South Magazine of the Americas, and ...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and Training                                    TABLE OF C...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingFIGURESFigure 1           Homeland Security Ci...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingINTRODUCTIONFor over a century, the convention...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and Trainingdeath or harm at home or abroad; b) demonstrat...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingHOMELAND SECURITYHomeland security is our nati...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingAN OVERVIEW OF HOMELAND SECURITY EDUCATION AND...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and Trainingemphasize reactive strategies rather than proa...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and Trainingworkforce is a fundamental source of intellige...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and Trainingplaces a great responsibility and burden on th...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and Trainingthe available courses of actions and allocatin...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingThe third component illustrates that an empowe...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingFigure 1Homeland Security Circular Constant Le...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingHOMELAND SECURITY DEFENSE COALTION AND HOMELAN...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingOur VisionHomeland Security Defense Coalition,...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and Training    10. Critical thinking: the teaching and co...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingFigure 2 illustrates that Homeland Security Un...
Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingSecurity University is the “go-to” organizatio...
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This published paper developed a new paradigm for the homeland security industry in a speech presented on Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and its Impact on Education and Training (Ethics and Critical Thinking Conference, Dallas, TX, Dec 2005, Franklin Publishing Co.).

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Homeland Security Paradigm Shift.V3

  1. 1. Homeland Security A Paradigm Shift andIts Impact on Education and Training Ramon Martinez Lieutenant Colonel, USAF (Retired) Homeland Security Defense Coalition & Homeland Security University “Protecting Your Country through Knowledge” www.Homeland-Security-College.us Approved for public release Aug 25, 2005
  2. 2. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingRamon Martinez, Lieutenant Colonel, USAF (Retired), is Vice President ofStrategic Management at the Homeland Security Defense Coalition, and VicePresident of Region 2 at the Homeland Security University. Colonel Martinezprovides a well rounded leadership background. With almost three decades ofpublic management and private sector experience, Colonel Martinezdistinguished himself by providing solutions in the fields of national security,homeland security, strategic management, workforce development, education,capacity building, and professional ethics.Colonel Martinez has a Master of Arts degree in Philosophy from the Universityof California at Santa Barbara; a Master’s degree in Public Administration fromthe University of Northern Colorado; a Bachelor of Arts degree in Philosophy andGeography from California State University at Long Beach; and an Associate inArts degree from Los Angeles City College. After receiving his commissionthrough the Reserve Officer Training Corps at the University of SouthernCalifornia, Colonel Martinez served a twenty-year military career in the regularcomponent of the US Air Force.Colonel Martinez began his military career as a Missile Combat CrewCommander and Instructor at the 90th Strategic Missile Wing at F E Warren AFB,Wyoming. From there he was assigned to a dual position at the 1st StrategicAerospace Division/Test and Evaluation at Vandenberg AFB, CA, as theAdvanced Missile Systems Program Manager for the MX Peacekeeper Inter-Continental Ballistic Missile (ICBM), and as Test Director of Minuteman II and IIIICBMs. He later served as Assistant Professor of Philosophy and DepartmentExecutive Officer at the US Air Force Academy teaching ethics, Americanphilosophy and philosophy of law, and authored for the Department of the US AirForce Ethics and the Military Profession.Colonel Martinez then served as Deputy Secretary at the Inter-American DefenseBoard in Washington, DC, which is the military arm of the Organization ofAmerican States. Subsequently, he went on to serve as a National DefenseFellow at the University Of Miami Graduate School Of International Studieswhere he published The Inter-American Defense Board Fosters Cooperation inHomeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 2
  3. 3. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and Trainingthe North-South Magazine of the Americas, and authored a white paper for theDepartment of Defense entitled An Archetype for European Security. ColonelMartinez went on to win the Armed Forces Writing Award for an article entitledUnited Nations Forces 2000.Colonel Martinez then served as Chief of Latin American Strategy representingthe Commander-in-Chief of US Southern Command, General Barry R.McCaffrey, at the White House, Congress, the Department of State, and theDepartment of Defense. He culminated his military career as Director of the USSouthern Command Washington Field Office.Upon retiring from the Air Force, Colonel Martinez entered the private sector asVice President at Genetics & IVF Institute in Fairfax, VA, where he successfullydelivered DNA technology solutions in the United States, Latin America, and theCaribbean in the areas of criminal offender databases, infectious disease testing,and paternity testing. Through extensive consultation with the presidents andcabinet members of the Republic of Panama, Dominican Republic, Guatemala,and Argentina Colonel Martinez then acted as a senior advisor to the legislaturesof the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Republic of Panama in craftinglegislative bills and passing their respective DNA criminal offender database andpaternity testing laws.Following the devastating terrorist incidents of September 11, 2001, as a privateconsultant, Colonel Martinez worked on the initial Homeland Security efforts bydeveloping twenty lesson presentations based on manuals captured inAfghanistan. These lessons were used to instruct federal, state, and local lawenforcement agencies on the profiles, recruitment, training, methodologies, andobjectives of terrorists.Colonel Martinez then served as the Director of Strategic Planning at the SouthFlorida Workforce Board. He developed a strategic plan for the entire workforcedelivery system of Miami-Dade County and Monroe County, which the Board ofDirectors unanimously approved for 2004-2008. Colonel Martinez took the planfurther and presented a Primer on Strategic Planning at the Florida WorkforceSummit in Orlando, FL, and conducted a work session on The Strategic PlanningProcess at the Urban Academy for Welfare Reform in Minneapolis, MN.Colonel Martinez is a member of the board of directors of Global Holding, Inc., aU.S. transportation company with exclusive rights to market, sell, and distributeChinese manufactured autos and industrial cargo vehicles in the WesternHemisphere, and sell U.S. manufactured executive jets in the Peoples Republicof China. You may contact Colonel Martinez at rmartinez@homeland-security-college.orgHomeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 3
  4. 4. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and Training TABLE OF CONTENTSIntroduction………………………………………………………………...... 6Terrorism………………………………………………………………….….. 6Homeland Security………………………………………………………….. 8An Overview of Homeland Security Education and Training………....... 9The Importance of the Workforce……………………………………..…... 10Private Sector Involvement…………………………………………….….. 11Violence in the Workplace…………………………………………………. 11Paradigm…………………………………………………………………….. 12A Paradigm Shift in Homeland Security...……………………………...... 12The New Paradigm…………………..………………..……………..…..… 13Homeland Security Defense Coalition and Homeland SecurityUniversity.............................................................................................. 16Conclusion………………………………..…………………………………. 19Homeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 4
  5. 5. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingFIGURESFigure 1 Homeland Security Circular Constant Learning Flow Paradigm…….………………………………………………… 15Figure 2 Homeland Security Discipline Matrix…..…………...…..….. 18Homeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 5
  6. 6. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingINTRODUCTIONFor over a century, the conventional approach to developing security andemergency management education and training focused on asset protection thatassume reactive responses to overarching incidents, emergencies, or otherextreme disaster situations. However, the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the U.S. andthe July 7 and July 21, 2005, terrorist attacks in London are dramaticallychanging the security and emergency management industry.The threat of terrorism is driving the introduction of new and more innovativestrategies that favor more aggressive preemptive approaches to deter, intercept,and obstruct terrorism. This paper evaluates the critical issue of terrorism,discusses the nascent homeland security industry, presents a new paradigm forhomeland security, and relates its impact to education and training.Security, in general, and emergency management have historically requiredlimited education beyond high-school. In many cases, associates or bachelorsdegrees have sufficed for management. Although education and training up tothis point have served the purposes of past priorities, unfortunately they arequickly proving to be inadequate and ineffective to the current tactics of terroristgroups. Security and emergency management is not about simply preparing forand reacting to a natural or man-made emergency, threat, or disaster; rather, itconsists in assuming the most extreme terror circumstance and preemptivelydiffusing it before it becomes a disruptive situation.TERRORISMTerrorism is the random murdering of innocent people (called noncombatants) forthe expressed purpose of destroying the morale and undercutting the solidarity ofa nation or a class of people until they feel so fatally exposed that they demandtheir governments to negotiate for their safety, and grant terrorist’s demands oraccede to their objectives. To spread and increase the rate of fear and anxietyamong the people, terrorists randomly target and expose people within thatnation or class of people to a violent death or injury, not because of theirindividual conduct; rather, they aim at a nation or class of people preciselybecause they share a collective identity. Terrorists commit the fallacy of guilt byassociation.For the terrorists, no one is immune from attack. They will kill anybody simply toconvey their message. The terrorists do not require the capability to eradicate anentire nation or class of people; they only require generating the perception that anation or class of people are at risk. Terrorists randomly commit murder to a)create the perception that a nation or class of people are extremely vulnerable toHomeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 6
  7. 7. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and Trainingdeath or harm at home or abroad; b) demonstrate they control the destiny ofothers; and c) achieve their objectives.The murder campaign conducted by terrorists reveal their true intentions; it is theattempt to rob people of their unconditional worth and intrinsic value. Sinceterrorism is the attempt to devalue the existence of people, terrorists are tyrantswho intentionally violate the moral law.Terrorism occurred in the U.S. before 9/11. For example, prior to 9/11 the U.S.sustained attacks via courthouse bombings; mail bombs; the Oregon salad barsalmonella attacks; the Tylenol cyanide poisoning; sniper shootings, abortionclinic bombings; the bombing at the World Trade Center on February 23, 1993;and the Oklahoma City bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Office Buildingon April 19, 1995.By using inherently indiscriminate weapons that generate random effects,terrorism makes everyone vulnerable and subject to an unjust attack. Inparticular, the specter of catastrophic terrorism involving weapons of massdestruction (WMD), such as nuclear, biological, radiological and chemical,become the consummate weapons for terrorists.Unlike natural hazards, terrorists are intelligent human beings that learn andadapt to achieve their intentions. While the probability of using WMD is low, therisk of terrorists acquiring a WMD generates the very fear and anxiety they wantto instill in a nation or class of people, even without using it.Terrorists do exact a devastating cost to our society by using conventional tacticssuch as handling commercial airplanes as guided missiles with bombs. Althoughthe element of surprise using commercial airplanes has virtually disappeared,terrorists constantly look for weaknesses not yet used for exploitation.The private sector currently is the point of attack with the greatest loss of people,facilities, data, archives, and revenue. Statistical data published in theDepartment of State report entitled Patterns of Global Terrorism 2001 illustratedthat terrorists attacked private sector facilities more frequently than any othertypes of facilities. Additionally, the Insurance Information Institute published achart depicting that 9/11 resulted in business interruption in the amount of $11.0billion; it was 27 percent of all estimated damage and the largest of the totaldamage.The message is clear: everyone is impacted by the threat of constant and moreinvasive terrorism.Homeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 7
  8. 8. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingHOMELAND SECURITYHomeland security is our national solution to terrorism as well as natural hazards.Congress enacted two pieces of legislation in reply to and in anticipation of thethreats posed by terrorism. President George W. Bush signed into law onOctober 26, 2001, the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act of 2001 (PL 107-56) entitled Unitingand Strengthening America by Proving Appropriate Tools Required to Interceptand Obstruct Terrorism. The Patriot Act authorizes law enforcement agencies,particularly the attorney general and the Department of Justice, to deter andpunish terrorist acts in the United States and around the world by collectinginformation on suspected terrorists, detaining suspected terrorists, deterringterrorists from entering and operating within the borders of the United States, andlimiting the ability of terrorists to engage in money-laundering activities thatsupport terrorist actions.On November 25, 2002, President Bush signed into law the Homeland SecurityAct of 2002 (PL 107-296). This legislation established and activated on January24, 2003, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) as an executive branchagency with the secretary reporting directly to the president. The HomelandSecurity Act mandated establishing a safe and secure homeland by combining22 federal entities, approximately 180,000 personnel, under the umbrella of DHS;this is the most extensive federal reorganization since President Harry S. Trumansigned into law the National Security Act of 1947.The National Strategy for Homeland Security, dated July 2002, defined homelandsecurity as…”a concerted national effort to prevent terrorist attacks within theUnited States, reduce America’s vulnerability to terrorism, and minimize thedamage and recover from attacks that do occur.” First responders will remainresponsible for managing the consequences of attacks, incidents, emergenciesor disasters; however, the National Strategy for Homeland Security furtherrecognizes that “an informed and proactive citizenry is an invaluable asset for ourcountry in times of peace and war.” To successfully protect our homeland, in theend, each person, workforce member, organization, business, private securitycompany, public security organization, and community must contribute by helpingdeter, prevent, and mitigate the risks of terrorist attacks.As a new discipline and a nascent industry, homeland security continually inventsitself by anticipating, preempting, and reacting to the constant and more effectiveterrorists’ techniques. Homeland security, therefore, requires a new paradigmthat is based on a circular constant learning flow of integrated proactive andreactive solutions. Homeland security education and training organizations thenmust develop and flawlessly deliver innovative programs and curricula based onthis new paradigm.Homeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 8
  9. 9. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingAN OVERVIEW OF HOMELAND SECURITY EDUCATION ANDTRAININGMost universities and colleges promoting homeland security curricula fail in thisendeavor. They offer diluted versions of the hard lined reforms and the newparadigm required in homeland security. Offered under the guise of a “newprogram,” many university homeland security programs and curricula are simplywatered-down or slightly modified criminal justice programs or military sciencecourses. Yet these homeland security programs are developed underunquestioned assumptions and misconceptions. Particularly, that homelandsecurity is the same as law enforcement.Homeland security is more than policing, law enforcement, and emergencymanagement; it is about comprehensive asset security. While law enforcementfocuses on the maintenance of order and the enforcement of laws, homelandsecurity emphasizes ensuring tangible and intangible assets are not unduly orinadvertently placed at risk. Therefore, law enforcement does not equate tohomeland security.Moreover, most courses are offered under the reactive paradigm. Theuniversities do not design the courses and programs using a circular constantlearning flow of integrated proactive and reactive solutions with original strategiesand techniques. For example, a Washington Times article stated that theUniversity of Connecticut is offering a master’s degree in homeland security. Thearticle claims “Students will learn how to respond to disasters such as outbreaksof diseases or terrorist attacks that endanger food supplies.”The consequence is that students and workforce members are short-changed.Knowing criminal law, crime scene investigation, police tactics, and emergencymanagement does not equate to proactively deterring and preventing the loss oflife and assets, and mitigating risks. Students only learn to prepare for andrespond to incidents, emergencies or disasters. As a result, homeland securityrequires a different approach, different paradigm, different skill set, and distincteducation and training requirements.On the other hand, private security firms claim to offer superior trainingprograms. While this may bear some truth, they do not have the credentials toestablish and sustain homeland security training programs since it is an infantindustry. For example, the security services profession is not a codifiedprofession. The profession does not have federal laws and national standardsthat stipulate and enforce mandatory requirements. Furthermore, those privatesecurity managers, instructors and employees with higher education were mostlikely the same people instructed at criminal justice schools or attended militaryscience programs. More importantly, evidence indicates that all curriculum topicsHomeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 9
  10. 10. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and Trainingemphasize reactive strategies rather than proactive contributions of workforcemembers, organizations, businesses, and communities.Finally, research conducted by Graeme, K. Deans, Fritz Kroger, and StefanZeisel, in Winning the Merger Endgame (McGraw-Hill, 2002), disclosed that fourforeign owned companies account for approximately thirty (30) percent of marketshare in the United States. The top four foreign owned companies are Swedish-based Securitas North America, which owns Pinkerton, Burns and othercompanies; Copenhagen and The Hague based Group 4 Falcks, which ownsWackenhut Corporation; British owned Initial Security; and British owned AHLServices. This highly suggests that these foreign owned businesses are in thebusiness of security, but not homeland security. Thus, they continue using andteaching the reactive paradigm.THE IMPORTANCE OF THE WORKFORCEWe entered the 21st century with trends emphasizing the importance of intangibleassets, in particular the contributions by our workforce, which sometimes isreferred to as human capital. They are truly the key to our prosperity and thecontinued success of our national economy. Terrorists quickly recognize this factand intentionally attack the workforce to disrupt and destabilize our economy.The World Trade Center attacks in 1993 and 2001 and the London attacks duringJuly 2005 are prime examples.Although the workforce is a key terrorist target, the workforce is the neglectedcomponent in homeland security. They receive inadequate training on securityand little to no proactive homeland security training. Effective training is aneducational, informative, and skill developing process resulting with employeeslearning how to accomplish a task, project, or procedure. Empirical evidencesuggests that new employees are not trained; rather, they receive only a generalorientation, and unfortunately, people tend to learn little and retain less. Whilesecurity training should be a continuous, recurrent, and an ongoing program,workforce members generally receive repeated instances of the originalorientation.There exists a high probability that public and private sector workforce memberscan significantly contribute to homeland security by proactively deterring,preventing, and mitigating the risk of terrorism. They are on the front lines astargets, and we have not taken advantage of educating and training the peoplewho can serve as witnesses or obstructers of such terrorist techniques or tactics.Law enforcement agencies are responsible for obtaining, fusing, analyzing, anddisseminating “intelligence” everyday in the course of their operations to detectevents or activities that may have some national implications. However, theHomeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 10
  11. 11. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and Trainingworkforce is a fundamental source of intelligence because they are the primaryagents to come into contact with possible terrorists and/or their activities. Forexample, a Florida flight school instructor reported to law enforcement agencieshis suspicion that a student was possibly taking the course to perform terroristactivities.In order to be of any intelligence value, workforce members must know what tolook for and how to properly respond. This can be successfully accomplishedthrough a sound, comprehensive, and integrated formal education and training inhomeland security; presented in accordance with an instructor systemsdevelopment program; developed, overseen, and taught by counter-terrorismexperts; and specifically designed using the new homeland security paradigm asthe foundation.PRIVATE SECTOR INVOLVEMENTThe private sector assumes the increasing responsibility for fulfilling the demandsof homeland security. Homeland Security Presidential Directive-5, datedFebruary 28, 2003, recognizes the role the private and non-governmental sectorsperform.The private sector owns approximately 85 percent of the infrastructure in the U.S.Deterring attacks, dramatically decreasing the vulnerabilities, and increasing thesecurity of the private sector protects the largest portion of U.S. infrastructureand economic viability. Corporate America must proactively take the steps todeter, mitigate the risks, and prevent terrorist attacks on our homeland. Tosuccessfully meet this challenge, the private sector must break away from theconventional approach and use the new paradigm.VIOLENCE IN THE WORKPLACEThreats to people and assets are not new phenomena. Although weexperienced an increased awareness and concern for our well-being immediatelyfollowing the terrorist attacks of 9/11, violence in the workplace continuesunabated. Today’s workforce operates under continuous stress to do more withless and of the fear of unemployment. As a result, workplace violence may occurin any type of workplace environment.Recent events involving disgruntled employees, visitors, upset customers, andpeople with interpersonal conflicts include workplaces such as the post office,office buildings, municipal buildings, insurance companies, legal offices, collegeand university campuses, high school, and now even elementary schools. ThisHomeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 11
  12. 12. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and Trainingplaces a great responsibility and burden on the private and public sectors to takeevery reasonable measure to deter, prevent, and mitigate the opportunity for aviolent episode. Violence in the workplace is a homeland security issue andshould be effectively addressed using the new paradigm.PARADIGMA paradigm is an accepted pattern of thinking, model, or framework used toexplain phenomena, interpret reality, or serve as exemplary solutions to acuteproblems. Thomas Kuhn, in the Structure of Scientific Revolutions (TheUniversity of Chicago Press, 3rd edition, 1996), defined paradigm as “On the onehand, it stands for entire constellation of beliefs, values, techniques, and so onshared by members of a given community. On the other, it denotes one sort ofelement in that constellation, the concrete puzzle-solutions which employed asmodels or examples can replace explicit rules as a basis for the solution of theremaining puzzles of normal science.”Within the context of homeland security, a paradigm is the recognized exemplarymodel the community of homeland security practitioners uses to solve a set ofproblems within the profession, and functions as the foundation for furthering theprofession of homeland security, including the education, training, anddevelopment of their successors and new recruits.A PARADIGM SHIFT IN HOMELAND SECURITYKuhn coined the term paradigm shift to signify a change from one shared way ofthinking to another. A once useful paradigm becomes obsolete when it is unableto account for challenges to the profession, cannot adequately supply clues tosolving the set of problems within a profession, and is incapable of guaranteeingthat the practitioners can excel in the profession. A paradigm shift occurs when anew paradigm supplants or overtakes the obsolete paradigm.The new paradigm for an effective homeland security program incorporates thedual dimensions of proactive and reactive actions into a circular constant learningflow. Proactive is a concept used in management textbooks since the 1970s.But it is a disparaged term because many people misunderstand or misapply theconcept.Proactive means taking action to achieve a desired outcome by projecting afuture picture. It is about deciding where we want to go regarding homelandsecurity, called our future picture; determining where we are in relationship to ourfuture picture; disclosing the barriers to achieving our future picture; establishingHomeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 12
  13. 13. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and Trainingthe available courses of actions and allocating resources, communicating thefuture picture and selected course of action; educating and training the workforceto flawlessly execute and achieve the future picture; flawlessly executing theselected course of action; and then communicating the lessons learned in orderto improve professionally and organizationally to achieve the future picture.Absent the proactive dimension, homeland security remains trapped by theconventional and now obsolete paradigm. Homeland security will be relegated toresponding to and managing the consequences of reported activities, incidents,emergencies, or disasters. Instead of allowing someone or some event todetermine an outcome, we must think and take the necessary actions to achieveand sustain our own way of life.The tragic terrorism events at the World Trade Center on 9/11 and in Londonduring July 2005 painfully revealed the need to undertake a paradigm shift toimprove the security and safety of our nation. Homeland security is our nationalsolution and critical challenge. And, it requires integrating the efforts of thepublic and private sectors to be proactive as well as reactive. But for homelandsecurity to be effective, the public and private sectors must empower itsworkforce by educating, training, and developing them for flawless execution.THE NEW PARADIGMFigure 1 depicts the new homeland security paradigm as a circular constantlearning flow of six components existing within the dual dimensions of proactiveand reactive perspectives. It illustrates that the integrated proactive and reactiveperspectives are two sides of the same coin.Component one establishes the foundation of the proactive perspective bypresenting a strategic management approach to homeland security. Sincesuccess is planned, the paradigm begins by developing and communicating astrategic plan, including policies, procedures, and standards. However,organizations can only achieve success through leadership and flawlessexecution of a strategic plan.The second component demonstrates that educating, training, and developingthe workforce is crucial to successful homeland security. Workforce meansemployees, volunteers, trainees, and other persons whose conduct, in theperformance of work for a covered entity, is under the direct control of suchentity, whether or not they are paid by the covered entity. Organizations createan empowered workforce by educating, training, and developing them into acapable workforce prepared to flawlessly execute the strategic plan.Homeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 13
  14. 14. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingThe third component illustrates that an empowered workforce can significantlycontribute in deterring and preventing terrorism while helping to mitigate the risksof terrorism. Although history suggests that terrorists as a whole are notdeterred, terrorist are adverse to operational risks. If they perceive that the riskof failure is high, then it is highly probable the terrorists will be deterred fromexecuting their operation. An empowered workforce increases the risk ofoperational failure for terrorists.Components four and five comprise the reactive perspective of the paradigm.Component four emphasizes having flexible, adaptive, and robust capabilities inplace in order to get the right resources, educated and trained responders, andequipment to the incident, emergency, or disaster. This requires establishing aneffective response plan and program to cope with diverse circumstances when aterrorist act occurs. Component five requires coordinating well and flawlesslyexecuting the response plan to manage and recover from the incident,emergency, or disaster.Component six is a proactive perspective because debriefing is the mechanismfor evaluating and improving the entire process of homeland security. Uponcompleting emergency management and recovery, organizations critique theexecution of the plan(s), generate lessons learned, share gathered intelligence,and use the debrief to modify, improve, or change the strategic plan. Serving asthe catalyst for establishing a learning organization, this component continuesthe circular constant learning flow.Homeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 14
  15. 15. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingFigure 1Homeland Security Circular Constant Learning Flow Paradigm 6. Debrief 1. Plan, Communicate, and Lead R P E R A O C A 5. Manage and Recover T C from the Incident, 2. Empower by I T Educating, Training, Emergency, or Disaster V I and Developing the E V Workforce E 4. Respond to an Incident, 3. Deter, Prevent, and Emergency, or Disaster MitigateHomeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 15
  16. 16. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingHOMELAND SECURITY DEFENSE COALTION AND HOMELANDSECURITY UNIVERSITYAs the people on the front-line, workforce members can significantly contribute indeterring, mitigating the risks, and preventing terrorist attacks on our homeland.Homeland Security Defense Coalition, through its Homeland Security University,is uniquely organized to offer high level education and training in homelandsecurity.We are the result of three years planning post 9/11. Unlike similar programsappearing across the country, we specifically designed our certificate, diploma,and degree courses and program to address the needs of the homeland securityindustry; the needs of the current homeland security workforce; those individualsseeking to enter the homeland security workforce; and members of the generalworkforce. We recruited and continue recruiting national and internationalcounter-terrorism professionalsWe Empower Your Workforce on Homeland SecurityIf knowledge is power, then shared knowledge is empowerment. HomelandSecurity Defense Coalition, through its Homeland Security University, is in thebusiness of empowering public and private sector workforce members tocontribute in homeland security.Our Mission:We empower the workforce in homeland security by providing the most current,best-in-class, and evidence-based education and training. We teach theworkforce to be proactive rather than simply reactive by using the homelandsecurity circular constant learning flow paradigm. We help protect the homelandby sharing knowledge in counter-terrorism and anti-terrorism. Moreover, weprovide the necessary tools, methodologies, and skills to enable the workforce todeter, mitigate the risks of and prevent terrorist attacks on our homeland; andmanage and recover from incidents, disasters, and emergencies when they dooccur.Homeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 16
  17. 17. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingOur VisionHomeland Security Defense Coalition, through its Homeland Security University,will be the leading education and training provider in the professional fields ofhomeland security, corporate security management, and private security service.As a customer-driven, core-value directed, and an aligned and integratedorganization, we will develop and sustain a portfolio of services, programs, andcurricula that fulfill the needs of our customers while anticipating the future needsof the homeland security industry.Homeland Security Disciplinary MatrixThe disciplinary matrix is an analytic framework for identifying the keycomponents that education and training courses and programs should possess inthe nascent homeland security industry. Figure 2 graphically depicts the currentstate of education and training institutes in the homeland security industry andwhat customers can generally expect to receive from the entities in the market.The horizontal axis identifies the range of crucial components the homelandsecurity education and training industry offers. There are eleven factors: 1. Strategic Management: a comprehensive understanding and demonstrated application of strategic management throughout the entire homeland security circular constant learning flow paradigm 2. Managerial Education: the integration, understanding, and application of management and leadership concepts, principles, and skills; and the integration of security in the management of the private and public sectors 3. Proactive Perspective: the integrated proactive approach of planning, communicating and leading a strategic plan; empowerment by educating, training, and developing the workforce in homeland security; deterring, preventing and mitigating the risk of terrorism; and debriefing an accident, incident, or disaster. 4. Reactive Perspective: the response, management, and recovery of an incident, emergency, or disaster 5. Counter-terrorism 6. Anti-terrorism 7. Development: inclusiveness in the development of the entire workforce 8. Degrees: undergraduate and graduate degrees in the field of homeland security 9. Comprehensive Asset Security: the protection of tangible and intangible assets; the promotion of a secure workplace environment; the mitigation of the likelihood of loss or injury; business risk analysis; human resource security; and global operations supportHomeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 17
  18. 18. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and Training 10. Critical thinking: the teaching and constant emphasis of sound reasoning and problem solving throughout all disciplines and the circular constant learning flow paradigm 11. Professional Ethics: the teaching of ethics; comprehending its importance as the foundation of the profession; an understanding of human conduct; the inculcation of human virtues; and the development and application in core-values statements and code of conductThe vertical axis reveals the level of offering customers will receive across eachof the fundamental factors. The higher the score the more an entity offers a keycomponent to customers.Figure 2The Homeland Security Disciplinary Matrix 100 90 80 70 Homeland Security University 60 50 40 Conventional University Education 30 20 Private Security Training 10 0 Strategic Management Workforce Development Counter-Terrorism Professional Ethics Comprehensive Asset Security ProactiveWe are UniqueHomeland Security University offers a sound, formal education, training anddevelopment of the workforce in the homeland security discipline. We explicitlyuse the homeland security circular constant learning flow paradigm in designingcomprehensive and integrated programs and curricula. We educate and trainusing the time tested instructor systems development program used by the USArmed Forces.Homeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 18
  19. 19. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingFigure 2 illustrates that Homeland Security University’s value curve is distinctfrom conventional university education and private security training approaches.Our profile discloses that Homeland Security University excels in ten of theeleven components of the homeland security discipline matrix. Thus, HomelandSecurity University diverges from its competitors by creating a leap in value forthe public and private sectors: We empower your workforce in homelandsecurity.Continually scanning the homeland security environment, Homeland SecurityUniversity reviews and updates its curricula to reflect significant changes,research, and development. Extensive staff research and evaluation ofapproximately 800 programs disclosed that these programs shared the sameantiquated criminal justice programs and military science programs, which did notaddress the nascent homeland security profession. They barely scratched thesurface in addressing the homeland security disciplinary matrix.Research further revealed that all college and university textbook publishers atthe time did not publish textbooks on terrorism and counter-terrorism. Thesepublishers asked us to write the textbooks. We accepted the task and ourcounter-terrorism experts authored the textbooks. Furthermore, they develop,oversee and instruct the courses. We have fully completed developing allcourses and programs.Finally, we established cross-disciplinary and multi-disciplinary foci into ourhomeland security program. Since homeland security is everyone’s concern, weconnect traditional and nontraditional partners from diverse backgrounds.CONCLUSIONThe devastating terrorist disasters of September, 11, 2001, immediately providedthe impetus for the United States to enact the Homeland Security Act of 2002. Itis the most extensive reorganization since the National Security Act of 1947.The Homeland Security Act mandated creating the Department of HomelandSecurity. It combined 22 entities in an integrated effort to establish and sustain asafe and secure homeland, and to protect our way of life. Moreover, theHomeland Security Act produced a nascent industry, which requires the focusedand coordinated effort of the federal government, state and local governments,the private sector, and the entire workforce.A paradigm shift in the security profession emerged because of the HomelandSecurity Act. The new paradigm uses a circular constant learning flow of sixcomponents existing within the dual dimensions of proactive and reactiveperspectives. Homeland Security Defense Coalition, through its HomelandHomeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 19
  20. 20. Homeland Security: A Paradigm Shift and Its Impact on Education and TrainingSecurity University is the “go-to” organization in educating, training, anddeveloping the workforce in homeland security.Still bound to the old security paradigm, most universities and private securityservices offer amended or slightly modified criminal justice programs or militaryscience courses. We lead the education and training industry by using the newhomeland security circular constant learning flow paradigm. Homeland SecurityUniversity empowers your workforce in homeland security.Homeland Security Defense Coalition; Homeland Security University 20

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