Data and Information
What is data? <ul><li>Raw facts and figures or a set of values, measurements or records of transactions </li></ul><ul><li>...
What is information? <ul><li>Data that has been processed and gives us knowledge </li></ul>
Sources of data <ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Output from a MIS </li></ul><ul><li>From a transaction </li></ul><ul><li...
What forms can data take? <ul><li>Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Words </li></ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul>
Why code data? <ul><li>Less effort to type in </li></ul><ul><li>More data can appear on the screen at one time </li></ul><...
Coding v Encoding <ul><li>CODING </li></ul><ul><li>Some data is coded on collection before being entered and this changes ...
Encoding <ul><li>Text and numbers commonly encoded using ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) </li><...
ASCII and Binary <ul><li>All characters are represented by a number in ASCII </li></ul><ul><li>The numbers are translated ...
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Data And Information

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Data And Information

  1. 1. Data and Information
  2. 2. What is data? <ul><li>Raw facts and figures or a set of values, measurements or records of transactions </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: Data is the plural, datum is the singular </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is information? <ul><li>Data that has been processed and gives us knowledge </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sources of data <ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Output from a MIS </li></ul><ul><li>From a transaction </li></ul><ul><li>From the results of an experiment </li></ul><ul><li>From (automatic) measurement of certain qualities (eg environmental) </li></ul>
  5. 5. What forms can data take? <ul><li>Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Words </li></ul><ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><li>Sound </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why code data? <ul><li>Less effort to type in </li></ul><ul><li>More data can appear on the screen at one time </li></ul><ul><li>Takes up less storage space </li></ul><ul><li>It is easier to check that a code is accurate using validation checks </li></ul>
  7. 7. Coding v Encoding <ul><li>CODING </li></ul><ul><li>Some data is coded on collection before being entered and this changes the original data into a shortened version by assigning a code </li></ul><ul><li>ENCODING </li></ul><ul><li>This is used by computers to convert the data into machine readable form </li></ul>
  8. 8. Encoding <ul><li>Text and numbers commonly encoded using ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) </li></ul><ul><li>Images and sound encoded in various file format – some are lossy and some lossless </li></ul>
  9. 9. ASCII and Binary <ul><li>All characters are represented by a number in ASCII </li></ul><ul><li>The numbers are translated into binary code which is the format required by the computer </li></ul><ul><li>The binary code has 8 digits per character </li></ul><ul><li>Each digit is a bit and 8 digits is a byte </li></ul>
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