Phrasal verbs

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  • Phrasal verbs

    1. 1. PHRASAL VERBS
    2. 2. PHRASAL VERBS HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE USE OF UP IN EACH? a) She walked up the street to get a bite to eat. b) I live up in Springfield. c) When are you going to clean up your room? d) I am sorry that I messed you up.
    3. 3. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF PHRASAL VERBS PHRASAL VERBS DEFINED A phrasal verb ( PV ) is made up of two or more parts that function as a single verb. They are sometimes called two-word verbs because they usually consist of a verb plus a second word The second part of the phrasal verb is a particle, this shows close association with the verb and its distinction with prepositions and other adverbs.
    4. 4. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF PHRASAL VERBS To analyze sentences with phrasal verbs, refine the phrase structure rule for the VP by generating a PV as an alternative to V Cop VP V VP NP Ap PrepP (NP)2 (PrepP) The PV category is then expanded in a new phrase structure rule as a verb and particle ( Prt ) PV V << Prt >>
    5. 5. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF PHRASAL VERBS The particle is part of the verb phrase but it need not to be contiguous about it. Here is the basic structure of a sentence in which the particle follows the verb directly: Jamie turned out the light. S Subj PRED AUX VP NP T N PV V NP Prt det N the light -past Jamie turn out
    6. 6. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF PHRASAL VERBS Here is the tree where the particle is not contiguous with the verb but rather separated from it by intervening direct object Jamie turned the light out. S SUBJ PRED AUX VP NP T PV N -past V NP Part Jamie turn det the N light out
    7. 7. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF PHRASAL VERBS TRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS Like single-word verbs, phrasal verbs can be transitive: Harold turned on the radio. Barbara passed out the new assignment. I called off the meeting Other examples Do over ( repeat ) look over ( examine ) fill out ( complete ) find out ( Discover )
    8. 8. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF PHRASAL VERBS INTRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS My car broke down He really took off. The boys were playing around in the yard. Other examples: come back ( return ) come over ( visit ) make up ( reconcile ) pass out ( faint )
    9. 9. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF PHRASAL VERBS TRANSITIVE/INTRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS Just like some regular ergative or change-of-state verbs ( e.g. open, increase) may either be transitive or intransitve depending on the role of the agent, some phrasal verbs can have this dual function: An arsonist burned down the hotel. ( transitive ) The hotel burned down. ( intransitive)
    10. 10. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF PHRASAL VERBS PHRASAL VERBS THAT REQUIRE PREPOSITIONS Like single-word verbs, adjectives and nouns, many phrasal verbs take a specific prepositions. In these expressions the phrasal verb and the preposition must be learned as a unit Put up with Look in on Look down on Get away with Get down to Get back to Get along with Check up on Check out of Go in for Come up with Give in to Cut down on Catch up with Stand up for Keep up with End up with Pick up on Close in on Make away with Make up for Drop in on Run up against Break up with
    11. 11. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF PHRASAL VERBS A tree diagram with “ three-word phrasal verb “ Donna broke up with Joe. S SUBJ PRED NP AUX VP Advl N T PV PrepP Donna -past V Prt Prep NP break up with N Joe
    12. 12. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF PHRASAL VERBS THE SEPARABILTITY OF PHRASAL VERBS Phrasal verbs verbs; share characteristics however, there is with one regular syntactic characteristic peculiar to transitive phrasal verbs: sometimes the particle can be separated from the verb by the direct object and sometimes it cannot. Separation is obligatory when it is a pronoun.
    13. 13. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF PHRASAL VERBS SEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS Mark threw away the ball. *Mark threw away it. Mark threw the ball away. Mark threw it away. Rachel looked up the info. *Rachel looked up it. Rachell looked the info up. Rachel looked it up. Other examples: Take up ( discuss ) leave out ( omit ) Pass out ( distribute ) bring back ( return ) Turn down ( refuse )
    14. 14. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF PHRASAL VERBS INSEPARABLE PHRASAL VERBS I came across an interesting article last night. *I came an interesting article across last night. I came across it last night. *I came it across last night. Josh ran into an old friend. Josh ran into him. Josh ran an old friend into. *Josh ran him into. Other examples: Get over ( recover ) go over ( review ) Look into ( investigate ) go for ( attack )
    15. 15. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF PHRASAL VERBS A tree diagram for a sentence with an inseparable phrasal verb: Angela ran across a classmate. S SUBJ PRED NP AUX N T Angela -past VP PV V run NP Prt det across a N classmate
    16. 16. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF PHRASAL VERBS PHRASAL VERBS THAT ARE ALWAYS SEPARATED A few phrasal verbs that seem to occur only with the verb and particle separated: How can I get the message through him? (get… through= convey; transmit) *How can I get through the message to him? We’ll see this ordeal through together (see… through= survive) *We’ll see through this ordeal together.
    17. 17. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF PHRASAL VERBS The reason for obligatory separation is to avoid the ambiguity with the inseparable phrasal verbs that have the same form but a different meaning: I’ll get through the lesson next week (finish) You have to see through his excuse (not deceived by)
    18. 18. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF PHRASAL VERBS DISTINGUISHING PHRASAL VERBS FROM VERB + PREPOSITION SEQUENCES Syntactic tests Only prepositions ( not particles ) allow: ADVERB INSERTION We turned quickly off the road. *We turned quickly off the light. PHRASE FRONTING Up the hill John ran. *Up the bill John ran. Wh- FRONTING About what does he write? *Up what does he write?
    19. 19. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) SYNTACTIC ANALYSIS OF PHRASAL VERBS Only particles in separable phrasal verbs ( not prepositions ) allow: PASSIVIZATION The light was turned off. *The road was turned off. VERB SUBSTITUTION The light was extinguished = the light was turned off. NP INSERTION We turned the light off. *We turned the road off.
    20. 20. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) MEANING OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS SEMANTIC CATEGORIES OF PHRASAL VERBS Literal Phrasal Verbs This is comprised of verb that appear to be a combination of a verb and a directional PrepP. They function syntactically like verb-particle constructions. Since the particle retains its prepositional meaning, the result is a phrasal verb whose meaning is fully compositional. Some examples of Literal Phrasal Verbs sit down, stand up, hand out, carry out, throw away, climb up, fall down, pass through
    21. 21. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) MEANING OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS Aspectual Phrasal Verbs The meaning is not as transparent but not idiomatic either. This category consists of verbs to which certain particles contribute consistent aspectual meaning. This can be subdivided depending on the semantic contribution of the particle. Inceptive ( to signal a beginning state) John took off. others: set out, start up
    22. 22. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) MEANING OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS Continuative ( to show that the action continues) -use of on and along with activity verbs Her speech ran on and on. Hurry along now. others: carry on, keep on, hang on, come along, play along - use of away with activity verbs with the nuance that the activity is “heedless” They danced the night away. others: work away, sleep away, fritter away
    23. 23. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) MEANING OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS -use of around with activity verbs to express absence of purpose They goofed around all afternoon. others: mess around, play around, travel around -use of through with activity verbs to mean from beginning to end She read through her lines in the play for the audition. others: think through, skim through, sing through
    24. 24. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) MEANING OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS Iterative (use of over with activity verbs to show repetition) He did it over and over again until he got it right. others: write over, think over, type over Completive ( uses particles up, out, off, and down to show that the action is complete) -turns an activity verb into an accomplishment He drank the milk up. others: burn down, mix up, wear out, turn off, blow out
    25. 25. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) MEANING OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS -reinforces the sense of goal orientation in an accomplishment verb He closed the suitcase up. others: wind out, fade out, cut off, clean up -adds durativity to a punctual achievement verb He found why they were missing others: check over, win over, catch up
    26. 26. FORM OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS O’ DOWD (1994) MEANING OF ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS Idiomatic Phrasal Verbs Many phrasal verbs are idiomatic, such as chew out, tune out, catch up, put off. It seems difficult, if not impossible, to figure out the meaning of the verb by combining the separate meaning of its part rather by understanding the underlying logic of the language. Thus, it would behoove teachers to guide ESL/EFL students through some idiomatic phrasal verbs by analyzing their components parts and then looking for a logical relatinoship within a specific context.

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