Contributions to educational thinking
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Contributions to educational thinking Presentation Transcript

  • 1. FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION
  • 2. OBJECTIVES AT THE END OF THE LESSON, STUDENTS MUST BE ABLE TO: 1) Develop understanding of the different concepts 2) Relate the concepts in the present-day situation. 3) Distinguish the similarities and differences among the different concepts. 4) Use the concepts to formulate a solution to the educational problem present today. 5) Analyze concepts by determining the problems of education today that can be catered by the concept 6) Come up with a probable solution to the different educational problems present in the society .
  • 3. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING
  • 4. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING INTRODUCTION  Vivekananda believed in the essential unity of man and God  He had a firm moorings in oriental culture, yet he had the broadness to welcome all that is worth borrowing from the west.(Ghosal, 2012)  He tried to unite Indian spirituality and western materialism  Vivekananda didn’t write a book on education but he contributed valuable thoughts on the subject of education that are relevant and viable today.
  • 5. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING DEFINING EDUCATION Swami describes religion as ‘the manifestation of the divinity already in man, also he defines education as the manifestation of the perfection already in man’  Manifestation Implies that something already exists and is waiting to expressed. The main focus in learning is to make the hidden ability of a learner manifest; knowledge is inherent in man, not acquired from external sources.  Already in man Refers to a human being’s potential, which is the range of the abilities and talents, known or unknown that is born with. Potential speaks of the possibility of awakening something that is lying dormant
  • 6. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING DEFINING EDUCATION  Perfection Refers to a Greek word ‘teleics’ translated as perfect, and suggest the idea of attaining a goal or an end;Perfection in education parlance is the goal of actualizing the highest human potential. He also defines education as:  Life-building,man-making,character-making,assimilation of ideas, and not a certain amount of information that is put into your brain and runs riot there, undigested all your life(1985;III:302)  An ability to think originally, to stand on your own feet mentally as well as practically, interacting with people succesfully.  Process by which character is formed , strenght of mind increased, and intellect sharpened, as a result of which one can stand on one own’s feet.
  • 7. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING DEFINING EDUCATION  Education is the discovery of the inner-self, self revelation. Education is development from within.  Vivekananda doesn’t believe in the system of education where the learners’ mind gets jam- packed with information without having any space for independent thinking. “If education is identical with information, the libraries are the greatest sages of the world… regrettably, we treat innocent learners as nothing better than vessel to be stuffed with carload of facts with little space for exploring their hidden potentials.” “If education is identical with information, the libraries are the greatest sages of the world… regrettably, we treat innocent learners as nothing better than vessel to be stuffed with carload of facts with little space for exploring their hidden potentials.”
  • 8. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING THE OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION Vivenkananda points out that the defect of the present day education is that it has no definite goal to pursue. The objective of education must be the manifestation of perfection in our lives, which is the very nature of our inner self. Specifically, the objectives of education according to Vivekananda are as follows:  To eliminate one’s ego, ignorance and all other false identification, which stand in the way.  To build up self-confidence and self-reliance based on balance human relationships
  • 9. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING THE OBJECTIVES OF EDUCATION  To strive towards character development characterized by the development of will-power, leading to courage, stamina and fearlessness.  To develop adaptability and able to meet the challenge of a changing society.  To lead to a feeling of brotherhood and the unity of mankind.  To serve God through serving the masses;work is worship.  To acquire the spirit of renunciation.
  • 10. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING THE METHOD OF TEACHING Consequently, these are the methods of teaching according to Vivekananda:  The task of the teacher is only to help the child to manifest its knowledge by removing the obstacles in its way.  The learner is just like a plant, one cannot do anything more than supplying it water, air, manure while it grows from its own nature. “ Knowledge is inherent in every man’s self;what man knows is only what he discovers by taking the cover off his own soul.” “ Knowledge is inherent in every man’s self;what man knows is only what he discovers by taking the cover off his own soul.”
  • 11. SWAMI VIVENKANANDA: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING THE METHOD OF TEACHING  The method of teaching must be problem-solving under the bias-free guidance of the teacher; the teacher’s role is just a facilitator, similar to the modern educationist’s Heuristic method.  The teacher has to come down to the level of the learner and give him a push upwards; thus there should be least intervention and the ideal teacher should consciously under-teach so that the learners get the ample scope for learning themselves. “No one can teach anybody. The teacher spoils everything by thinking that he is a teacher”(1993:56) “No one can teach anybody. The teacher spoils everything by thinking that he is a teacher”(1993:56)
  • 12. SWAMI VIVENKANANDA: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING ROLE OF THE TEACHER Vivekananda specifies the role of the teacher as follows:  The teacher should share with the student the conviction that they are both truly one in spirit-at the same time cultivating in the student a feeling of dignity and self-respect  The only true teacher is he who can immediately come down to the level of the student, and transfer his soul to the students’ soul and see through the student’s eyes and hear through his ears and understand through his mind. Such teacher can teach and none else.
  • 13. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING ROLE OF THE TEACHER  To make the mind grow by unfolding and unveiling the natural power inherent in man.  The children teach themselves, the duty of the teacher is to offer them opportunity and remove obstacles; that is, if we provide conducive environment the rest will happen by itself.  The teacher’s role is unimportant; it necessitates the teacher’s personal, constant contact with the students. Knowledge exists in the mind, like fire in a piece of flint. Friction brings it out. Knowledge exists in the mind, like fire in a piece of flint. Friction brings it out.
  • 14. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING ALL ROUND DEVELOPMENT  Although Vivekananda’s vision of education lays extreme emphasis on the training of the mind it does not undermine the importance of an all-round development of the human personality. Its aim is untrammeled development of the personality in all sphere-physical, mental and spiritual.  He believes that physical exercises must be part of the educational training since a sound mind resides in a sound body; the self cannot be realized by the physically weak.  The mind of the students has to be controlled and trained controlled through meditation, concentration and practice of ethical purity.
  • 15. SWAMI VIVEKANANDA: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING ALL ROUND DEVELOPMENT  He emphasizes that all success in any line of work is the result of concentration, which necessary implies detachment from other things, constitutes self-control for securing harmony of the impulses. “Education is the manifestation of the perfection already in man, therefore, a teacher’s job is only to remove obstruction from the pupil’s path… Education is not a mere accumulation of information but a comprehensive training for LIFE.” “Education is the manifestation of the perfection already in man, therefore, a teacher’s job is only to remove obstruction from the pupil’s path… Education is not a mere accumulation of information but a comprehensive training for LIFE.”
  • 16. SWAMI VIVENKANANDA: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING WOMEN’S EDUCATION  Vivekananda also stresses the importance of women’s education.  He didn’t preach two different scheme for educating men and women. His teaching was exactly the same without any discrimination. Nevertheless, his views on women call for a separate treatment.  The main objective of his scheme of female education is to make them strong, fear-less and conscious of their chastity and dignity. “Female illiteracy retards the progress of the society; it is impossible for a bird to fly on only one wing.” “Female illiteracy retards the progress of the society; it is impossible for a bird to fly on only one wing.”
  • 17. SWAMI VIVENKANANDA: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING WOMEN’S EDUCATION  Women need to get the right type of education, they will be able to solve their own problems in their own way.  Although men and women are equally competent in academic matters, yet women have a special aptitude and competence for studies related to home and family.  He recommends the introduction of subjects like sewing, nursing, domestic science, culinary art etc.
  • 18. SWAMI VIVENKANANDA: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION  Vivekananda strongly advocates “mother- tongue” so that it will reach everyone.  However, he also believes that it is necessary to learn English and Sanskrit. While English is important for mastering Science, Sanskrit leads one into the depths of our vast store of classics. “If language remain the privilege of a small class of people, social unity will march forward hampered.” “If language remain the privilege of a small class of people, social unity will march forward hampered.”
  • 19. SWAMI VIVENKANANDA: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING FIELDS OF STUDY  Swami believes that the cultural values of a country should for an integral part in the curriculum of education.  Education will not be complete without the teaching of aesthetics or fine arts.  Religion is the innermost core of education, by religion he does not mean any particular kind of it but its essential character, which is the realization of the divinity already in man.  To be religious for him means leading life in such a way that we manifest our higher nature, truth, goodness and beauty, in our thoughts, words and deeds.
  • 20. RABINDRANATH TAGORE: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING
  • 21. RABINDRANATH TAGORE: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING DEFINING EDUCATION  Education is basically a social process which involves how the students develop as an individual and in group relations.  Education is a process by which humans learn to be civilized  Education is inculcating social responsibility among students and developing a balanced child. “The highest education is that which does not merely give us information but makes our life in harmony with other existence.” “The highest education is that which does not merely give us information but makes our life in harmony with other existence.”
  • 22. RABINDRANATH TAGORE: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING METHODS OF TEACHING  He visualized nature as the real teacher but associated to the cultures of the wider world, predicated upon pleasurable learning and individualized to the personality of the child.  The aesthetic development of the senses was as important as the intellect.  He emphasize that students must be educated in a way that roots them in their own cultural history, yet enables them to personally identify with other races and cultures.  He recognized early childhood as the most critical time for developing empathy and ability to connect with one’s surroundings.
  • 23. RABINDRANATH TAGORE: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING METHODS OF TEACHING  Education should seek to develop sensitivity in a child through a direct experience of nature when his/her consciousness is at its freshest level.  To give proper education, teachers should teach them well right from the beginning when they are very young.  Tagore is against the heavy load of books and bags student have to carry to the school. “Teachers must not teach students to lose their world to find a bagful of information instead.” “Teachers must not teach students to lose their world to find a bagful of information instead.”
  • 24. RABINDRANATH TAGORE: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING METHODS OF TEACHING  He is in favor of easy education, that is education through music, art , literature and nature  Books must provide students with vivid pictures of their home and society.  Education must not lead students to enchanting falsehood.
  • 25. RABINDRANATH TAGORE: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER  The teacher’s role is to provide such environment, that students have confidence to express their own learning ability.  There is no need for any form of corporal punishment to discipline students because fear of making mistakes prevents an individual from being free to venture a new thought, to innovate, to ask questions and to be creative.  Discipline should be based on motivations like joy and pursuit of creative tasks.  A teacher must prepare students for the good fortune and character as well.
  • 26. RABINDRANATH TAGORE: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING FIELD STUDY  Tagore is in favor of teaching the things from nature a lot, even if others believe it to be a distraction.  The core of Tagore’s educational philosophy is learning from nature, music and life.  Freedom in the class can solve the problem of attendance, absence of invigilator, the problem of cheating, copying or any unfair means.
  • 27. MAHATMA GANDHI: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING
  • 28. MAHATMA GANDHI: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING DEFINING EDUCATION  Education for Gandhi must be holistic in nature. It leads to the development of all aspects of human personality, an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man, body, mind and spirit.  The highest development of the mind and the soul is possible under such a system of education but it has to be taught not merely mechanical as done today but scientifically.
  • 29. MAHATMA GANDHI: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING DEFINING EDUCATION  Education is knowing the why and the wherefore of every process.  Education is for the masses; awakening awareness among villagers; the rural people should be given the chance to have basic education.  Education must not exclude the knowledge of history and geography.  General information is best taught by word of mouth.  The signs of the alphabet may be taught later when pupils have learnt to distinguish wheat from chaff and when he has somewhat developed his/her tastes.
  • 30. MAHATMMA GANDHI: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING BASIC EDUCATIONAL CONCEPTS  He look upon education as an instrument of socio-economic progress, material advancement, political evolution and moral development for individual in society.  To him moral education does not mean education; he argues that education involves the development of mind and body rather it should be a plan to inculcate scientific spirit in them.  Education must help learners earn and learn, enable them to meet their basic needs, ensure them the use of local resources.  Basic education stresses the four-fold development in human personality, namely body, mind, heart, and spirit.
  • 31. MAHATMA GANDHI: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING BASIC EDUCATIONAL CONCEPTS  The ordinary system of education cared only for the mind and ignored the development of physical body and soul thus Gandhi developed a scheme of education known as NATIONAL PROGRAM IN BASIC EDUCATION (Nai Talim)  He acknowledge the importance of basic education and maintained that it should be free and compulsory to all children as it improves the quality of life.
  • 32. MAHATMA GANDHI: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING BASIC EDUCATIONAL CONCEPTS  Basic education links the children, whether of the cities or the villages, to all that is BEST; it develops both the body and the mind, and keeps the child rooted to the soil with the glorious vision of the future.  Gandhi emphasized the need for educating the child through manual work; not as a side activity, but as the prime means of intellectual training.  There are four components of basic education: craft, art, health and education.  An intellect is developed through the medium of socially useful labor.
  • 33. MAHATMA GANDHI: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING BASIC EDUCATIONAL CONCEPTS Ghandi’s Scheme of Basic Education  It is based on ancient culture and lays down the minimum education which every child is entitled to receive without distinction of race or creed.  It is intimately related to the basic needs and interests of the child and makes use of his innate potentialities for creative and productive work  It is closely associated with basic occupation of the community, the child hails from.
  • 34. MAHATMA GANDHI: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING BASIC EDUCATIONAL CONCEPTS  Basic education or Nai Talim is based on the fundamental principle of “learning by doing”  His concept of basic education can be classified as activity method or practical method.  Education is primarily a method of correlation of book learning, craft and life-situations.  The teacher-student relationship is very intimate.  The basic thrust of the curricula is to closely interlink the physical environment, social environment and craft work and the individual
  • 35. MAHATMA GANDHI: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING BASIC EDUCATIONAL CONCEPTS  He wanted education to be free from the narrow limitations of the formal classroom.  He envisages compulsory education for all boys and girls.  Education for him should cater the needs of the whole personality: head, heart and hand.  Respect for manual work is another important value that basic education develops in an individual.
  • 36. MAHATMA GANDHI: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING BASIC EDUCATIONAL CONCEPTS  Basic education is an education in which the dignity of manual labor is upheld; this is the training that would help the child to organize his own life.  Basic education aims primarily at helping the individual develop his ability of self-reliance in all respects.  The practice of basic education aims at the evolution of a society based on truth, non- violence, justice and equality.  This develops a positive attitude of mind and preaches “ simple living and high thinking.”
  • 37. MAHATMA GANDHI: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING BASIC EDUCATIONAL CONCEPTS  Mahatma Gandhi is against literary education with English as medium of instruction, which only produces white collar snobs without developing talent and expertise in production.  Self-reliant citizen with a well-balanced personality is one of the fundamental goals of basic education.  Physiologically, basic education provides education through a craft by maintaining a creative balance between intellectual development and practical activities.  Pedagogically, it is more effective than the passive academic education imbibed through books.
  • 38. MAHATMA GANDHI: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING BASIC EDUCATIONAL CONCEPTS  Sociologically, it can remove social conflicts and tensions in the society by inculcating a sense of dignity of labor. It can eradicate the social evil of untouchability.  Economically, it creates productive labor since the emphasis is on the job oriented education.  Gandhi advocates the creation of a balanced and harmonious social order in which the ethical values of truth and love and without discrimination of rich and poor.
  • 39. MAHATMA GANDHI: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING GANDHIAN ORIENTATION FOR MASS DEVELOPMENT  Mass development means an all round development of the people of a region.  Individual development and social progress are interdependent.  Gandhian education focuses on the attitudinal change of the masses.  Education for mass development is not only focus on sophisticated urban instruction but also rural orientation.
  • 40. MAHATMA GANDHI: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING GANDHIAN ORIENTATION FOR MASS DEVELOPMENT  Education for mass development aims at creating in the education a number of socially oriented values. First love and concern for society and they should identify themselves with the poor and the downtrodden in the country.  Schools and colleges must develop an individual with the willingness to spend a part of their time for social welfare of others.
  • 41. SRI AUROBINDO: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING
  • 42. SRI AUROBINDO: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING DEFINING EDUCATION  Education for him is idealistic; education must be based upon Vedantic philosophy of Uphanishads.  Education is not only acquiring information, but acquiring various kinds of information.  It is building the power of human mind and spirit.  Education must not only be faithful with the past but the developing soul, the future need, to the greatness of the coming self-creation and to the external spirit.
  • 43. SRI AUROBINDO: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING AIMS OF EDUCATION  He emphasized that education should be in accordance with the needs of our real modern life.  Education should create dynamic citizens so that they are able to meet the needs of modern complex life.  Physical development and holiness are the chief aims; he not only emphasized mere physical development, but physical purity also.  The aim of education is to train all the senses: hearing, speaking, listening, touching, smelling and tasting.
  • 44. SRI AUROBINDO: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING AIMS OF EDUCATION  To achieve mental development of the child; the enhancement of all mental faculties namely; memory, thinking, reasoning, imagination and discrimination.  To develop morality, because merely developing the mental is harmful to human process.  Heart of child should be so developed as to show extreme love, sympathy and consideration for all living things; this is real moral development.
  • 45. SRI AUROBINDO: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING AIMS OF EDUCATION  Development of conscience is another important aim of education that needs emphasis according to Aurobindo.  Education should develop the levels fully and harmoniously.  He emphasized that the foremost aim of education must be the promotion of spiritual development.
  • 46. SRI AUROBINDO: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING CURRICULUM TRANSACTION  Aurobindo prescribed free environment for the child to develop all his latent faculties to the maximum and suggested all those subjects and activities should posses elements of creativity and educational expression. Principle for Curriculum Development  Curriculum should be in such a way which child find as interesting.  It should include those entire subjects which promote mental and spiritual development.  It should motivate children to attain knowledge of the whole world.  It should contain creativity of life and constructive capacities.
  • 47. SRI AUROBINDO: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING CURRICULUM TRANSACTION Curriculum for Different Stages of Education  Mother tongue, English, French, Literature, National History, art, painting, General science, Social Studies should be taught at primary stage.  Mother tongue, English, French, Literature, Art, Chemistry, Physics, Botany, physiology, health education, social studies at secondary stage.  Indian and western Philosophy, history of civilization, English Literature, French, Sociology, psychology, history, chemistry, physics, botany at University Level.  Art, painting, photography, sculptural, drawing, type, cottage-industries, mechanical and electrical engineering, nursing at vocational level
  • 48. SRI AUROBINDO: SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATIONAL THINKING TEACHER-TAUGHT RELATIONSHIP Principles of Good Teaching  The first principle of true teaching is “nothing can be taught”; the teacher is not an instructor or task-master but a helper and a guide.  The role of the teacher is to suggest not to impose; he does not train the pupil’s mind, he only shows how to perfect the instrument of knowledge within.  A teacher does not impart knowledge; he shows him how to acquire knowledge for himself.  The teacher does not call forth the knowledge that is within; he only shows students where it lies and how it can be habituated to rise to the surface.
  • 49. RESOURCES/REFERENCES Jayanta, Mete, Swami-Viveknanda, Iternational: Some Reflections on Education, Journal of Multidisciplinary Educational Research, Volume 1, Issue 3, August 2012 Ajit, Mondal,Ghandi on Education and the Masses, A Research Journal, University of Kalyani 2012 Vandama, Tripathi, Rabindranath Tagore’s Views on Education, A Research Journal, Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2013 Singh, Deepshika, Aurobindo’s Contributions on Educational Thinking, A Research Journal, April 9, 2013