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The powerpoint presentation for the course on citation analysis we had this morning

The powerpoint presentation for the course on citation analysis we had this morning

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Citation analysis for research evaluation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Citation analysis for research evaluation Wouter Gerritsma, Marc Loman, Marianne Renkema Information Specialists, Wageningen UR Library
  • 2. Programme
    • Introduction
    • Citation data
    • Benchmarking
    • Journal quality
    • Ranking University
    • On publishing
  • 3. Why research evaluation/citation analysis?
    • Research assement of graduate schools (5 year cycle, stipulated by the VSNU)
      • Other research groups are reviewed in a similar way
      • Benchmarking becomes more important
    • Grant applications
    • Job positions
    • In the press
    Sooner of later, you will be subjected to such an analysis
  • 4. Objective of this course
    • How are citation analyses performed, and what are their shortcomings or weaknesses?
    • What can you do to enhance your results
  • 5. Citation data
  • 6. Citation data
    • Paid subscription (wide coverage)
      • Web of Science
      • Scopus
    • Free systems broad coverage
      • Google Scholar
    • Paid subscription (specialized coverage)
      • SciFinder
      • Psychindex
    • Free systems (specialized coverage)
      • Citeseer
      • Citebase
  • 7. Web of Science
    • Thomson Scientific
      • Founder Eugene Garfield
      • Formerly: Institute of Scientific Information (ISI)
    • Indexes articles of about 8700 journals, standard bibliographic information + reference lists
    • Sell the same data in various databases to libraries and others (CC, WoS, JCR, ESI)
    • They (still) have monopoly position for citation data; they are the Golden Standard
  • 8. CC, WoS, JCR, ESI
    • CC: Current Contents, weekly updated bibliographic database covering the top of Sciences (no citation data)
    • WoS: Web of Science, weekly updated database, that includes references and citation data as well (slower than CC)
    • JCR: Journal Citation Report, yearly analysis of WoS data, presenting perfomance measures for journals.
    • ESI, Essential Science Indicators, bimonthly updated analytical database giving performance measures for Countries, Institutes, Scientists and Journals next to research fronts, hot papers and baselines.
  • 9. Database Coverage WoS/JCR/CC Source: Moed (2005) Mathematics / Engineering / Economics Other social sciences related to medicine & health Physics & Astronomy Psychology & psychiatry Clinical medicine Humanities Biological Sciences related to plants & animals Biological Sciences related to humans Other Social Sciences Applied physics & Chemistry Molecular biology & Biochemistry Moderate Good Excellent
  • 10. Scopus
    • (New) product of Elsevier Science
    • Covers 15,000 serials
      • Not all of them peer reviewed
    • Coverage of citation data 1996 ->
  • 11. Google Scholar
    • Free database
    • Some concerns about data quality
    • Unknown source base
    • Very labour intensive to extract data
  • 12. Why Scopus doesn't add substantially to the number of citations found in WoS Source: http://www.wowter.nl/blog/2007/01/why-scopus-doesnt-add-substantially-to.html
  • 13. Searching WoS
    • General search: Searches bibliographic data: Title, Abstract, keywords, Authors, Addresses
      • Not all citations are found due to errors in citing, indexing etc.
    • Cited reference search: searches in the references of source data
      • Not all articles are found. Non cited articles are missing
  • 14.  
  • 15. Exercises !
  • 16. Benchmarking
  • 17. Benchmarking
    • Essential Science Indicators (ESI)
    • h-index
  • 18. How do we compare numbers?
    • Scientist Z. Math has a publication from 1996 with 17 citations
    • Scientist M. Biology has a publication from 2003 with 24 citations
  • 19. Baseline mathematics
  • 20. Baseline Molecular Biology
  • 21. Essential Science Indicators (ESI)
    • Analytical database of SCI, covering 10 years + current year building
    • Comparison between Countries, Institutes, Scientists and Journals
    • Hot papers / Highly cited papers
    • Research fronts
    • Baselines
  • 22. Publication age : world averages citations (1)
  • 23. In practice
  • 24. Relative impact of a research institute 1,84 2,26 2,08 2,06 All subfields 1,73 0.57 1,70 Microbiology 1,11 1,81 1,73 Clinical medicine 1,76 1,76 Chemistry 1,09 0,44 1,55 0,91 Biology & biochemistry 3,60 3,87 3,86 3,82 Agricultural Sciences Group 3 Group 2 Group 1 All groups Subfield
  • 25. Evaluation of candidates 0 3 0,83 0,58 0,75 346 57 e 3 16 1,94 1,69 1,86 1886 88 d 0 8 0,9 1,39 1,15 972 93 c 1 17 1,95 1,84 1,93 498 65 b 2 4 1,52 1,76 1,64 1565 80 a #papers top 1% #papers top 10% RI 1999-2003 RI 1994-1998 Relatieve Impact #Citations # Papers 1994-2003 Author
  • 26. h-index
    • A scientist has index h if h of his/her Np papers have at least h citations each, and the other (Np − h) paper have no more than h citations each.
  • 27. h-index
    • h-index tries to find a balance between productivity and citation impact
    • Only published in 2005, has made a substantial impact in the world of bibliometrics.
    • Implemented in Spires, WoS (and soon) in Scopus
    • Applicable to authors, journals, research groups, compounds, subjects etc …
  • 28. Exercises !
  • 29. Journal quality
  • 30. Journal quality
    • JCR (Impact factors)
    • ESI
    • h-index
        • Or pagerank ?
  • 31. Warning !
    • It has often been attempted to use Journal Impact factors in some or other way to judge the performance of a group or individual scientists.
    This is proven very bad practice!
  • 32. Impact factor
    • Performance measure for journals
      • “… it is also used for assessment of the quality of individual papers, scientists and departments. For the latter a scientific basis is lacking, as we will demonstrate in this contribution” (Opthof, 1997)
      • Opthof, T. (1997). Sense and nonsense about the impact factor. Cardiovascular Research 33 (1): 1-7. http:// dx.doi.org /10.1016/S0008-6363(96)00215-5
  • 33. Journal Citation Reports (JCR)
    • Reports 3 measures
    • Impact factor
    • Immediacy Index
    • Cited half life
    Cited half-life 50% citations 50% citations 3 1 Immediacy index Window Impact Factor Window
  • 34. Definition of Impact factor
    • The impact factor of a journal J in year T is defined as follows:
    • “ The number of citations received in year T by all documents published in J in the years T-1 and T-2”
    • ÷
    • “ The number of citable documents published in J in the years T-1 and T-2”
  • 35. Citable items
    • Cited items (nominator) include:
      • Research articles, review arrrticles, notes, letters, editorials, news items, corrections and meeting abstracts
    • Citable items (by definition)
      • Articles, notes and reviews
  • 36. Lancet (2002) JCR Like IF = (b)/(a) = 10.2 2.4 15,670(b) 6,443 Total 0.5 2,564 4,899 Other types 8.5 13,106 1,544 (a) Articles/reviews (citable items) Cites/Doc Cites No. Docs Type of document
  • 37. 50 % of articles generate 90% of all cites Seglen, P. O. (1997). Why the impact factor of journals should not be used for evaluating research. BMJ 314 (7079): 497-502. http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/314/7079/497
  • 38. Some other points
    • IF measures citation impact of articles in 2 nd & 3 rd year after publication. Therefore biased towards journals showing rapid maturing.
    • Reference practices, particularly the number of references per article and their age distribution, vary considerably among subfields. IF between subfields can not be compared .
  • 39. When do you make use of IF
    • Answering the questions where do you want to publish your manuscript.
    • Other questions, to be asked
      • Reach colleagues ?
      • In which article indexes included?
      • Open access?
  • 40. Exercises !
  • 41. Ranking universities
    • Popular lists
      • Shanghai Jiao Tong University
      • THES
      • Newsweek
    • ISIhighly cited
    • ESI
    • Other reports
      • EC, NOWT, OECD, USA
  • 42. Winding down
  • 43.  
  • 44.  
  • 45.  
  • 46.  
  • 47.  
  • 48.  
  • 49. What’s in a name?
    • A.G.J. Voragen or A. Voragen or F. Voragen or F.A.G.J. Voragen or F.G.J. Voragen