Role Descriptions for ICME

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Descriptions of the National Security Council roles for the 2012 International Crisis Management Exercise.

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Role Descriptions for ICME

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL CRISIS MANAGEMENT EXERCISE 2012 NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL ROLE DESCRIPTIONS National Security Council description: http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/nsc/Role descriptions gleaned from numerous web sources. These role descriptions have not been verified by valid sources and are intended to be for educational purposes only, in order to enhance this exercise.
  2. 2. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security and foreignpolicy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inception under PresidentTruman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on national security and foreign policies.The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating these policies among various governmentagencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the Vice President,the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant to the President forNational Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory military advisor to the Council, andthe Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff to the President, Counsel to thePresident, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited to attend any NSC meeting. TheAttorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget are invited to attend meetings pertainingto their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments and agencies, as well as other senior officials, areinvited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496; U.S.C. 402),amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.). Later in 1949, aspart of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of the President.AMBASSADOR TO NATOThe United States Permanent Representative to NATO (commonly called the US Ambassador to NATO) is theofficial representative of the United States to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The Representative has the rankof full ambassador and is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The full official title of theRepresentative is “United States Permanent Representative on the Council of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization,with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary”. The current U.S. Ambassador to NATO isIvo Daalder. He was appointed United States Permanent Representative on the Council of the North Atlantic TreatyOrganization, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, by President BarackObama in May 2009. He was a Director for European Affairs on President Clintons National Security Council stafffrom 1995 to 1997, where he was responsible for coordinating U.S. policy toward Bosnia.The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): Formed in 1949 with the signing of the Washington Treaty,NATO is a security alliance of 28 countries from North America and Europe. NATOs fundamental goal is to safeguardthe Allies freedom and security by political and military means. As we approach the celebration of the Alliances60th anniversary at the NATO Summit in Strasbourg-Kehl April 2009, NATO remains the principal securityinstrument of the transatlantic community and expression of its common democratic values. It is the practical meansthrough which the security of North America and Europe are permanently tied together. NATO enlargement hasfurthered the U.S. goal of a Europe whole, free, and at peace.Article 5 of the Washington Treaty -- that an attack against one Ally is an attack against all -- is at the core of theAlliance, a promise of collective defense. Article 4 of the treaty ensures consultations among Allies on securitymatters of common interest, which after 60 years have expanded from a narrowly defined Soviet threat to the criticalmission in Afghanistan, as well as peacekeeping in Kosovo and new threats to security such as cyber attacks, andglobal threats such as terrorism and piracy that affect the Alliance and its global network of partners.In addition to its traditional role in the territorial defense of Allied nations, NATO leads the UN-mandatedInternational Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan and has ongoing missions in the Western Balkans, theMediterranean, and Iraq; it also conducts extensive training exercises and offers security support to partners aroundthe globe, including the European Union in particular but also the United Nations and the African Union.
  3. 3. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security andforeign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inception underPresident Truman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on national security andforeign policies. The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating these policies amongvarious government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the VicePresident, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant to thePresident for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory military advisorto the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff to thePresident, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited to attendany NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget are invited toattend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments and agencies, aswell as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496; U.S.C.402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.). Later in1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of the President.The Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs (NEA), headed by Assistant Secretary Jeffrey Feltman, deals with U.S. foreignAssistant Secretary of the Bureau of Near Eastern Affairspolicy and U.S. diplomatic relations with Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon,Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestinian Territories, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, andYemen. Regional policy issues that NEA handles include Iraq, Middle East peace, terrorism and weapons of massdestruction, and political and economic reform.The Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs is a key diplomatic office within the Department of State. According to theBureau, it promotes U.S political and economic interests throughout the region. Instability in the Middle Eastdirectly affects U.S political and economic interests; therefore, the promotion of peace and democracy is a keyinitiative for the NEA. This initiative is seen throughout NEA’s objectives including: helping to rebuild andpromote stability in Iraq, helping to resolve the Palestinian and Israeli conflict, counterterrorism and supportingefforts for political and economic reform in the region. NEA works with the Global Coalition Against Terrorism,the US Agency for International Development, and the Middle East Partnership Initiative.
  4. 4. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security andforeign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inceptionunder President Truman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on nationalsecurity and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating thesepolicies among various government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the VicePresident, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant tothe President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory militaryadvisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff tothe President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited toattend any NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget areinvited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments andagencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496;U.S.C. 402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.).Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of thePresident.ASSISTANT TO THE PRESIDENT FOR ECONOMIC POLICYGene B. Sperling is Director of the National Economic Council and Assistant to the President for EconomicPolicy. He was appointed by President Barack Obama on January 7, 2011.The National Economic Council (NEC) was established in 1993 to advise the President on U.S. and globaleconomic policy. It resides within the Office of Policy Development and is part of the Executive Office of thePresident. By Executive Order, the NEC has four principal functions: to coordinate policy-making for domesticand international economic issues, to coordinate economic policy advice for the President, to ensure thatpolicy decisions and programs are consistent with the Presidents economic goals, and to monitorimplementation of the Presidents economic policy agenda.The NEC is comprised of numerous department and agency heads within the administration, whose policyjurisdictions impact the nations economy. The NEC Director works in conjunction with these officials tocoordinate and implement the Presidents economic policy objectives. The Director is supported by a staff ofpolicy specialists in various fields including: agriculture, commerce, energy, financial markets, fiscal policy,healthcare, labor, and Social Security.
  5. 5. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security andforeign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inceptionunder President Truman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on nationalsecurity and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating thesepolicies among various government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the VicePresident, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant tothe President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory militaryadvisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff tothe President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited toattend any NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget areinvited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments andagencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496;U.S.C. 402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.).Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of thePresident.Assistant to the President for Legislative Affairs/ Director Office of Legislative Affair (Rob Nabors)The Director of Congressional and Legislative Affairs discharges the duties of the Secretary with the authorityand direct responsibility for programs associated with legislative and congressional liaison activities. Heserves as the Departments principal liaison with Congressional Committees and individual Members ofCongress, and as the Departments congressional and legislative liaison with the White House. Hecommunicates the policies of the Department and the viewpoints of the Secretary regarding Congressionalissues, and programs and matters of interest to the Department as requested by Members of Congress. Inaddition, he supervises the coordination, unification, and preparation of the Departments legislativeprograms, and its presentation to the Office of Management and Budget, and maintains a general oversightrole in relation to congressional and legislative activities of the various bureaus and offices.The Legislative Counsel is responsible for clearance of materials within the Department and through theOffice of Management and Budget. The Legislative Counsel reviews legislative documents prepared byDepartmental bureaus and offices, and monitors the preparation of coordinated reports. Also, he coordinatesDepartmental representation at Congressional hearings and ensures the presentation of testimony andreports to Congress. He is responsible for establishing and maintaining contacts on legislative matters withthe Congress and with other Federal agencies.
  6. 6. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security andforeign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inceptionunder President Truman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on nationalsecurity and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating thesepolicies among various government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the VicePresident, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant tothe President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory militaryadvisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff tothe President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited toattend any NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget areinvited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments andagencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496;U.S.C. 402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.).Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of thePresident.ATTORNEY GENERALThe United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. § 503)concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. TheAttorney General is considered to be the chief lawyer of the U.S. government. The Attorney General serves asa member of the Presidents Cabinet, but is the only cabinet department head who is not given the titleSecretary, besides the now independent Postmaster General.The Attorney General is nominated by the President of the United States and takes office after confirmationby the United States Senate. He or she serves at the pleasure of the President and can be removed by thePresident at any time; the Attorney General is also subject to impeachment by the House of Representativesand trial in the Senate for "treason, bribery, and other high crimes and misdemeanors."The office of Attorney General was established by Congress by the Judiciary Act of 1789. The original duties ofthis officer were "to prosecute and conduct all suits in the Supreme Court in which the United States shall beconcerned, and to give his advice and opinion upon questions of law when required by the President of theUnited States, or when requested by the heads of any of the departments." Only in 1870 was the Departmentof Justice established to support the Attorney General in the discharge of his responsibilities.As of February 3, 2009, the current Attorney General is Eric Holder. He is the 82nd Attorney General of theUnited States and the first African-American to hold the position.
  7. 7. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security andforeign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inception underPresident Truman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on national security andforeign policies. The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating these policies amongvarious government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the VicePresident, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant tothe President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory militaryadvisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff tothe President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited toattend any NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget areinvited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments andagencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496; U.S.C.402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.). Later in1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of the President.CHAIRMAN OF THE JOINT CHIEFS OF STAFFThe Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) is by law the highest ranking military officer in the United Statesarmed forces, and the principal military adviser to the President of the United States, the National SecurityCouncil, and the Secretary of Defense. The Chairman outranks all respective heads of each service branch butdoes not have operational command authority over them or their service branches. He leads the meetings andcoordinates the efforts of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), comprising the Chairman, the Vice Chairman of the JointChiefs of Staff, the Chiefs of Staff of the United States Army and United States Air Force, the Chief of NavalOperations, and the Commandant of the Marine Corps. The Joint Chiefs of Staff have offices in The Pentagon.Although the office of Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is considered very important and highly prestigious,neither the Chairman, the Vice Chairman, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff as a body have any command authorityover combatant forces. The Goldwater-Nichols Act places the chain of command from the President to theSecretary of Defense directly to the commanders of the Unified Combatant Commands. However the chiefs dohave authority over personnel assignments and oversight over resources and personnel allocated to thecombatant commands within their respective services. The Chairman may also transmit communications to thecombatant commanders from the President and Secretary of Defense as well as allocate additional funding tothe combatant commanders if necessary. He also performs all other functions prescribed under 10 U.S.C. § 153or allocates those duties and responsibilities to other officers in the joint staff under his name.The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is assisted by the Director of the Joint Staff, a three-star officer whoassists the Chairman with the management of the Joint Staff, an organization composed of approximately equalnumbers of officers contributed by the Army, the Navy and Marine Corps, and the Air Force, who have beenassigned to assist the Chairman with the unified strategic direction, operation, and integration of the combatantland, naval, and air forces.General Martin Dempsey is the current Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest-ranking officer in theU.S. Armed Forces and the Presidents principal military advisor. Prior to this duty, General Dempsey served asthe 37th Chief of Staff of the Army, and commanding general, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command fromDecember 8, 2008-April 11, 2011.
  8. 8. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security andforeign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inceptionunder President Truman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on nationalsecurity and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating thesepolicies among various government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the VicePresident, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant tothe President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory militaryadvisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff tothe President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited toattend any NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget areinvited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments andagencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496;U.S.C. 402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.).Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of thePresident.CHIEF OF STAFF TO THE PRESIDENTEvery day, the President of the United States is faced with scores of decisions, each with importantconsequences for Americas future. To provide the President with the support that he needs to governeffectively, the Executive Office of the President (EOP) was created in 1939 by President Franklin D.Roosevelt. The EOP has responsibility for tasks ranging from communicating the Presidents message to theAmerican people to promoting our trade interests abroad. The EOP, overseen by the White House Chief ofStaff, has traditionally been home to many of the Presidents closest advisers.It is the chief of staff who helps the president plan his schedule and decide where to focus his attention to bemost effective in his leadership. The position was first created by Dwight Eisenhower, but he didn’t call itchief of staff because he said “politicians think it sounds too military.” However, the duties of the chief of staffhave varied from one administration to the next. Some chiefs of staff are quite independent and help setpolicy and deal with political issues. On the other end, neither Presidents John F. Kennedy nor LyndonJohnson used a chief of staff, but the position made a comeback in Richard Nixon’s White House. Everypresident since Nixon has relied on the chief of staff, though Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter both tried to getby without one before their duties became overwhelming.Mr. William Daley is the Chief of Staff to President Barack Obama. Previously, Mr. Daley served as Chairman ofthe Midwest Region and head of the Office of Corporate Responsibility for JP Morgan Chase. Mr. Daley alsoserved as President of SBC Communications from 2001 – 2004.
  9. 9. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security andforeign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inceptionunder President Truman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on nationalsecurity and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating thesepolicies among various government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the VicePresident, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant tothe President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory militaryadvisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff tothe President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited toattend any NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget areinvited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments andagencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496;U.S.C. 402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.).Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of thePresident.COUNSEL TO THE PRESIDENTThe Office of Counsel to the President was created in 1943, and is responsible for advising on all legal aspectsof policy questions, legal issues arising in connection with the Presidents decision to sign or veto legislation,ethical questions, financial disclosures, and conflicts of interest during employment and post employment.The Counsels Office also helps define the line between official and political activities, oversees executiveappointments and judicial selection, handles Presidential pardons, reviews legislation and Presidentialstatements, and handles lawsuits against the President in his role as President, as well as serving as the WhiteHouse contact for the Department of Justice.Although the White House Counsel offers legal advice to the President, the Counsel does so in the Presidentsofficial capacity, and does not serve as the Presidents personal attorney.Kathryn Ruemmler is the current Counsel to the President.
  10. 10. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security andforeign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inceptionunder President Truman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on nationalsecurity and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating thesepolicies among various government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the VicePresident, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant tothe President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory militaryadvisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff tothe President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited toattend any NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget areinvited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments andagencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496;U.S.C. 402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.).Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of thePresident.DEPUTY NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISORThe Deputy National Security Advisor is a member of the Executive Office of the President of the UnitedStates, serving as deputy to the Presidents National Security Advisor.Among other responsibilities, the Deputy National Security Advisor serves as Executive Secretary to theNational Security Council Principals Committee, and as Chairman of the National Security Council DeputiesCommittee.Denis McDonough is currently serving as Deputy National Security Advisor.
  11. 11. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security andforeign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inceptionunder President Truman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on nationalsecurity and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating thesepolicies among various government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the VicePresident, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant tothe President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory militaryadvisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff tothe President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited toattend any NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget areinvited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments andagencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496;U.S.C. 402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.).Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of thePresident.DIRECTOR OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCEThe Director of National Intelligence (DNI), is the United States government official subject to the authority,direction and control of the President, who is responsible under the Intelligence Reform and TerrorismPrevention Act of 2004 for: Serving as the principal adviser to the President, the National Security Council, and the Homeland Security Council for intelligence matters related to the national security; • Serving as the head of the sixteen-member Intelligence Community; and Overseeing and directing the National Intelligence Program. • •Under 50 U.S.C. § 403-3a, it is desired that either the Director or the Principal Deputy Director of NationalIntelligence be an active duty commissioned officer in the armed forces or have training or experience inmilitary intelligence activities and requirements. No more than one officer can hold either position during thesame term. The statute does not specifically state what rank the commissioned officer will hold during histenure in either position, but trends lean towards an officer holding the rank of a four-star general or admiral.The current DNI is retired Air Force lieutenant general, James R. Clapper.
  12. 12. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security andforeign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inceptionunder President Truman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on nationalsecurity and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating thesepolicies among various government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the VicePresident, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant tothe President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory militaryadvisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff tothe President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited toattend any NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget areinvited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments andagencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496;U.S.C. 402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.).Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of thePresident.DIRECTOR OF THE CIAThe Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (D/CIA) serves as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency,which is part of the United States Intelligence Community. The Director reports to the Director of NationalIntelligence (DNI). The Director is assisted by the Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. TheDirector is nominated by the President, with the concurring or nonconcurring recommendation from theDirector of National Intelligence, and must be confirmed by a majority vote of the Senate. There is nostatutory provision which specifically excludes active military personnel from being nominated for theposition.Before April 21, 2005, the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) headed both the Intelligence Community andthe Central Intelligence Agency. In addition, DCI served as an advisor to the President of the United States onintelligence matters and was the statutory intelligence advisor to the National Security Council (NSC). OnApril 21, 2005, the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) took on the roles as head of the IntelligenceCommunity and principal intelligence advisor to the President and the NSC.The post of DCI was established in 1946 by President Harry Truman; it thus predates the establishment of theCentral Intelligence Agency (created by the National Security Act of 1947). After the end of World War II, theOffice of Strategic Services was dismantled and its functions were split between the Departments of State andWar (now Defense). President Truman soon recognized the inefficiency of this arrangement and created theCentral Intelligence Group, which could be considered a smaller precursor to the National Security Council.The following year the National Security Act of 1947 created the Central Intelligence Agency and NationalSecurity Council, while formally defining the duties of the Director of Central Intelligence. The duties of theDCI had been further defined over the years by tradition, congressional acts, and Executive Orders.
  13. 13. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security andforeign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inceptionunder President Truman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on nationalsecurity and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating thesepolicies among various government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the VicePresident, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant tothe President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory militaryadvisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff tothe President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited toattend any NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget areinvited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments andagencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496;U.S.C. 402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.).Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of thePresident.NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISORThe Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, commonly referred to as the National SecurityAdvisor (abbreviated NSA, or sometimes APNSA or ANSA to avoid confusion with the abbreviation of theNational Security Agency), serves as the chief adviser to the President of the United States on nationalsecurity issues. This person serves on the National Security Council within the Executive Office of thePresident. The National Security Advisors office is located in the West Wing of the White House. He or she issupported by a staff that produces research, briefings, and intelligence for the NSA to review and present tothe National Security Council and the President of the United States.The National Security Advisor is appointed by the President without confirmation by the United StatesSenate. As such, they are not connected to the bureaucracies of the Departments of State and Defense, and aretherefore able to offer independent advice. The power and role of the National Security Advisor varies fromadministration to administration.In times of crisis, the National Security Advisor operates from the White House Situation Room, updating thePresident on the latest events of a crisis.The current office holder is Thomas Donilon who worked as a member of President Barack Obama’stransition team, where he vetted potential State Department officials. Since then, he has become a keyNational Security Council aide.
  14. 14. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security andforeign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inceptionunder President Truman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on nationalsecurity and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating thesepolicies among various government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the VicePresident, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant tothe President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory militaryadvisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff tothe President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited toattend any NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget areinvited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments andagencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496;U.S.C. 402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.).Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of thePresident.PRESIDENT’S PRESS SECRETARYThe White House Press Secretary is a senior White House official whose primary responsibility is to act asspokesperson for the government administration. Since January 27, 2011, Jay Carney is the Press Secretary toU.S. President Barack Obama.The Press Secretary is responsible for collecting information about actions and events within the presidentsadministration and around the world, and interacting with the media, generally in a daily press briefing. Theinformation includes items such as a summary of the Presidents schedule for the day, whom the presidenthas seen, or had communication and the official position of the administration on the news of the day.The Press Secretary traditionally also fields questions from the White House press corps in briefings andpress conferences, which are generally televised, and "press gaggles", which are on-the-record briefingswithout video recording, although transcripts are usually made available.
  15. 15. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security andforeign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inceptionunder President Truman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on nationalsecurity and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating thesepolicies among various government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the VicePresident, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant tothe President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory militaryadvisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff tothe President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited toattend any NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget areinvited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments andagencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496;U.S.C. 402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.).Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of thePresident.SECRETARY OF DEFENSEThe United States Secretary of Defense (SecDef) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD),concerned with the armed services and military matters. This position roughly corresponds to Minister ofdefense in other countries. The role of the Secretary of Defense is to be the principal defense policy advisor tothe President and is responsible for the formulation of general defense policy related to all matters of directand primary concern to the DoD, and for the execution of approved policy. The Secretary is appointed by thePresident with the approval of the Senate, and is a member of the Cabinet. By statute (10 U.S.C. § 113) thesecretary must be a civilian who has not served in the active component of the armed forces for at least sevenyears. The Secretary of Defense is sixth in the presidential line of succession.The incumbent Secretary of Defense is Leon E. Panetta. Mr. Panetta previously served as the Director of theCentral Intelligence Agency. Mr. Panetta also served as President Clinton’s White House Chief of Staff from1994-1997.
  16. 16. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security andforeign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inceptionunder President Truman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on nationalsecurity and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating thesepolicies among various government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the VicePresident, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant tothe President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory militaryadvisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff tothe President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited toattend any NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget areinvited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments andagencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496;U.S.C. 402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.).Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of thePresident.SECRETARY OF HOMELAND SECURITYThe United States Secretary of Homeland Security is the head of the United States Department of HomelandSecurity, the body concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. TheSecretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. The position was created by the Homeland Security Actfollowing the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The new department consisted primarily ofcomponents transferred from other cabinet departments because of their role in homeland security, such asthe Coast Guard, Federal Protective Service, Border Patrol, Secret Service, and the Federal EmergencyManagement Agency (FEMA). It did not, however, include the FBI or the CIA.On January 20, 2009, the Senate confirmed Barack Obamas appointment of Janet Napolitano to be the thirdSecretary of Homeland Security. To assure a smooth transition however, Michael Chertoff was asked not toresign until the morning of January 21, 2009.Traditionally, the order of the presidential line of succession is determined (after the Vice President, Speakerof the House, and President pro tempore of the Senate) by the order of the creation of the cabinet positions,and is mandated as such under 3 U.S.C. § 19.On March 9, 2006, President Bush signed H.R. 3199 as Pub.L. 109-177, which renewed the Patriot Act andamended the Presidential Succession Act to include the Secretary of Homeland Security in the line ofsuccession after the Secretary of Veterans Affairs (§ 503). In the 109th Congress, legislation was introducedto place the Secretary of Homeland Security into the line of succession after the Attorney General but that billexpired at the end of the 109th Congress and has not been re-introduced.
  17. 17. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security andforeign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inceptionunder President Truman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on nationalsecurity and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating thesepolicies among various government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the VicePresident, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant tothe President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory militaryadvisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff tothe President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited toattend any NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget areinvited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments andagencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496;U.S.C. 402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.).Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of thePresident.SECRETARY OF STATEThe United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned withforeign affairs. The Secretary is a member of the Cabinet and the highest-ranking cabinet secretary both inline of succession and order of precedence. The current Secretary of State selected by President of the UnitedStates Barack Obama is Hillary Rodham Clinton. The office of the Secretary of State is one of the most high-profile positions in U.S. government. Three of the last four Secretaries of State have been women.Most of the non-original domestic functions of the Department of State have been transferred to otheragencies. Those that remain include storage and use of the Great Seal of the United States, performance ofprotocol functions for the White House, drafting of proclamations, and replies to inquiries. In accordance withthe United States Constitution, the Secretary performs such duties as the President requires. These includenegotiating with foreign representatives and instructing U.S. embassies or consulates abroad. The Secretaryalso serves as a principal adviser to the President in the determination of U.S. foreign policy and, in recentdecades, has become responsible for overall direction, coordination, and supervision of interdepartmentalactivities of the U.S. Government overseas, excepting certain military activities.As the highest-ranking member of the cabinet, the Secretary of State is fourth in line to succeed thePresidency, coming after the Vice President, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, and the Presidentpro tempore of the Senate. (See United States presidential line of succession.)Federal law (3 U.S.C. § 20) provides that a presidential resignation must be accomplished by writtencommunication from the President to the office of the Secretary of State. This has occurred once, whenPresident Richard Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974 via a letter to Secretary of State Henry Kissinger.When there is a vacancy in the office of Secretary of State, it is exercised by another member of the cabinet, aswas common in earlier history, or, in more recent times, by a subaltern official of the State Department untilthe President appoints and the United States Senate confirms a new Secretary.
  18. 18. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security and foreignpolicy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inception under PresidentTruman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on national security and foreign policies.The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating these policies among various governmentagencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the Vice President,the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant to the President forNational Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory military advisor to the Council,and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff to the President, Counsel tothe President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited to attend any NSC meeting. TheAttorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget are invited to attend meetingspertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments and agencies, as well as other seniorofficials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496; U.S.C.402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.). Later in1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of the President.SECRETARY OF THE TREASURYThe United States of America Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury,concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. Thisposition in the Federal Government of the United States is analogous to the finance ministers of other countries.Most of the Departments law enforcement agencies such as the ATF, Customs Service, and Secret Service werereassigned to other Departments in 2003 in conjunction with the creation of the Department of Homeland Security.The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet and, since the Clinton years, has sat on the United StatesNational Security Council. The Secretary of the Treasury is fifth in the United States presidential line of succession.From the U.S. Department of the Treasury website:"The Secretary of the Treasury is the principal economic advisor to the President and plays a critical role in policy-making by bringing an economic and government financial policy perspective to issues facing the government. TheSecretary is responsible for formulating and recommending domestic and international financial, economic, and taxpolicy, participating in the formulation of broad fiscal policies that have general significance for the economy, andmanaging the public debt. The Secretary oversees the activities of the Department in carrying out its major lawenforcement responsibilities; in serving as the financial agent for the United States Government; and inmanufacturing coins and currency."The Chief Financial Officer of the government, the Secretary serves as Chairman Pro Tempore of the PresidentsEconomic Policy Council, Chairman of the Boards and Managing Trustee of the Social Security and Medicare TrustFunds, and as U.S. Governor of the International Monetary Fund, the International Bank for Reconstruction andDevelopment, the Inter-American Development Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and the European Bank forReconstruction and Development."The Secretary along with the Treasurer must sign Federal Reserve notes before they can become legal tender. TheSecretary also manages the United States Emergency Economic Stabilization fund.The current Secretary of the Treasury is Timothy Geithner.
  19. 19. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security andforeign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inceptionunder President Truman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on nationalsecurity and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating thesepolicies among various government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the VicePresident, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant tothe President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory militaryadvisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff tothe President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited toattend any NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget areinvited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments andagencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496;U.S.C. 402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.).Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of thePresident.US AMBASSADOR TO THE AFRICAN UNIONAmbassadors are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. As embassies fall within theDepartment of State, Ambassadors answer to the Secretary of State. As with Cabinet members and otherPresidential appointments in the Executive Branch, it is customary for new Presidents to replace mostAmbassadors.The African Union (abbreviated AU in English, and UA in its other official languages) is an intergovernmentalorganisation consisting of 53 African states. Established on 9 July 2002, the AU was formed as a successor tothe Organisation of African Unity (OAU). The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly ofthe African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states. The AUssecretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.Among the objectives of the AUs leading institutions, are to accelerate the political and socio-economicintegration of the continent; to promote and defend African common positions on issues of interest to thecontinent and its peoples; to achieve peace and security in Africa; and to promote democratic institutions,good governance and human rights.The African Union is made up of both political and administrative bodies. The highest decision-making organof the African Union is the Assembly, made up of all the heads of state or government of member states of theAU. The Assembly is currently chaired by Bingu wa Mutharika, leader of Malawi, elected at the tenth ordinarymeeting of the Assembly in January 2009. The AU also has a representative body, the Pan African Parliament,which consists of 265 members elected by the national parliaments of the AU member states. The currentpresident of the Pan African Parliament is Idriss Ndele Moussa.
  20. 20. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security andforeign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inceptionunder President Truman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on nationalsecurity and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating thesepolicies among various government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the VicePresident, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant tothe President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory militaryadvisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff tothe President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited toattend any NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget areinvited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments andagencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496;U.S.C. 402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.).Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of thePresident.UNITED STATES AMBASSADOR TO THE UNITED NATIONSThe United States Ambassador to the United Nations is the leader of the U.S. delegation to the United Nations.The position is more formally known as the "Permanent Representative of the United States of America to theUnited Nations, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, andRepresentative of the United States of America in the Security Council of the United Nations"; it is also knownas the U.S. Permanent Representative, or "Perm Rep", to the United Nations.The U.S. Permanent Representative, currently Susan Rice, is charged with representing the United States onthe U.N. Security Council and during all plenary meetings of the General Assembly except in the rare situationin which a more senior officer of the United States (such as the U.S. Secretary of State or the President of theUnited States) is present. Like all United States ambassadors, he or she must be nominated by the Presidentand confirmed by the Senate.Many prominent U.S. politicians and diplomats have held the post, including Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., AdlaiStevenson, George H. W. Bush, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Dr. Jeane Kirkpatrick, Richard Holbrooke, Dr.Madeleine Albright, Bill Richardson, and John Danforth.It was a cabinet-level position under the Clinton administration and is under the Obama administration aswell. It was not a cabinet-level position under the Bush administration (from 2001 to 2009).
  21. 21. NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCILThe National Security Council (NSC) is the Presidents principal forum for considering national security andforeign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and cabinet officials. Since its inceptionunder President Truman, the Councils function has been to advise and assist the President on nationalsecurity and foreign policies. The Council also serves as the Presidents principal arm for coordinating thesepolicies among various government agencies.The NSC is chaired by the President. Its regular attendees (both statutory and non-statutory) are the VicePresident, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Defense, and the Assistant tothe President for National Security Affairs. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is the statutory militaryadvisor to the Council, and the Director of National Intelligence is the intelligence advisor. The Chief of Staff tothe President, Counsel to the President, and the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy are invited toattend any NSC meeting. The Attorney General and the Director of the Office of Management and Budget areinvited to attend meetings pertaining to their responsibilities. The heads of other executive departments andagencies, as well as other senior officials, are invited to attend meetings of the NSC when appropriate.The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act of 1947 (PL 235 - 61 Stat. 496;U.S.C. 402), amended by the National Security Act Amendments of 1949 (63 Stat. 579; 50 U.S.C. 401 et seq.).Later in 1949, as part of the Reorganization Plan, the Council was placed in the Executive Office of thePresident.VICE PRESIDENTThe Vice President of the United States is the holder of a public office created by the United StatesConstitution. The vice president, together with the President of the United States, is indirectly elected by thepeople through the Electoral College to a four-year term. The vice president is the first person in thepresidential line of succession, ascending to the presidency upon the death, resignation, or removal of thepresident.Under the Constitution, the vice president is President of the Senate. By virtue of the vice presidents role asPresident of the Senate, he or she is the nominal head of the United States Senate. In that capacity, the vicepresident is allowed to vote in the Senate, but only when necessary to break a tie vote. Pursuant to theTwelfth Amendment, the vice president presides over the joint session of Congress when it convenes to countthe vote of the Electoral College.While the vice presidents only constitutionally prescribed functions, aside from presidential succession,relate to his role as President of the Senate, the office is now commonly viewed as a member of the executivebranch of the federal government. The U.S. Constitution does not expressly assign the office to any onebranch, causing scholars to dispute whether it belongs to the executive branch, the legislative branch, or both.The modern view of the vice president as a member of the executive branch is due in part to the assignmentof executive duties to the vice president by either the president or Congress, though such activities are onlyrecent historical developments.The incumbent vice president is Joe Biden, previously the senior U.S. Senator from the state of Delaware, anda current member of the Democratic Party.

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