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Improving Productivity and Environmental Performance of Aquaculture

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On World Environment Day (June 5, 2014), the World Resources Institute (WRI), WorldFish, the World Bank, INRA, and Kasetsart University released the newest installment of the 2013-14 World Resources …

On World Environment Day (June 5, 2014), the World Resources Institute (WRI), WorldFish, the World Bank, INRA, and Kasetsart University released the newest installment of the 2013-14 World Resources Report: Creating a Sustainable Food Future, "Improving Productivity and Environmental Performance of Aquaculture."

This working paper examines the implications of doubling aquaculture production between now and 2050, and offers recommendations to ensure that aquaculture growth contributes to a sustainable food future.

Find out more at http://ow.ly/xHnJ2

Published in Education , Business , Technology
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  • 1. RICHARD WAITE, MICHAEL PHILLIPS, AND RANDALL BRUMMETT Improving Productivity and Environmental Performance of Aquaculture Installment 5 of “Creating a Sustainable Food Future” 2013-14 World Resources Report Photo: WorldFish Bangladesh Office.
  • 2. Mic & Speakers is usually the best audio option. Submit your text questions and comments using the Questions Panel. We will answer questions at the end of the presentation. For more information, please email jblumenthal@wri.org. Note: Today’s presentation is being recorded and will be posted on WRI’s website within a week. Your Participation GoToWebinar Housekeeping
  • 3. WRI.org/WRR
  • 4. How can the world feed more than 9 billion people in 2050 in a manner that advances development and reduces pressure on the environment?
  • 5. The world needs to close an “animal protein gap” Global annual animal protein availability, million tons Source: WRI analysis based on Alexandratos and Bruinsma (2012).
  • 6. Menu for a sustainable food future Consumption  Reduce food loss and waste  Shift diets  Achieve replacement level fertility  Reduce biofuel demand for food crops Production  Sustainably increase crop yields  Boost yields through crop breeding  Improve soil and water management  Expand onto low-carbon degraded lands  Sustainably increase “livestock” productivity  Increase productivity of pasture and grazing lands  Reduce then stabilize wild fish catch  Improve productivity and environmental performance of aquaculture Production methods  Improve livestock feeding efficiency  Increase the efficiency of fertilizer use  Manage rice paddies to reduce emissions
  • 7. Authors and partners • Richard Waite (WRI) • Malcolm Beveridge (WorldFish) • Randall Brummett (World Bank) • Sarah Castine (WorldFish) • Nuttapon Chaiyawannakarn (Kasetsart University) • Sadasivam Kaushik (INRA) • Rattanawan Mungkung (Kasetsart University) • Supawat Nawapakpilai (Kasetsart University) • Michael Phillips (WorldFish)
  • 8. Fish are important for food and nutrition security Supply of animal-based protein (2009), percent (100% = 31 g / capita / day) Source: FAO (2012).
  • 9. But the wild fish catch has peaked… Million tons Note: “Wild catch” includes finfish, mollusks, crustaceans, and other aquatic animals from marine and freshwater ecosystems. It excludes all aquaculture. Source: FAO (2014).
  • 10. …even while fishing effort continues to rise Percentage of marine fish stocks assessed Source: FAO (2014).
  • 11. Aquaculture has emerged to meet fish demand Million tons Sources: FAO (2012a), FAO (2012b), FAO (2013), FAO (2014).
  • 12. Aquaculture is diverse Production (2012), 100% = 66.6 million tons Source: FAO (2014).
  • 13. Nearly 90 percent of aquaculture production is in Asia Tons (2012) Source: FAO (2014).
  • 14. Aquaculture production must more than double by 2050 to satisfy projected fish demand Million tons Sources: Production data 1961–2010: FAO (2014a), FAO (2014b). Aquaculture production projections 2011–2050: Authors’ calculations assuming a linear growth rate of 2 Mt per year.
  • 15. Aquaculture growth could close 14 percent of the “animal protein gap” Global annual animal protein availability, million tons Source: WRI analysis based on Alexandratos and Bruinsma (2012).
  • 16. Aquaculture growth to 140 Mt in 2050 could contribute to economic development Source: Authors’ calculations based on FAO (2014) and World Bank, FAO, and IFPRI (2013). Photo: WorldFish/Mike Lusmore/Duckrabbit. $308BFarm gate value / year
  • 17. Aquaculture growth to 140 Mt in 2050 could contribute to economic development Source: Authors’ calculations based on FAO (2014). Photo: WorldFish/Mike Lusmore/Duckrabbit. 176Mlivelihoods
  • 18. Farmed fish convert feed to food efficiently Percent or “units of edible output per 100 units of feed input” Sources: Terrestrial animal products: Wirsenius et al. (2010), Wirsenius (2000). Finfish and shrimp: WRI analysis based on USDA (2013), NRC (2011), Tacon and Metian (2008), Wirsenius (2000), and FAO (1989). Note: “Edible output” refers to the calorie and protein content of bone-free carcass.
  • 19. But aquaculture also creates environmental impacts and is facing resource constraints Image: ©2013 Google Earth, DigitalGlobe. • Land • Water • Energy • Feed • Fish diseases • Fish escapes
  • 20. Sustainable aquaculture growth entails… Photo: WorldFish/Sakil. Increasing farmed fish production per unit of: • Land • Water • Feed • Energy Minimizing: • Water pollution • Fish diseases • Fish escapes
  • 21. Life cycle assessment of global aquaculture production Source: Hall et al. (2011).
  • 22. Aquaculture’s environmental impacts in 2010 Direct land occupation (farms): 19 Mha Indirect land occupation (feeds): 26 Mha Wild fish used in feed: 20 Mt Freshwater consumption: 201 km3 Freshwater eutrophication potential: 0.4 Mt P eq Marine eutrophication potential: 1.4 Mt N eq Greenhouse gas emissions: 332 Mt CO2e Source: Mungkung et al. (2014).
  • 23. “Business as usual” scenario in 2050 Impacts relative to 2010 levels Source: Mungkung et al. (2014). 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Production Land occupation (direct) Land occupation (indirect) Wild fish used in feed Freshwater consumption Freshwater eutrophication potential Marine eutrophication potential GHG emissions 2010 2050 BAU
  • 24. “Significant intensification” scenario in 2050 Impacts relative to 2010 levels 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Production Land occupation (direct) Land occupation (indirect) Wild fish used in feed Freshwater consumption Freshwater eutrophication potential Marine eutrophication potential GHG emissions 2010 2050 BAU Source: Mungkung et al. (2014).
  • 25. “Shift to renewable energy” scenario in 2050 Impacts relative to 2010 levels 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Production Land occupation (direct) Land occupation (indirect) Wild fish used in feed Freshwater consumption Freshwater eutrophication potential Marine eutrophication potential GHG emissions 2010 2050 BAU Source: Mungkung et al. (2014).
  • 26. “More efficient feeding” scenario in 2050 Impacts relative to 2010 levels 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Production Land occupation (direct) Land occupation (indirect) Wild fish used in feed Freshwater consumption Freshwater eutrophication potential Marine eutrophication potential GHG emissions 2010 2050 BAU Source: Mungkung et al. (2014).
  • 27. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Production Land occupation (direct) Land occupation (indirect) Wild fish used in feed Freshwater consumption Freshwater eutrophication potential Marine eutrophication potential GHG emissions 2010 2050 BAU “More farmed freshwater fish” scenario in 2050 Impacts relative to 2010 levels Source: Mungkung et al. (2014).
  • 28. “Shift to more plant-based feeds” scenario in 2050 Impacts relative to 2010 levels 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Production Land occupation (direct) Land occupation (indirect) Wild fish used in feed Freshwater consumption Freshwater eutrophication potential Marine eutrophication potential GHG emissions 2010 2050 BAU Source: Mungkung et al. (2014).
  • 29. Comparison of aquaculture growth scenarios Impacts relative to 2010 levels Source: Mungkung et al. (2014). 2050 Scenario Land occupation (direct) Land occupation (indirect) Wild fish used in feed Freshwater consumption Freshwater eutrophication potential Marine eutrophication potential GHG emissions Business as usual 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 Significant intensification 1.6 2.1 2.6 2.0 2.3 2.6 3.0 Renewable energy 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.1 2.3 1.0 More efficient feeding 2.3 2.1 1.8 2.3 2.3 2.1 2.2 More farmed freshwater fish 2.5 2.7 2.2 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.4 More plant- based feed N/A 3.9 0.0 2.3 2.7 3.6 2.2 Impacts relative to 2050 “business as usual” Increase No change Decrease
  • 30. Comparison of farmed species’ performance in 2010 Source: Calculated from Mungkung et al. (2014). Species group Land use (ha / t edible protein) Freshwater consumption (m3 / kg edible protein) Wild fish used in feed (fish-in/fish- out) Eutrophication potential (kg P t edible protein) GHG intensity (t CO2e / t edible protein) Carps 12.0 61.4 0.2 97 47.2 Mollusks 0.0 0.0 0.0 -148 11.1 Shrimps 16.4 4.4 0.8 104 161.7 Tilapias 7.5 15.9 0.7 82 40.7 Catfish 9.5 52.2 0.4 97 134.8 Salmonids 2.4 0.0 1.9 48 9.8
  • 31. The closest thing to a free lunch? Photo: SantiMB.
  • 32. Key findings • Aquaculture production must more than double by 2050 • Aquaculture is a relatively efficient source of animal protein • Aquaculture creates environmental impacts, is subject to resource constraints • Environmental impacts vary by species • Intensification must continue – need to manage tradeoffs
  • 33. Recommendations 1. Increase investment in technological innovation and transfer 2. Use spatial planning and zoning to guide sustainable aquaculture growth 3. Shift incentives to reward sustainability 4. Shift consumption to low-trophic farmed fish species
  • 34. How Will Aquaculture Grow?
  • 35. AQUACULTURE IS NOT A RAVENOUS INDUSTRIAL MONSTER DEVOURING THE PLANET TO FEED THE RICH
  • 36. Small is beautiful… Region Aquaculture Employment (thousands) Productivity (2010) Tons of fish per farmer Africa 8.59 Asia 3.32 Europe 29.68 LAC 7.74 N America 164.00 Oceania 30.67 World Total 3.61 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 but complicated!
  • 37. Constraining Sustainable Growth Space & H2O Technology Capital
  • 38. Capital (∴ Technology) is Constrained by Risk • >90% Private Capital • Massive disease outbreaks • Reduced efficiency due to stress, inbreeding • Increasing operation costs
  • 39. Asia: Crowded Latin America: Some Potential Africa: Cool and Dry North America: mostly too cold Europe: cold and crowded Map: WorldFish
  • 40. • Feed, breeding & management technology • Lower risk to attract investors • Governance for non-traditional sites & H2O Overcoming Constraints
  • 41. Source: Iliyasu et al. 2014; University of Victoria & Lenfest (2010) • Asia: 0.64; US/Europe: 0.73 • Genetics: 12% Fish; 1% Land Animals • FIFO: 0.6 in 2000; 0.3 in 2010 Technical & Ecological Efficiency
  • 42. Plant Proteins 3% fishmeal + 40% SPC + 30% SBM 40% SPC + taurine 64% fishmeal
  • 43. Fish Oil
  • 44. 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% 35% 40% 45% 1.0 2.0-2.5 2.5-3.0 3.0-3.5 3.5-4.0 PercentofTotalbySub-Sector Trophic Level Culture Capture Source: FAO (2012), FishBase (2012) Anchovies + Farmed Salmon Wild Salmon
  • 45. Protecting Environments, Fish Health & Investments Ecological Issues • Siting – identify zones that are good for aquaculture; away or downstream of important ecosystem and biodiversity assets. • Carrying Capacity – measure how fast the ecosystem is moving towards the limit. Institutional Issues • Setting Limits - set with the local community key criteria for impact assessment. • Enforcement - establish regulatory framework, local authority and trade association that represents the interests of the aquaculture value chain. 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 400000 450000
  • 46. Back from the Brink: Lessons from Chile 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 350000 400000 450000 19861988199019921994199619982000200220042006200820102012
  • 47. • Zones Easier to Implement • Low Energy Systems • No Land or Freshwater • Established Hatchery & Culture Technology • Turn Carnivores to Herbivores • Keeping the small-scale players in the game? Moving Off Shore
  • 48. Thank You!
  • 49. “Improving Productivity and Environmental Performance of Aquaculture” Download at: WRI.org/WRR 2013–2014 World Resources Report: Creating a Sustainable Food Future