Wfs Conference   Silimela Rae Wolpe
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Wfs Conference Silimela Rae Wolpe

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Rae Wolpe on Long-term sustainability in SA urban planning

Rae Wolpe on Long-term sustainability in SA urban planning

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Wfs Conference   Silimela Rae Wolpe Wfs Conference Silimela Rae Wolpe Presentation Transcript

  • THE FAST CHANGING WORLD OF SCENARIOS FOR CITIES AND TOWNS IN SOUTH AFRICA Rae Wolpe World Futures Society Conference May 2010 Silimela Development Services www.silimelaafrica.com
  • City and Regional Scenario Planning manages creative tensions: Forecasts and Projections Models Collective Imagining Scenarios Collective Deciding Visions
  • Why is long term city planning a world wide trend? →Most cities have grown on the assumption of limitless fossil fuel →No modern city in current form can be regarded as truly sustainable over the next 20 years →Example: Vancouver: working back from “bust”
  • Few cities may even be feasible as they are now, by 2100!
  • CURRENT Challenges of local government in South Africa →Class 1: Very high vulnerability : 25% →Class 2: High vulnerability: 25% →Class 3: Medium vulnerability: 25% →Class 4: Low vulnerability: 25% (excl 6 metros)
  • Many communities risk being left behind by the future 1 →Global warming and desertification →World’s highest fossil fuel / GDP consumption ratios in big cities and huge distances between small cities, towns and villages →Major shifts in technology will reshape urban systems →Sustained tourism boom for at least another 50 years →Globalisation will leave behind those towns, cities and regions which are not “smart”
  • Many communities risk being left behind by the future 2 →Water and food scarcities →The widening divide between “haves” and “have not’s” →Failing education system in context of a world moving into a knowledge economy → Growing service delivery protests and political tensions:
  • Current planning systems are weak →The compulsory Integrated Development Plans (IDPs)are for only 5 years →General lack of strategic and research capacity to do IDPs →The vision for the municipality is political “motherhood and apple” pie →Access and communication difficulties for less educated communities struggling with basic need issues
  • Benefits of local government scenario planning → Captures different points of view → Is imaginative and captures interest of youth → Attracts key government and business decision makers → De-politicises the future → Emphasizes the need for partnership → Attracts innovative ideas → Common language for debate
  • Huge integration challenge of local government planning
  • Elements of the Scenario Planning Process
  • Process
  • Case Study 1: Gauteng City Region Vision 2055 Objectives: → Use scenario planning → Base debate on best available analysis, supported with global benchmarking → Get key decision makers involved from the beginning → Define a vision based on best case attainable scenario → Agree on the strategic choices → Implement the choices in ongoing strategic processes
  • Gauteng Vision 2055 Process Design
  • Strengths • Largest urban economy in Africa: the only true Global City Region • Logistics hub of the SADC region of 200 million (growing to 300 million by 2030) • English speaking • Political, academic and cultural centre • Gateway between Africa and the world • Established City Region structures • Massive investment in Gautrain and Bus Rapid Transport • Significant revitalisation of Inner City
  • Weaknesses • Highest levels of inequality and violent crime in the world • 3m people earning less than 1 $ per day, living in shacks & hardest hit by crime & disease • 1 ½ million structurally unemployed • Chronic and deepening skills shortage • Weak alignment between government departments and spheres • Very high fossil fuel dependency • Inefficient urban structure
  • The Big Surprises →The Gauteng City Region doubles from its current size of 12-14 m to 25m people by 2055 →Half of the South African population lives in the City Region by 2055 →At the same time the population of the African continent doubles to 2 billion people and is the world’s fastest growing region
  • Best Case Scenario: African Knowledge Capital
  • African Vision: 2009 – 2014: The City Region was positioned and geared for the anticipated ”long boom” in commodity prices and the higher levels of investment in Africa by setting itself up for business as a gateway to the African economy.
  • African Trade and Manufacturing Hub: 2015 – 2024: Because it laid the foundation by getting the basics right in the 2009 to 2014 years, the City Region used its strengths to become a booming African trade and manufacturing centre.
  • African Gateway: 2025 – 2034: Because it was successful as a trade and manufacturing hub, Gauteng began to diversify and became a gateway of services, information and connections to Africa.
  • African Knowledge Capital: 2035 – 2055: Because of its gateway role, Gauteng was able to develop into a global hub for African knowledge, technology and creative industries.
  • Business As Usual Scenario: African Mega Conurbation African Dream: 2009-2014 Following the recession of 2009, the thousands of workers who lost their permanent jobs in Gauteng joined the long queue of the million people who had not had a job in the past three years. African Shopping Centre: 2015 – 2024: Because the City Region did not have the foundations in place, it struggled to compete with the new rules of sustainability, energy efficiency and changing trade opportunities. The “long emergency” of escalating energy prices, draconian regulations for cutting carbon emissions, and intensifying climate change had arrived
  • African Mega Conurbation Continued African Island: 2025 -2034: Because Gauteng was not a trusted gateway to Africa, the City Region became more isolated from the opportunities being created on the continent. Gauteng had been overtaken by a poverty trap too vast to deal with in any five- year term of government. The high carbon emission rating of “Made in Gauteng” goods closed off major export markets. African Mega Conurbation: 2035 -2055 Because Gauteng had become fragmented and isolated, it became a loose collection of parts that competed with each other for growth, trade and investment and at the same time avoided having to deal with social and environmental issues. The City Region was unable to deal with the energy and food security crises, and daily life became increasingly fragile for the “brave” who continued to visit and live in the world’s most dangerous City Region.
  • Case Study Two: King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipality: Eastern Cape
  • Local Development Challenges 1 → Very high unemployment…up to 60% → Youth, old age and poverty dependency → Major disparity between rural and urban → Spatial remoteness → Institutional complexity → Mthatha as a former homeland capital
  • Local Development Challenges 2 → Municipality struggling to come to terms with →Basic service delivery →Infrastructure backlogs →Financial viability →Short and long term planning
  • The Process Intent Bring together the views and insights of →Government →Local business →Civil society organisations →Research institutions …in an inclusive and effective manner in order to be able to stimulate a useful perspective on the long term (2030) future.
  • Key Steps in The Process
  • Research Foundation →Probabilistic Analysis →Past KSD socio-economic trends →Three SA scenario exercises →Presidency →Dinokeng →COFISA Eastern Cape →Many international studies and scenario exercises
  • Proto Scenarios
  • Participants were asked: tell us how these three toddlers in different settings grow up to 2030? Example →Lulama, born 15 October 2008 in Ngangelizwe Township in Mthatha →22 years old in 2030
  • What happens to Lulama... → Completed Matric in Ngangelizwe → Received bursary from KSD → Has honours in Environmental Science → Registered for a Masters degree → Learned business skills from local role models → Working as a consultant in environmental management → Has contributed towards improving natural assets, esp. Rivers → Passionate about rebuilding and reclaiming Mthatha → Also runs an office in Durban, works remotely → Lives in her own flat close to the CBD
  • What happens to the setting: Mthatha Othathayo 2030 → Economic infrastructure has improved esp. the completion of Mthatha-Kokstad rail line → Public transport system is good → Airport Upgrades → Improved Agriculture – food security → Rail networks links products to markets → ICT Development → Use CCTV (Close Circuit Television)- to fight crime → Water is clean and recreation areas are good, clean air, contributing towards good quality of life → Better housing – through mixed use high density development → Mthatha has grown due to its strategic location between East London, Kokstad, Queenstown and enhanced rail system
  • Participants were then asked: To make the good things in these stories come true, what needs to happen in KSD? Product = 7 Directions for the Future 1. Fix Mthatha 2. Boost Farming 3. Pull Social Development Together 4. Drive Technology- knowledge 5. Launch Tourism 6. Connect up Rail and Road 7. Build Collective Leadership
  • Participants asked again: How will the 7 Directions play out in the 4 Proto Scenarios? Product = 4 probable and collectively imagined scenarios → Mihla Ngemihla (Business As Usual) → Gxaba Gxabiso (Quick Results) → Intlakohlazo (Greener than Usual) → Inkqubela Phambili Sibambisene (Sustainable Development)
  • SERVICE DELIVERY FFG ID O R People-driven Gated development Social capital focus Recycling IN ESTM TA D Big Malls EN N Mega-farms Cultivates local Mass-resorts investment C N LO Y Community Technology TE H O G Depends on outside investors Small farm collectives BIG BOX OLD TECH GREEN TECH Infrastructure Backlogs Some pilot projects Subsistence Farms Only a few benefit V Grudge Tourism Rural community left Little private investment behind Relies on government Green town & villages Relies on government NG ID O R
  • Scenario Implications →identified key strategic choices that KSD needs to make.
  • Reflection and Closure Final Steering Committee workshop: →distilled key learning’s from the process in regard to long term planning for KSD →Suggested replication of the process in other communities in South Africa....concept of scenario planning toolkit
  • LESSONS LEARNED 1 →Solid research base is critical: no short cuts →Both engagement processes were successful and can be replicated →High level of interest and participation →Consensus reached quickly on →future threats and opportunities →the choices which need to be made soon →Both processes stalled once government had to start digesting approvals
  • LESSONS LEARNED 2 →Extending the conversation to the broader community: in Gauteng this is starting.... →Managing powerlessness: government struggles to work with itself →Fragmented delivery of social development services, when this is core issue →Inability to drive creative industries and developmental tourism →Education is the Achilles Heel: →Early Childhood Development →Primary Schooling →Vocational Skills
  • LESSONS LEARNED 3 →Capable long term local partnerships are the key to unlocking the future....and we don’t know how to make them happen →The “sustainable development” scenario needs to be: →translated into concrete 5/10/15 year milestone indicators →coupled with local IDPs and other government programmes →supported by business, academia and community organisations
  • Thank you Rae Wolpe rae@silimelaafrica.com www.silimeelaafrica 082 566 5529