World Water Day 2010 workshop: Policy and context


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Presentation delivered by Chris Spray of the UNESCO Centre for Water Law, Policy and Science at the University of Dundee, at a World Water Day workshop on 22 March 2010

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World Water Day 2010 workshop: Policy and context

  1. 1. 22/03/2010<br />1<br />WORLD WATER DAY22nd March 2010What would the world be, once bereft of wet and wildness?<br />Professor<br /> Chris J Spray. <br />
  2. 2. Inversnaid(Loch Lomond)<br />What would the world be, once bereft <br />Of wet and wildness? Let them be left, <br />O let them be left, wildness and wet; <br />Long live the weeds and the wilderness yet.<br />Gerard Manley Hopkins – 1881<br />Inscribed on the walls of the Scottish Parliament<br /><br />
  3. 3. 22/03/2010<br />3<br />Overview – World Water Day 2010<br />What are we attempting to do here today?<br />What is World Water Day exactly?<br />Why do we need it? - facts, facts and more facts.....<br />What are the legal and policy contexts?<br />Where does Scotland and HELP fit in?<br />What is the UNESCO Centre for Water Law, Policy & Science at Dundee University doing?<br />What can you do?<br />
  4. 4. 22/03/2010<br />4<br />What are we attempting to do today ?<br />Celebrating World Water Day with an online interactive conference<br />For many of us trying to engage with a new form of communication – interactive, low carbon, inclusive – gathering knowledge, expertise and opinion from across Scotland and beyond<br />Bringing together scientists, policy-makers, non-governmental organisations, conservation bodies, regulators, land managers and local communities<br />Focussing on the HELP Basins in Scotland (the Tweed and the Dee) and with comparisons with other HELP basins elsewhere<br />Focussing on the need to integrate the management of land an water at a catchment scale<br />
  5. 5. 22/03/2010<br />5<br />What is World Water Day?<br />Established at the Rio Conference on Sustainable Development in 1992<br />Annual event that focuses on Global Water Issues<br />Theme for 2010 is “Communicating Water Quality Challenges and Opportunities”<br />Many events happening world-wide:<br /> Scottish participants involved from Durham (UNESCO Centre for Water Law, Policy & Science, Dundee University) to Malaysia (Tweed Forum).<br />
  6. 6. 22/03/2010<br />6<br />Why do we need World Water Day? - Global Relevance <br />Millennium Development Goals – to halve by 2015 –<br />I billion without access to safe drinking water <br />2.6 billion without access to adequate sanitation<br />Environmental change – climate, habitat and ecosystem loss<br />Social change – population growth (9 billion by 2050), urbanisation<br />Economic change – globalisation, financial crisis, debt<br />“Water is the next oil…”<br />
  7. 7. The global<br />water <br />challenge<br />259 major international rivers<br />1.2 billion without drinking water<br />2.4 billion without sanitation<br />
  8. 8. Water supply challenges exist in many parts of the world<br />
  9. 9. 22/03/2010<br />9<br />Some (virtual) Water usage facts......<br />It takes 10 litres of water to produce 1 sheet of A4 paper<br /> 40 litres 1 slice of bread<br /> 120 litres 1 glass of wine<br /> 140 litres 1 cup of coffee<br /> 1,300 litres 1 kgm of wheat<br /> 4,800 litres 1 kgm of pork<br /> 10,850 litres 1 pair of jeans<br /> 15,500 litres 1 kgm of beef<br />IBM Global Innovation Outlook Report on Water 2009<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />Some more Water usage facts......<br />Average Daily Domestic Use per capita:<br />Canada 778 litres<br />USA 616<br />Australia 605<br />Japan 373<br />Portugal 308<br />Mexico 300<br />France 232<br />Germany 151<br />UK 119<br />India 119<br />China 95<br />IBM Global Innovation Outlook Report on Water 2009<br />
  11. 11. The world’s wetlands and wildlife are disappearing<br />WWF’s Living Planet reports<br />River dolphin<br />Index of change of size of the populations of 194 species of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians and fish.<br />
  12. 12. Wetland Habitats are being lost: shrinking Aral Sea 1960-2003<br />
  13. 13. The shrinking Aral Sea 1989-2003 –a lost ecosystem, its “goods” and “services”<br />
  14. 14. Legal & Policy protection for water & wetlands exists at a range of scales<br /><ul><li>Globally – Millennium Development Goals; Convention on Biological Diversity
  15. 15. European– Water Framework Directive; Floods Directive, Habitats Directive
  16. 16. Nationally in Scotland – Water Environment Water Services Act; Nature Conservation (Scotland) Act; Floods Risk Management (Scotland) Act; Climate Change Act</li></li></ul><li>Yet wetlands, wildlife, ecosystems and livelihoods continue to be lost…..<br />Lake Chad<br />NASA Goddard Space Flight Centre<br />
  17. 17. …..and damaged….. even in Scotland:Ecological Status of Scottish Rivers (% water bodies)<br />Draft 2009 SEPA<br /><ul><li>Physical changes to the wetland habitat and hydrology
  18. 18. Barriers to Fish migration
  19. 19. Nutrient enrichment by diffuse pollution in agricultural and urban environments
  20. 20. Invasive non-native species</li></ul>Rivers<br />(N = 2392)<br />
  21. 21. Why are losses of wetlands continuing?<br />Population growth<br /> Economic development<br /> Climate change<br />Changes in Land use<br /> Nutrient enrichment<br /> Invasive species<br /> Over harvesting<br />
  22. 22. Long term Temperature trend in Scotland<br />Water and Climate change<br />SNIFFER 2006 – Handbook of climate trends across Scotland<br />
  23. 23. Temperature<br />Scotland<br />Four Seasons<br />Average<br />Temperature<br />1961 – 2004<br />(linear trend)<br />SNIFFER 2006 – Handbook of climate trends across Scotland<br />
  24. 24. Precipitation<br />22/03/2010<br />20<br />Changes in precipitation are very marked and very different even across a small area like Scotland<br />SNIFFER 2006 – Handbook of climate trends across Scotland<br />
  25. 25. Changing Patterns of River Flows<br />Drier summers, less snow melt, lower spring flows<br />Wetter winters<br />Greater variability<br />22/03/2010<br />21<br />
  26. 26. Changing river hydrology and water quality: stream chemistry (SEPA)<br />Dissolved Organic Carbon<br />Peat erosion in Shetland<br />
  27. 27. Water quality theme: Scotland<br />?<br />Diffuse pollution from run off from insensitive agricultural land use is a major cause of failure of ecological status for water bodies in parts of Scotland <br />
  28. 28. 22/03/2010<br />24<br />Scotland and UNESCO IHP-HELP<br />UNESCO’s contribution to Integrated Catchment Management<br /> Hydrology for Environment Life and Policy (HELP) global programme <br />To deliver social, economic and environmental benefit to stakeholders through sustainable and appropriate use of water by directing hydrological science towards improved integrated catchment management basins<br />
  29. 29. 22/03/2010<br />25<br />UNESCO HELP Programme<br />“Hydrology, Environment, Life and Policy” – cross-cutting global programme within the International Hydrological Programme, established in1990’s<br />Stakeholder-driven approach to integrated river basin management; participative, all water users<br />Cutting-edge science and law-into-policy; how to ensure that the best research is reflected in the development of policy and law<br />Global network of some 48 basins (since the 3rd global call this year); two Scottish HELP basins: - the Tweed and the Dee<br />
  30. 30. 22/03/2010<br />26<br />Integrated Catchment Management<br />River Tweed is one of Scotland’s HELP basins: building on work of Tweed Forum (voluntary association of key stakeholders), and working closely with SEPA’s Area Advisory Group to deliver Sustainable Catchment Management, and the EU Water Framework Directive River Basin Management Plans<br />A partnership approach<br />
  31. 31. 22/03/2010<br />27<br />UNESCO Centre for Water Law, Policy & Science, Dundee<br />Our Vision and Mission is “Water For All” – the wise, sustainable and equitable use of water<br />Our Aims:<br />To promote effective water management that helps prevent water disputes and alleviates poverty at regional, national and global level<br />To develop the next generation of water leaders<br />To undertake and disseminate research of international relevance and standard<br />
  32. 32. 22/03/2010<br />28<br />What We Do<br />International Water Law– managing transboundary waters<br />National Water Law– legal frameworks at national and local level <br />Transnational Water Law– regulation and governance of water services<br />Science and Policy– sustainable management of river basins<br />UNESCO HELP Programme– European regional coordinators – stakeholder-driven river basin management; integration of cutting edge science into law-and-policy<br />Water Law Water Leaders– suite of new taught masters programmes, developing the next generation of water leaders<br />
  33. 33. 22/03/2010<br />29<br />What can you do?<br />Reduce your own water consumption and water foot print<br />Raise awareness of global and local water issues<br />Engage in consultation, planning and delivery of river basin plans (see<br />Contribute online to this conference debate<br />Thank You!<br />