Some Aspects of Flood Management Research and Practice Simon Langan  Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Aberdeen With c...
Summary messages and requirements <ul><li>Central role of land managers </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple policy drivers aimed at...
The role of research <ul><li>Providing independent information and evidence which can advice, help the development and imp...
Simulated national runoff patterns (UKCIP 02 scenarios)- Direct effects Annual, seasonal and spatial effects of climate ch...
Future Land Use scenarios – based on land capability- Indirect effects (Brown et al., 2009)
Flow duration curves for spring : Show a significant increase in flows between all three 25 year periods (also issues of u...
 
 
Land Managers (farmers) and Flooding <ul><li>Societal expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap food maximise output </li><...
Land managers and policy <ul><li>Water Framework Directive </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Risk Management </li></ul><ul><li>Natur...
Wider Stakeholders Characteristics (Blackstock et al., in press) <ul><li>Extreme flows are ‘wicked problems’ requiring soc...
Attitudes to Natural Flood Management (Kenyon, 2007) <ul><li>Carried out interviews with stakeholders: Agricultural sector...
Exploring the Needs: Aquarius  “ The farmer as a water manager under future climate regimes”
Why farmers as water managers? <ul><li>New institutional design </li></ul><ul><li>Joined up Policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L...
The approach <ul><li>Catchment Scale management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holistic approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems Thi...
 
Initial flood alleviation
Connectedness
Farmers as Water Managers:  The approach <ul><li>Understand their perception of water in the catchment & how they manage i...
Working with Farmers <ul><li>How do we persuade farmers to store flood waters on their land? </li></ul><ul><li>Need to kno...
Central element is trust and experience Awareness, Education & Inter-agency Working Management of Point &  Diffuse Polluti...
Messages <ul><li>Background: </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding is becoming an increasing issue for society, elements of land mana...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Stakeholder engagement in the Dee Basin

1,505 views
1,143 views

Published on

Presentation delivered by Simon Langan of the Macaulay Institute to a World Water Day workshop organised by University of Dundee on 22 March 2010

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,505
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
390
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Drawing on a wide variety of literature on effective management of natural resources, including water, the following arguments are made for involving stakeholders. Firstly, research on extreme flows in Australia, America and Europe indicate they have the qualities of ‘wicked problems’ – they are large scale, often un-predictable, difficult to control, and created by complex system interactions. Therefore, there are no ‘easy fixes’ as the solutions require long term changes in policies and behaviours as well as technical innovations. At the heart of wicked problem management, is the need to address the causes, not the symptoms, of the problem through ‘social learning’ and improving understanding of the risks and management responses. Secondly, the literature on mitigation and adaptation to climate change and their consequences (extreme flows) has illustrated that one needs to harness all available knowledge about what is causing the problem; and all available human resources to start managing extreme flows and their risks more effectively. As we will shortly outline, there may be a variety of (mis)understandings about flood risk and droughts that in turn mean that land owners and affected communities fail to take appropriate actions to prevent or to respond to extreme flows and the risk they pose. Understanding how different groups interpret the information provided on flood risk; and what steps they would consider taking to protect themselves or manage extreme flows, is crucial. Stakeholders don’t, and won’t, always behave as those writing the technical manuals might expect! Thirdly, there are practical, economic and political reasons why working with stakeholders, rather than trying to ‘command and control’ their actions makes for more effective outcomes. In practical terms, if stakeholders support a measure to manage extreme flows, they are more likely to provide access to the land, materials and local knowledge required to implement the measure. In economic terms, preventing damage from low flows is more cost-effective generally, than the cost of cleaning it up; and preventing infraction is better than pursuing the matter through a legal case. In political terms, the legitimacy of environmental policies, that is the degree to which such policies are supported by the electorate, is undermined if voters don’t understand the risks being regulated or perceive the regulation of extreme flows to be disproportionate or inequitable. Leading on from these arguments, building up understanding of why extreme flows need to be managed and how different stakeholders can take action to help manage extreme flows, can help improve the management of the whole land-water system and the ecosystem goods and services they provide [assume RJ will say more on this]. It is by working with stakeholders to customise measures, that measures for public gain (protecting down stream communities from flooding; ensuring adequate flows for ecology etc) can be implemented in ways that do not undermine individual livelihoods or incur unnecessary private losses.
  • North Sea ??? Programme – see website. 3 Dee Vision involved six partners (Aberdeenshire council; Macaulay Institute, SEPA, SNH, Scottish Water and U of Aberdeen) working in three subcatchments of the River Dee – chosen for to trial programmes of measures for WFD. The work focussed on point and diffuse pollution, awareness raising and improving inter-agency working. In the Tarland and Davan catchments, there was a programme of habitat enhancement and control of diffuse pollution through riparian zone management (increased numbers of fish and water voles now being found). In the Tarland and Elrick, infrastructure was provided to improve point and source pollution control – in tarland through using a wetland to polish the effluent before returning it to the stream (with habitat outcomes for birds) and in Elrick a SUDS system to take the surface waters from a new industrial estate. Both schemes also have an element of off stream flood storage, and Tarland also has a demonstration site for off stream flood storage. All activities were complemented with stakeholder engagement and a programme of awareness raising using the website, interpretative signs, site visits, educational resources (Riverbox) and newsletters. Community events were also held and increasingly well attended. Within the Tarland catchment, the pilot SFM scheme is likely to be rolled out through the catchment (with approximately 20 in and off stream storage sites).
  • Stakeholder engagement in the Dee Basin

    1. 1. Some Aspects of Flood Management Research and Practice Simon Langan Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Aberdeen With contributions from colleagues at: MLURI, Aberdeenshire Council and Land Managers
    2. 2. Summary messages and requirements <ul><li>Central role of land managers </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple policy drivers aimed at land use </li></ul><ul><li>Need for integrated working </li></ul><ul><li>Contrasting timescales and expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Catchments as the unit of management </li></ul><ul><li>Payments/incentives for change </li></ul><ul><li>Communication, awareness and capacity building </li></ul>
    3. 3. The role of research <ul><li>Providing independent information and evidence which can advice, help the development and implementation of policies and actions on flood risk management. Strategic and operational </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence – scientific and indigenous stakeholder knowledge; biophysical and socio-economic </li></ul><ul><li>Examples drawn from 3 strands of ongoing research: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RERAD sponsored catchment management research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers as water managers ( AQUARIUS ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication of flood risk ( UR-FLOOD ) </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Simulated national runoff patterns (UKCIP 02 scenarios)- Direct effects Annual, seasonal and spatial effects of climate change on runoff (Dunn 2007) Mean annual effects Precipitation Runoff Decreases Decreases more Seasonal effects Precipitation Runoff Drier spring / summer Wetter autumn in W / winter in NE Reduced in spring / summer Increased in some areas in autumn / winter
    5. 5. Future Land Use scenarios – based on land capability- Indirect effects (Brown et al., 2009)
    6. 6. Flow duration curves for spring : Show a significant increase in flows between all three 25 year periods (also issues of uncertainty) (Baggley et al., 2009) Long term flow analysis for the River Dee Need: To understand complex spatial and temporal dynamics
    7. 9. Land Managers (farmers) and Flooding <ul><li>Societal expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap food maximise output </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>Way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Work to avoid standing water on productive land (= flooding to farmer) </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives to change </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous policy drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Need: To understand different perspectives </li></ul>
    8. 10. Land managers and policy <ul><li>Water Framework Directive </li></ul><ul><li>Flood Risk Management </li></ul><ul><li>Natura- SAC </li></ul><ul><li>GAEC </li></ul><ul><li>Land Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Framework Directive </li></ul><ul><li>Climate Change Bill </li></ul><ul><li>Need a joined up approach </li></ul>
    9. 11. Wider Stakeholders Characteristics (Blackstock et al., in press) <ul><li>Extreme flows are ‘wicked problems’ requiring societal changes </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigating, and adapting to, extreme flows will require improved understanding and changed behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness raising and voluntary action are important aspects of the better regulation agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to manage the ecosystem and maximise the services provided for public and private gain </li></ul><ul><li>Needs : Engagement, communication and awareness to adapt over time </li></ul>
    10. 12. Attitudes to Natural Flood Management (Kenyon, 2007) <ul><li>Carried out interviews with stakeholders: Agricultural sector; Flood experts; Affected communities; The public. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions: </li></ul><ul><li>When full economic, environment and social costs and benefits are identified and compared almost all groups are supportive of NFM. However remaining barriers: </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of financial incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional and conservative attitudes in organisations and land managers </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of good advice for land managers specifically related to flooding </li></ul><ul><li>Poor communication with community groups and between relevant organisations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need: An integrated approach </li></ul></ul>
    11. 13. Exploring the Needs: Aquarius “ The farmer as a water manager under future climate regimes”
    12. 14. Why farmers as water managers? <ul><li>New institutional design </li></ul><ul><li>Joined up Policy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linking WFD to Floods to Habitats to CAP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieve multiple objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiversity, water quantity, water quality, education & empowerment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working with local knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary action avoids legal action, public enquiries, conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Understand opportunities and constraints and demonstrate how to do it in practice …. </li></ul>
    13. 15. The approach <ul><li>Catchment Scale management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holistic approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Systems Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joining human & environmental systems; Ecosystem services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Importance of People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building on history of engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But entrenched views and different perceptions of problems </li></ul></ul>
    14. 17. Initial flood alleviation
    15. 18. Connectedness
    16. 19. Farmers as Water Managers: The approach <ul><li>Understand their perception of water in the catchment & how they manage it already </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate the consequences of current behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the ‘unseen’ ecosystem services that they (could) provide </li></ul><ul><li>Get ‘buy in’ to put in offline storage on their land </li></ul><ul><li>Allow other farmers to visit & learn from what they are doing </li></ul>
    17. 20. Working with Farmers <ul><li>How do we persuade farmers to store flood waters on their land? </li></ul><ul><li>Need to know: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical aspects (how much, where, when, how often, how long, impact on water quality ….) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic aspects (impact on crop; restrictions on land management) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional aspects (adoption issues; land ownership; health & safety; grants/insurance; impact on designations) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other benefits (amenity value; conservation values; sporting/shooting benefits; eco-tourism) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who benefits, who loses, and how to balance these </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. will crop insurance be more cost-effective than hard engineering downstream? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will residents prefer NFM? Will farmers be willing to try? </li></ul></ul>
    18. 21. Central element is trust and experience Awareness, Education & Inter-agency Working Management of Point & Diffuse Pollution Wetlands & other Habitats Infrastructure (SUDS & SFMS) Building on past experience - Putting research into practice
    19. 22. Messages <ul><li>Background: </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding is becoming an increasing issue for society, elements of land management and climate change contributing </li></ul><ul><li>Needs: </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation (both biophysical and socio-economic) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connectedness - catchment and policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale appropriate to cause and effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple benefit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Partnership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand and raise awareness (adaptation and communication) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ownership and involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Into practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervene – Evaluate - Share </li></ul></ul>

    ×