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  • 1. AlcoholALCOHOL NOTEMAKERAAlcohol is a depressant. It altersmood, thinking and behavior. Theintoxicating ingredient in alcoholicdrinks is ethyl alcohol (ETHANOL-Psychoactive Chemical). Purealcohol has no color or taste.Alcoholic drinks get their color andflavor from the ingredients used tomake them.The Least You Need to Know:1. Short term vs. Long term effects…2. What is a ‘standard drink…’3. What is BAC?4. What is oxidation?5. How long to oxidize 1 drink?6. Sobering Myths…7. Factors influencing absorption…8. F.A.S. (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)9. Factors contributing to alcoholism.
  • 2. Path of Alcohol1. Mouth: alcohol enters the body.2. Stomach: some alcohol gets inthe bloodstream in the stomach,but most goes on to the smallintestine.3. Small Intestine: alcohol entersthe bloodstream through thewalls of the small intestine.4. Heart: pumps alcohol throughoutthe body.5. Brain: alcohol reaches the brain.6. Liver: alcohol is oxidized by theliver at a rate of about 0.5 oz perhour. Alcohol is converted intowater, carbon dioxide and energy.
  • 3. THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOLandTHE ADOLESCENT BRAINBrain- first area depressed: speech, thought,restraint, judgment, inhibitions (Social regulators)• Then, spinal cord reflexes and respiration whichcan be fatal.• black-outs may occur (periods of time that can’tbe remembered when sober)•disturbed sleep patterns, change in REM sleep
  • 4. Adolescent Brain ChangesThese brain changesare relevant toadolescent behaviorPrefrontal cortex (PFC)is pruned; not fullydeveloped until mid-20’sAmygdala (and n.a.)show less pruning andtend to dominate thejudgmentrewardsystemamygdala nucleusaccumbensprefrontalcortex
  • 5. This imbalanceleads to... planned thinking impulsiveness self-control risk-takingmore “hot” talking, less “cool”talkingPFCamygdalaI liketo usedrugs!!
  • 6. Effects on Body ContinuedCardiovascular- dilates blood vesselswhich causes loss of heat*initially increases heart rate, then slowsit downGastrointestinal- toxic effect onstomach lining*irritates ulcers*increases acid and pepsin secretions(digestive fluid)*nauseantSexual Stimulation- too much alcoholabolishes sexual function
  • 7. Most Notable Effects on LiverFunction of Liver- It has a wide range offunctions, including detoxification,protein synthesis, and production of biochemicalsnecessary for digestion.Process of Filtering blood called Oxidation andremoves about 1 drink per hourBlood volume circulates through liver every 4 minutesLiver Damagecells in liver scarred, destroyed or fatty depositsCalled Cirrhosis (destroyed), Fibrosis (fat)
  • 8. Blood Alcohol ConcentrationBlood Alcohol Concentration: measured inpercentages*.10 means 10ml of alcohol per 100mL of blood*maximum BAC is reached within 20-30 minutesProcess of ‘filtering’ blood is called:OxidationOccurs in Liver and removes about 1 drink per hour
  • 9. Effects of Alcohol ChartFactors Influencing Absorption• Amount/Size of Drinks• Food• Body Size• Drug Interaction (s)?• GenderGender differences: womentend to be more affected byalcohol than men (< of alcoholmetabolizing enzyme)
  • 10. What are theLegal Limits?• You• > Age 211 Drink = ^.02
  • 11. Alcohol PoisoningCan happen in one episode of binge drinkingcan be fatalchoke on own vomit ormidbrain shuts down which regulates breathingCall 911 if you notice:vomiting, seizures, stupor, coma, can’t awaken,pale skin*once a person passes out, their BAC continuesto rise
  • 12. Absorption and MetabolismAbsorption and metabolism of alcohol:*rapid absorption*stomach absorbs ¼*rest is absorbed in small intestine*liver breaks down alcohol in about 1 drink an hourAmounts of alcohol: (2/3 ounce of pure ethanol)Same for all below!!*shot of hard liquor (86 proof/ 43% alcohol)*wine- 5 ounces (12% alcohol)*can of beer 12 ounces (4.5% alcohol)
  • 13. “Drunk Goggles Demonstration”Movie clip
  • 14. Standard Drinks1 bottle, 4 % - 6 %1 small glass of wine, 10% - 14%1 shot 30mL , (hard liquor), 37% - 43%A standard drink containsapproximately 10 grams of alcohol.This is equivalent to:
  • 15. Generalization…Bill (who is 55, has a good job, graduated anddrinks in moderation….) has 4 beers over thecourse of 2 hours what is his BAC……
  • 16. Use a designated driver, or one will beappointed for you !Nearly ½ of allTRAFFIC FATALITITESare related to DUI.DUI•Estimated Cost = $________• 2 year revocation licenseZero Tolerance• 3 Month/6 Month Suspension
  • 17. Implied ConsentThrough the process of obtaining adriver’s license a person in Illinois onegives consent to chemical testing. If apolice officer has a reasonable beliefthat person is driving under theinfluence of alcohol or drugs, theofficer can request the person tosubmit to testing.1.Blood 2. Breath 3. Urine
  • 18. Sobering MythsExercise…. Showering… Drinking Coffee….
  • 19. Only TIME will sober you up
  • 20. Factors ContributingToward AlcoholismGenetics= 2-7 ChanceDrinking < 15= 4 X ChanceHighToleranceLevels
  • 21. Fetal Alcohol SyndromeA national survey found that more than half ofwomen age 15-44 drank while pregnant.FAS is the leading known preventable cause ofmental retardation and birth defectsFAS is not just a childhood disorder; exposure toalcohol as a fetus can cause a wide range oflifelong physical and mental disabilities.
  • 22. Alcohol Essential QuestionsShort term vs. Long term effects…Can you identify a ‘standard drink’What is B A C ?Legal Limit for….YOU: ADULTS:If BAC is .12 what % of blood is alcohol?What is oxidation? Organ responsible? Oxidize 1 drinkevery:Sobering Myths:Factors influencing absorption:#1 Cause of Mental retardation in the U.S. is______________ (also called . . . )Factors contributing to alcoholism.

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