AlcoholALCOHOL NOTEMAKERAAlcohol is a depressant. It altersmood, thinking and behavior. Theintoxicating ingredient in alcoholicdrinks is ethyl alcohol (ETHANOL-Psychoactive Chemical). Purealcohol has no color or taste.Alcoholic drinks get their color andflavor from the ingredients used tomake them.The Least You Need to Know:1. Short term vs. Long term effects…2. What is a ‘standard drink…’3. What is BAC?4. What is oxidation?5. How long to oxidize 1 drink?6. Sobering Myths…7. Factors influencing absorption…8. F.A.S. (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)9. Factors contributing to alcoholism.
Path of Alcohol1. Mouth: alcohol enters the body.2. Stomach: some alcohol gets inthe bloodstream in the stomach,but most goes on to the smallintestine.3. Small Intestine: alcohol entersthe bloodstream through thewalls of the small intestine.4. Heart: pumps alcohol throughoutthe body.5. Brain: alcohol reaches the brain.6. Liver: alcohol is oxidized by theliver at a rate of about 0.5 oz perhour. Alcohol is converted intowater, carbon dioxide and energy.
THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOLandTHE ADOLESCENT BRAINBrain- first area depressed: speech, thought,restraint, judgment, inhibitions (Social regulators)• Then, spinal cord reflexes and respiration whichcan be fatal.• black-outs may occur (periods of time that can’tbe remembered when sober)•disturbed sleep patterns, change in REM sleep
Adolescent Brain ChangesThese brain changesare relevant toadolescent behaviorPrefrontal cortex (PFC)is pruned; not fullydeveloped until mid-20’sAmygdala (and n.a.)show less pruning andtend to dominate thejudgmentrewardsystemamygdala nucleusaccumbensprefrontalcortex
This imbalanceleads to... planned thinking impulsiveness self-control risk-takingmore “hot” talking, less “cool”talkingPFCamygdalaI liketo usedrugs!!
Effects on Body ContinuedCardiovascular- dilates blood vesselswhich causes loss of heat*initially increases heart rate, then slowsit downGastrointestinal- toxic effect onstomach lining*irritates ulcers*increases acid and pepsin secretions(digestive fluid)*nauseantSexual Stimulation- too much alcoholabolishes sexual function
Most Notable Effects on LiverFunction of Liver- It has a wide range offunctions, including detoxification,protein synthesis, and production of biochemicalsnecessary for digestion.Process of Filtering blood called Oxidation andremoves about 1 drink per hourBlood volume circulates through liver every 4 minutesLiver Damagecells in liver scarred, destroyed or fatty depositsCalled Cirrhosis (destroyed), Fibrosis (fat)
Blood Alcohol ConcentrationBlood Alcohol Concentration: measured inpercentages*.10 means 10ml of alcohol per 100mL of blood*maximum BAC is reached within 20-30 minutesProcess of ‘filtering’ blood is called:OxidationOccurs in Liver and removes about 1 drink per hour
Effects of Alcohol ChartFactors Influencing Absorption• Amount/Size of Drinks• Food• Body Size• Drug Interaction (s)?• GenderGender differences: womentend to be more affected byalcohol than men (< of alcoholmetabolizing enzyme)
What are theLegal Limits?• You• > Age 211 Drink = ^.02
Alcohol PoisoningCan happen in one episode of binge drinkingcan be fatalchoke on own vomit ormidbrain shuts down which regulates breathingCall 911 if you notice:vomiting, seizures, stupor, coma, can’t awaken,pale skin*once a person passes out, their BAC continuesto rise
Absorption and MetabolismAbsorption and metabolism of alcohol:*rapid absorption*stomach absorbs ¼*rest is absorbed in small intestine*liver breaks down alcohol in about 1 drink an hourAmounts of alcohol: (2/3 ounce of pure ethanol)Same for all below!!*shot of hard liquor (86 proof/ 43% alcohol)*wine- 5 ounces (12% alcohol)*can of beer 12 ounces (4.5% alcohol)
Standard Drinks1 bottle, 4 % - 6 %1 small glass of wine, 10% - 14%1 shot 30mL , (hard liquor), 37% - 43%A standard drink containsapproximately 10 grams of alcohol.This is equivalent to:
Generalization…Bill (who is 55, has a good job, graduated anddrinks in moderation….) has 4 beers over thecourse of 2 hours what is his BAC……
Use a designated driver, or one will beappointed for you !Nearly ½ of allTRAFFIC FATALITITESare related to DUI.DUI•Estimated Cost = $________• 2 year revocation licenseZero Tolerance• 3 Month/6 Month Suspension
Implied ConsentThrough the process of obtaining adriver’s license a person in Illinois onegives consent to chemical testing. If apolice officer has a reasonable beliefthat person is driving under theinfluence of alcohol or drugs, theofficer can request the person tosubmit to testing.1.Blood 2. Breath 3. Urine
Fetal Alcohol SyndromeA national survey found that more than half ofwomen age 15-44 drank while pregnant.FAS is the leading known preventable cause ofmental retardation and birth defectsFAS is not just a childhood disorder; exposure toalcohol as a fetus can cause a wide range oflifelong physical and mental disabilities.
Alcohol Essential QuestionsShort term vs. Long term effects…Can you identify a ‘standard drink’What is B A C ?Legal Limit for….YOU: ADULTS:If BAC is .12 what % of blood is alcohol?What is oxidation? Organ responsible? Oxidize 1 drinkevery:Sobering Myths:Factors influencing absorption:#1 Cause of Mental retardation in the U.S. is______________ (also called . . . )Factors contributing to alcoholism.