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STPM Form 6 Biology Animal Organs and Tissues
 

STPM Form 6 Biology Animal Organs and Tissues

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STPM Form 6 Biology Animal Organs and Tissues

STPM Form 6 Biology Animal Organs and Tissues

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    STPM Form 6 Biology Animal Organs and Tissues STPM Form 6 Biology Animal Organs and Tissues Presentation Transcript

    • Epithelial Nerve Muscle Connective• Protective • Coordination of • Body motility • Tissue barrier body functions • Contract and adhesion• Skin • Transmit nerve Relaxes to • Organ• Alimentary impulse allow attachment canals movements • Extracellular• Blood vessels matrix• Ducts • Fill spaces • Protect and Cushion organs • Mechanical support
    • a) Form external surfaces of the bodyb) Closely packed – Adhesion Junctions, Tight Junctions, Gap Junctionsc) Apical surface – exposed to external environmentd) Basolateral surface – exposed to internal environmente) Attached to basement membrane – Matrix of Glycoprotein and Collagen Fibres (Connective Tissues)
    • ThinFlatAttached tobasementmembraneBlood capillaryAlveoli wallsMouth cavity
    • Lining kidney tubules, salivary ducts, pancreaticductsSecretion, excretion, and absorptionAssociated with goblet cells for secretion
    • This is a respiratory epithelium being found insuch places as the nasal septum, trachea, andbronchi.Trap and move "pollutants" to the mouth wherethey are swallowed.Single layered, appreared to be multi-layereddue to arrangement of nuclei
    • Protective.The multiple layers are too thick for efficienttransport of materials (neither secretory orabsorptive).The innermost layer continually produces cells(via mitosis) to replace those lost from the outersurface.
    • Sweat ducts
    • Salivary glandsEyePharynxUterusUrethraVas deferens
    • Layered cellsAble to modify shapes under differentconditionsUreters and BladdersAllow stretchingPrevent urine from flowing out to surroundingtissues
    • • Nucleus plus cytoplasmCell body • Mitochondria • Nissls’s granules – ER and polyribosomes for Protein synthesisDendrons • Branches - dendrites • Conduct impulses towards cell body Axon • Conduct impulses away from cell bodyNeuroglia • Supporting cells which provide nutrients and oxygen • Schwann cells – Form myelin sheath
    • i. Antagonistic pairsii. Attached to bones by tendonsiii. Multinucleated (syncytium)iv. Striatedv. Form Muscle Bundlesvi. Each muscle fibre is surrounded by connective tissue called endomysium
    • •Uninucleated•Striated•Branched•Have intercalarydisc
    • Support and protection as internal framework.Provides system of levers with which theskeletal muscles work to move the body.Bones store lipids and minerals (Ca & P).Muscle attachment for motilitySite for hematopoiesis (blood cell formation).
    • 206 bones in the adult skeleton
    • Living tissueHardRigidStrongLight
    • • Relatively heavyCompact • Dense bone • Strong • Long bone • Less denseSpongy • Much lighter bone • Growing bone • Ends of long bone
    • 30% Collagen andGlycoprotein fibers 70% inorganic – Calcium hydroxyapatite crystals Magnesium Sodium Hydrogen carbonate Chloride ions
    • Cylindrical structure of the boneCalled osteonSecrete bone matrix and ground substances
    • Haversian Canal 1 artery 1 vein 1 lymph vessel Nerve fibresLamellae Concentric circles surrounding Haversian Canal
    • Bone lamellae Surrounding Haversian canalLacunae Fluid filling spaces between lamellae Bone cells – osteoblasts are found here
    • Canaliculi Fine vessels of cytoplasmic strains connecting lacunae and Haversian canal Connecting each other Supply lacunae with bloodVolkman canal Connects 2 Haversian canal together
    • • Mature lacunae Osteoblast • Stimulated when• Produce cytoplasmic excessive bone extension into canaliculi • Stimulated substances present• Interconnected with other osteocytes when extra • Reabsorb bone• Allow for exchange of bone substances matrix materials • Digest old bone is needed cells Osteocytes • Form new bones Osteoclast
    • Hyaline Yellow Elastic White Fibrous• Trachea • Pinna • Ligamentous• Bronchi • Epiglottis capsules• Skeleton of surrounding cartilageous joints fish – shark • Intervertebral and ray discs • Symphysis pubis
    • Cartilage matrix Chondroitin sulphate Secreted by chondroblasts Protein- carbohydrate conjugated with sulphur No blood vessels Diffusion of nutrients and gases
    • Chondrocytes Formed from chondroblasts Submerged in small spaces filled with fluid matrix Enclosed in lacunae surrounded by capsule
    • Perichondrion Fibrous membrane surrounding cartilage Supply new chondroblasts for maintenance of torn/damaged cartilage Contain blood vessels Allow diffusion of oxygen and nutrients to chondrocytes
    • ClearSmoothGlassyHard Collagen fibre network meshworkStrong but elastic
    • Liquid connective tissueAbout 5 L in adults
    • 90% water Buffer 6 – 8 % plasma protein Clotting (Fibrinogen & Protrombin) Transport proteins – 55% Plasma 1% Food cholesterol, Vitamins, Hormones, Iron, Antibodies Variable enzymes and HormonesBlood Variable excretory products RBC 45% Blood cells WBC
    • Biconcave No nucleus Erythrocytes Destroyed in spleen 4 monthsBone Marrow Granulocyte Leucocytes Agranulocytes Platelets