PMR Science Seminar

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PMR Science Seminar

  1. 1. PMR Science Seminar by Miss Wong Sook YenFree Powerpoint Templates Page 1
  2. 2. FORM 1 Science1) Introduction to Science2) Cell as a Unit of Life3) Matter4) The Variety of Resources on Earth5) The Air around Us6) Sources of Energy7) Heat Free Powerpoint Templates Page 2
  3. 3. FORM 2 Science1) The World through Our Senses2) Nutrition3) Biodiversity4) Interdependence among Living Organisms and the Environment5) Water and Solution6) Air Pressure7) Dynamics8) Support and Movement9) Stability10)Simple Machines Free Powerpoint Templates Page 3
  4. 4. FORM 3 Science1) Respiration2) Blood Circulation and Transport3) Excretion4) Reproduction5) Growth6) Land and Its Resouces7) Electricity8) Generation of Electricity9) Stars and Galaxies10)Space Exploration Free Powerpoint Templates Page 4
  5. 5. Form 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to ScienceFree Powerpoint Templates Page 5
  6. 6. Chapter 1.1Science is Part of Everyday Life Free Powerpoint Templates Page 6
  7. 7. 1.2 A Science Laboratorya) Safety and Precaution rulesb) Identify apparatusc) Functions of apparatusd) Bunsen burnere) Hazard warning symbols Free Powerpoint Templates Page 7
  8. 8. Safety and Precaution Rules Free Powerpoint Templates Page 8
  9. 9. Laboratory Apparatus Make sure you are able to identify different apparatus and give their functions Know the differences between measuring cylinder, pipette and burette Free Powerpoint Templates Page 9
  10. 10. Using a Bunsen Burner Parts of a Bunsen Burner Types of flame Comparison between luminous and non-luminous flame Free Powerpoint Templates Page 10
  11. 11. Hazards Warning Symbols Identify different hazard symbols Give examples for each types of hazard symbols Free Powerpoint Templates Page 11
  12. 12. 1.3 The Steps inScientific Investigation 1) Identifying the problem 2) Forming a hypothesis 3) Planning an experiment Free Powerpoint Templates Page 12
  13. 13. 1.3 The Steps inScientific Investigation 4) Controlling the variable 5) Collecting data 6) Analyzing data Free Powerpoint Templates Page 13
  14. 14. 1.3 The Steps inScientific Investigation 7) Interpreting data 8) Making a conclusion 9) Writing a report Free Powerpoint Templates Page 14
  15. 15. 1.3 The Steps inScientific Investigation Pendulum experimentFree Powerpoint Templates Page 15
  16. 16. 1.4 Physical Quantities and Their Units SI unit for temperature is Kelvin, not Celcius Know related measuring toolsFree Powerpoint Templates Page 16
  17. 17. 1.5 The Use of Measuring Toolsa) Measuring lengthb) Measuring diameterc) Measuring aread) Measuring volumee) Measuring temperature Free Powerpoint Templates Page 17
  18. 18. Measuring lengths Length of a curveCorrect eye position toavoid parallax error Free Powerpoint Templates Page 18
  19. 19. Measuring diameter Free Powerpoint Templates Page 19
  20. 20. Measuring AreaFree Powerpoint Templates Page 20
  21. 21. Measuring volumeFree Powerpoint Templates Page 21
  22. 22. Measuring volume of an irregular solid Free Powerpoint Templates Page 22
  23. 23. 1.6 Weight and Mass Differences between weight and mass Free Powerpoint Templates Page 23
  24. 24. Form 1 Chapter 2 Cells as a Unit of LifeFree Powerpoint Templates Page 24
  25. 25. 2.1 What is a Cell?a) Parts of a Microscopeb) Using a Microscopec) Structure and functions of  animal cells  plant cellsd) Comparison between animal cells and plant cells Free Powerpoint Templates Page 25
  26. 26. Parts of a Microscope Free Powerpoint Templates Page 26
  27. 27. Animal Cell and Plant Cell Free Powerpoint Templates Page 27
  28. 28. Comparison betweenAnimal cell and Plant cell Free Powerpoint Templates Page 28
  29. 29. 2.2 Unicellular andMulticellular Organismsa) Identify and classify  Unicellular organisms  Multicellular organisms Free Powerpoint Templates Page 29
  30. 30. 2.3 Cell Organisation in the Human Bodya) Types and functions of  Epithelial cells  Nerve cells  Sperm  Ovum  Red blood cells  White blood cellsb) Organisation of cells  Cells  Tissues  Organs  Systems  Organism Free Powerpoint Templates Page 30
  31. 31. 2.3 Cell Organisation in the Human Body Free Powerpoint Templates Page 31
  32. 32. 2.3 Cell Organisation in the Human Body Free Powerpoint Templates Page 32
  33. 33. 2.3 Human Beings are Complex Organisms Free Powerpoint Templates Page 33
  34. 34. Form 1 Chapter 3 MatterFree Powerpoint Templates Page 34
  35. 35. 3.1 What is matter?a) Matter – anything that has mass and occupies space.b) Experiment  Air occupies space  Air has mass  Water occupies space  Water has mass Free Powerpoint Templates Page 35
  36. 36. 3.2 The States of Mattera) Matter is made up of ________.b) Three states of matterc) Comparison between solid, liquid and gas Free Powerpoint Templates Page 36
  37. 37. Three States of Matter Free Powerpoint Templates Page 37
  38. 38. 3.3 The Concept of Densitya) Calculation of densityb) Relationship between buoyancy and density Free Powerpoint Templates Page 38
  39. 39. 3.4 Properties of Matter and Their Application in Everyday Life a) Application of compressed gas b) Application of concept of density Free Powerpoint Templates Page 39
  40. 40. Density and BuoyancyFree Powerpoint Templates Page 40
  41. 41. Form 1 Chapter 4The Variety of Resources on Earth Free Powerpoint Templates Page 41
  42. 42. 4.1 The Various Resources on EarthImportance of natural resources Water Air Soil Minerals Fossil fuels Living things Free Powerpoint Templates Page 42
  43. 43. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 43
  44. 44. 4.2 Elements, Compounds and Mixtures a) Identify and Recognize Elements, Compounds and Mixtures b) Comparison of Metal and Non-metals c) Comparison between Compounds and Mixtures d) Methods of Separation of Mixtures Templates Free Powerpoint Page 44
  45. 45. 4.2 Elements, Compounds and Mixtures Free Powerpoint Templates Page 45
  46. 46. 4.2 Methods of Separation for Mixturesa) Evaporationb) Magnetc) Separating funneld) Filtratione) Distillation Free Powerpoint Templates Page 46
  47. 47. 4.3 Appreciating the Importance of Earth’s Resourcesa) Preservation of resourcesb) Conservation of resources Free Powerpoint Templates Page 47
  48. 48. Form 1 Chapter 5 The Air Around UsFree Powerpoint Templates Page 48
  49. 49. 5.1 The Composition of Aira) Composition of airb) Composition of inhaled and exhaled airc) Experiment showing the percentage of oxygen in air Free Powerpoint Templates Page 49
  50. 50. 5.2 The Properties ofOxygen and Carbon DioxideComparison between  Colour and Smell  Solubility in water  Reaction with Sodium Hydroxide  Solubility in alkaline pyrogallol solution  Test for the presence of gases  Effect on litmus paper  Effect on hydrogen carbonate indicator Free Powerpoint Templates Page 50
  51. 51. 5.3 Oxygen is Needed for Respirationa) Understanding of Respirationb) Properties of Inhaled air and exhaled airc) Experiment  Showing that oxygen is required for respiration  Showing that carbon dioxide is produced during respirationFree Powerpoint Templates Page 51
  52. 52. 5.4 Oxygen is Needed for Combustiona) Conditions of Combustionb) Combustion of carbonc) Combustion of hydrocarbond) Experiment showing that oxygen supports combustion Free Powerpoint Templates Page 52
  53. 53. 5.5 Air Pollution5.6 The Importance of Keeping Air Clean a) Examples of air pollutants b) Sources and effects of air pollutants c) Prevention and Control of air pollution Free Powerpoint Templates Page 53
  54. 54. Form 1 Chapter 6 Sources of EnergyFree Powerpoint Templates Page 54
  55. 55. 6.1 The Various Forms and Sources of Energya) 8 Forms of energyb) Conversion of energyc) 8 Sources of energy Free Powerpoint Templates Page 55
  56. 56. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 56
  57. 57. 6.1 The Various Forms and Sources of Energy Free Powerpoint Templates Page 57
  58. 58. 6.2 Renewable and Non-renewable energya) Classification of various energy sources Free Powerpoint Templates Page 58
  59. 59. 6.3 The Importance ofConserving Energy Sourcesa) Why do we have to conserve energy sourcesb) Methods to conserve energyc) Alternative energy Free Powerpoint Templates Page 59
  60. 60. Form 1 Chapter 8 HeatFree Powerpoint Templates Page 60
  61. 61. 7.1 Heat as a Form of Energy a) Differences between heat and temperature b) Experiment showing the differences between heat and temperature Free Powerpoint Templates Page 61
  62. 62. 7.2 The Effects of Heat Flow on Matter a) Expansion and Contraction of Matter b) Experiment of contraction and expansion of  Solid  Liquid  Gas c) Methods of heat transfer  Conduction (experiment)  Convection  Radiation d) Application of heat transfer e) Heat Powerpoint Templatesheat insulatorsPage 62 Free conductors and
  63. 63. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 63
  64. 64. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 64
  65. 65. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 65
  66. 66. 7.3 Effect of Heat on Mattera) Changes of states of matterb) Comparison between boiling and evaporation Free Powerpoint Templates Page 66
  67. 67. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 67
  68. 68. 7.4 Application of Expansion and Contraction of Matter a) Thermometers b) Bimetallic thermometers c) Rivets d) Wheel axles e) Fire alarms f) Electric irons g) Railway tracks h) Electrical cables i) Pipes j) Metal bridges k) Concrete road surfaces Free Powerpoint Templates Page 68
  69. 69. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 69
  70. 70. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 70
  71. 71. 7.5 Absorption and Radiation of Heata) Comparison between good and bad heat radiator Free Powerpoint Templates Page 71
  72. 72. 7.6 The Benefits of Heat Flow Free Powerpoint Templates Page 72
  73. 73. Form 2 Chapter 1The World through Our Senses Free Powerpoint Templates Page 73
  74. 74. 1.1 Sensory Organs and their Functionsa) The 5 Senses  Touch  Smell  Taste  Hearing  Sightb) Stimulus to Response Pathway  Receptors  Sensory Organs  Nerves  Brain/Spinal Cord  Free Powerpoint Templates Effectors Page 74
  75. 75. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 75
  76. 76. 1.2 The Sense of Touch a) Location and functions of receptors b) Factors affecting sensitivity of skin c) Braille Reading system for the Blinds Free Powerpoint Templates Page 76
  77. 77. 1.3 The Sense of Smell a) Structures and Functions of the Nose b) Sensory pathways for smell c) Explain why a person who has a runny nose is unable to detect smells clearly.Free Powerpoint Templates Page 77
  78. 78. 1.4 The Sense of Tastea) Structures and Functions of the Tongueb) Sensory Pathways for Taste Free Powerpoint Templates Page 78
  79. 79. 1.5 The Sense of Hearinga) Structures and Functions of the Earb) The Hearing mechanism Free Powerpoint Templates Page 79
  80. 80. 1.6 The Sense of Sight a) Structure and Functions of the Eye b) Formation of Image on the retina Free Powerpoint Templates Page 80
  81. 81. 1.6 Formation of Image on the Retina Free Powerpoint Templates Page 81
  82. 82. 1.7 Light and Sighta) Reflection of Light and its Applicationsb) Refraction of Light  Light Rays diagram for refraction of light  Phenomena of the refraction of lightc) Vision defects and its corrections  Short-sightedness  Long-sightednessd) Limitations of sight  Blind spot  Optical illusione) Types of vision  Stereoscopic  Monocular Free Powerpoint Templates Page 82
  83. 83. Long-sightedness Free Powerpoint Templates Page 83
  84. 84. Short-sightedness Free Powerpoint Templates Page 84
  85. 85. Optical IllusionFree Powerpoint Templates Page 85
  86. 86. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 86
  87. 87. 1.8 Sound and Hearing a) Experiment showing that sound require medium for transfer b) Materials used as sound reflectors and sound absorbers c) Hearing defects and hearing aids d) Limitations on hearing – old people e) Characteristics of stereophonic hearing Free Powerpoint Templates Page 87
  88. 88. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 88
  89. 89. 1.9 Stimuli andResponses in Plants a) Tropism - +ve/-ve b) Phototropism  Shoots  Roots c) Hydrotropism  Shoots  Roots d) Geotropism  Shoots  Roots e) Nastic movement f) ThigmotropismFree Powerpoint Templates Page 89
  90. 90. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 90
  91. 91. Form 2 Chapter 2 NutritionFree Powerpoint Templates Page 91
  92. 92. 2.1 Classes of Food a) 7 Classes of Food  Examples  Roles and Functions b) Food tests for the presence of  Starch - __________  Glucose - _________  Proteins - _________  Fats - ___________Free Powerpoint Templates Page 92
  93. 93. 2.2 The Importance of Balanced Diet a) Factors that determines a balanced diet b) Calorific value of food - Calculations c) Planning a balanced diet meal plan Free Powerpoint Templates Page 93
  94. 94. 2.3 Human Digestive Systema) Structures and Functions of Digestive Organsb) Pathway of food movement along the alimentary canalc) Chemical Digestion of  Carbohydrates – Starch  Protein  Fatsd) End Products of Digestion  Glucose  Amino acids  Fatty acids and glycerols Free Powerpoint Templates Page 94
  95. 95. 2.4 Absorption of Digested Fooda) Location for food absorptionb) Structural adaptations of villi for maximum rate of absorption Free Powerpoint Templates Page 95
  96. 96. 2.5 Reabsorption of Water and Defecationa) Location of food reabsorption  Types of food being reabsorbed  Types of remaining foodb) Defecationc) Constipation – Causes and Solutions Free Powerpoint Templates Page 96
  97. 97. 2.6 Healthy Eating Habitsa) Location of food reabsorption  Types of food being reabsorbed  Types of remaining foodb) Defecationc) Constipation – Causes and Solutions Free Powerpoint Templates Page 97
  98. 98. Form 2 Chapter 3 BiodiversityFree Powerpoint Templates Page 98
  99. 99. 3.1 Biodiversity of Living Organisms a) Habitats b) Classifications of Living Organisms  Animals  Plants c) Classification of Animals  Vertebrates  Invertebrates d) Classification of Plants  Flowering  Non-flowering Free Powerpoint Templates Page 99
  100. 100. 3.3 The Importance of Biodiversity to the Environment Free Powerpoint Templates Page 100
  101. 101. Form 2 Chapter 4 Interdependence among Living Organisms and EnvironmentFree Powerpoint Templates Page 101
  102. 102. 4.1 Interdependence among Living Organismsa) Know the relationships between  Species  Population  Community  Ecosystemb) Identify living and non-living components of an environmentc) Importance of maintaining a balanced ecosystem Free Powerpoint Templates Page 102
  103. 103. 4.2 Interaction between living organismsBe able to define and recognizedifferent types of interactionsbetween living thingsa) Competition  Inter-species  Intra-speciesb) Symbiosis  Commensalism  Mutualism  Parasitismc) Free Powerpoint Templates Prey-predator Page 103
  104. 104. SymbiosisFree Powerpoint Templates Page 104
  105. 105. 4.3 Food Websa) Based on a food web, be able to identify  Producer  Primary consumers  Secondary consumers  Decomposersb) Converting food web into pyramid of numbersc) Predict the changes in the numbers of organismsd) Energy flow in a food web Page 105 Free Powerpoint Templates
  106. 106. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 106
  107. 107. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 107
  108. 108. 4.4 Photosynthesisa) Writing word equationb) Requirements of photosynthesisc) Experiment – Test for the presence of starch in leavesd) Importance of photosynthesis Free Powerpoint Templates Page 108
  109. 109. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 109
  110. 110. 4.5 Conservation andPreservation of Organisms a) Three R’s – Recycle, Reuse, Reduce b) Education c) Enforcement of Laws Free Powerpoint Templates Page 110
  111. 111. 4.6 Role of Human Beingsin Maintaining the Balance of the Nature a) Reforestation b) Sustainable management of natural resources c) Three R’s Free Powerpoint Templates Page 111
  112. 112. Form 2 Chapter 5 Water and SolutionFree Powerpoint Templates Page 112
  113. 113. 5.1 Physical Characteristics of Water a) Freezing and Melting of water b) Boiling of water c) Effects of impurities on  Melting and Boling points  Density  Conduction of electricity Free Powerpoint Templates Page 113
  114. 114. 5.2 Composition of Water a) Water as a compound  Hydrogen  Oxygen b) Electrolysis of water i. Aim ii. Experimental set up iii. Products of electrolysis at  Anode  Cathode iv. Ratio of products of electrolysis of Free Powerpoint Templates water Page 114
  115. 115. 5.3 Evaporation of watera) Process of evaporationb) Factors affecting the rate of evaporation of water  Air humidity  Surrounding temperature  Surface area exposed to air  Movement of air (wind)c) Applications of evaporation  Drying  Food preservations Free Powerpoint Templates Page 115
  116. 116. 5.4 Solution and Solubility a) Identify Solute, Solvent and Solution b) Comparing dilute, concentrated and saturated solutions c) Ways to Dissolve undissolved solutes in a saturated solution d) Experiment - Comparing solution and suspension e) Factors affecting the solubility of a solute f) Functions of various organic solvents Free Powerpoint Templates Page 116
  117. 117. Solute + Solvent >> Solution Free Powerpoint Templates Page 117
  118. 118. 5.5 Acid and Alkalia) Identify acids and alkalisb) Characteristics of acids and alkalisc) Application of acids and alkalisd) Neutralisation  Mixing solutions of different pH to get neutral solution  Changes in colour of acid-base indicator  Write chemical equation  Determine the end-point of Page 118 Free Powerpoint Templates
  119. 119. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 119
  120. 120. 5.6 Water Purificationa) Natural sources of waterb) Compare and contrast Methods of water purification  Filtration  Boiling  Chlorination  Distillation Free Powerpoint Templates Page 120
  121. 121. 5.7 Water Supply Systema) Water purification/treatment  Screening  Coagulation  Sedimentation  Filtration  Chlorination  Storage  Distribution Free Powerpoint Templates Page 121
  122. 122. 5.8 Preservation of Water Quality a) Sources and effects of water pollutants  Industrial  Domestic  Agricultural  Siltation  Oil spills b) Controlling water pollution Free Powerpoint Templates Page 122
  123. 123. Form 2 Chapter 6Free Powerpoint Templates Air Pressure Page 123
  124. 124. 6.1 Air Pressurea) Formation of air pressureb) Experiment showing that air exerts pressurec) Factors affecting air pressure  Volume  Temperatured) Experiment showing the increase/decrease in air pressure when volume/ temperature change Templates Free Powerpoint Page 124
  125. 125. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 125
  126. 126. 6.2 Application of thePrinciple of Air Pressurea) Identify location of high pressure and low pressure in  Syringe  Rubber hook  Bicycle pump  Plunger  Pipette/rubber dropper  Drinking straw – with/without holes  Siphon  Spray pump/aerosol canb) Storing Gas under High Pressure Free Powerpoint Templates Page 126
  127. 127. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 127
  128. 128. Form 2 Chapter 7 DynamicsFree Powerpoint Templates Page 128
  129. 129. 7.1 Force a) Definition of force b) Types of forces  Frictional  Gravitational  Electrostatic  Magnetic c) Effects of forces  Shape  Motion  DirectionFree Powerpoint Templates Page 129
  130. 130. 7.2 Measurement of Force a) SI unit of force – Newton (N) b) Conversion of Mass to Newton c) Measuring device – Spring balance d) Experiment measuring the magnitude of force Free Powerpoint Templates Page 130
  131. 131. 7.3 Application of Frictional Force a) Existence of Frictional force in daily activities b) Characteristics of Frictional force c) Advantages/ Disadvantages of friction d) Ways to increase/decrease Free Powerpoint Templates Page 131
  132. 132. 7.4 Application of Worka) Definition of work doneb) Identify work donec) SI unit of work doned) Calculation of work done Free Powerpoint Templates Page 132
  133. 133. 7.5 Application of Power a) Definition of power b) SI unit of power c) Calculation of power Free Powerpoint Templates Page 133
  134. 134. 7.6 Importance of Force in Life Free Powerpoint Templates Page 134
  135. 135. Form 2 Chapter 8 Support and MovementFree Powerpoint Templates Page 135
  136. 136. 8.1 Support Systems in Animalsa) Characteristics of 3 types of support systemsb) Classification of  Endoskeleton  Exoskeleton  Hydrostatic skeletonc) Recognize various parts of the Human Skeletal Systemd) Compare and contrast support system of terrestial and aquatic animalse) Compare and contrast exoskeleton and hydrostatic skeleton of invertebrates Free Powerpoint Templates Page 136
  137. 137. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 137
  138. 138. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 138
  139. 139. 8.2 Support Systems in Plants a) Characteristics of support system of terrestrial plants b) Classification of support system of terrestrial plants  Woody  Herbaceous c) Compare and contrast support system of woody and herbaceous plants d) Characteristics of support system of aquatic plants e) Compare and contrast support system of terrestrial and aquatic plants Free Powerpoint Templates f) Special adaptations Page 139
  140. 140. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 140
  141. 141. 8.3 Appreciating theSupport System in Living Organisms Free Powerpoint Templates Page 141
  142. 142. Form 2 Chapter 9 StabilityFree Powerpoint Templates Page 142
  143. 143. 9.1 Stabilitya) Determine the centre of gravity/point of equilibrium of an objectb) Factors affecting the stability of an object  Base area  Level of centre of gravity  Mass Free Powerpoint Templates Page 143
  144. 144. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 144
  145. 145. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 145
  146. 146. 9.2 Importance of Stability a) Ways to improve stability of certain objects/design  Increasing base area  Lowering centre of gravity Free Powerpoint Templates Page 146
  147. 147. Form 2 Chapter 10 Simple MachinesFree Powerpoint Templates Page 147
  148. 148. 10.1 Leversa) Identify  Fulcrum  Load  Effortb) Identify 3 types of leversc) Compare and contrast 3 types of leversd) Ways to overcome larger loads using the principle of leverse) Solving problems related to levers using the principles of moments Free Powerpoint Templates Page 148
  149. 149. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 149
  150. 150. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 150
  151. 151. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 151
  152. 152. 10.2 Appreciating the InnovativeEfforts in the Design of Machines to Simplify Work Free Powerpoint Templates Page 152

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