Form 3 PMR Science Chapter 3 Excretory System

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Form 3 PMR Science Chapter 3 Excretory System

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Form 3 PMR Science Chapter 3 Excretory System

  1. 1. Chapter 3Excretory System
  2. 2. Chemical Processes in theUse up BodyOxygenGlucoseAmino AcidsWaterNutrients Water,Produce Mineral salts,Carbon dioxide Urea,Water Carbon Dioxide,Urea HeatHeatToxic Chemicals
  3. 3. Excretory Organs in HumanUrinary System Lungs Skin Why waste products must be excreted out of the body??? Liver
  4. 4. 2
  5. 5. Location of the Kidney
  6. 6. Kidney Function• Detoxify blood• Increase calcium absorption o calcitriol• Stimulate RBC production o erythropoietin• Regulate blood pressure and electrolyte balance o renin
  7. 7. Structure of the Urinary System • Two Kidneys • Two Ureters • Bladder • Urethra
  8. 8. The Blood Supply to the Kidney
  9. 9. The Urinary System
  10. 10. Filtration system in the Kidney Filtration Mineral salts Sugar Amino Acids Waste-Urea Reabsorption All Sugar All amino acids Mineral Salts Water
  11. 11. Function of the Kidney• Filter blood in order to remove cellular waste products from the body.• Maintain chemical composition, pH and water level• At any given time, 20 % of blood is in the kidneys. Humans can function with one kidney.• If one ceases to work, the other increases in size to handle the workload.
  12. 12. Cellular waste• urea o (a nitrogenous waste produced in the liver from the breakdown of protein. It is the main component of urine)• uric acid o (usually produced from breakdown of DNA or RNA)• creatinine o (waste product of muscle action).
  13. 13. Composition of Chemicals in the Body Substance Blood in Kidney Urine renal artery tubules (filter system) Glucose 2.0 2.0 0Mineral salts 10.0 10.0 17.0Amino acids 0.9 0.9 0 Protein 88.0 0 0 Urea 0.5 20.0 20.0RBC & WBC 47% 0% 0
  14. 14. Kidney failure• Urinary Tract Infection• Kidney Stone• Kidney Infection• Diabetic Nephropathy• Hypertension• Glomerulonephritis• HIV nephropathy
  15. 15. Kidney Stone
  16. 16. Treatment of Kidney Failure -Dialysis-• ½ of patients with kidney disease eventually require dialysis• Diffuse harmful waste out of body• Control BP• Keep safe level of chemicals in body• If dialysis cannot work, the patient has to undergo kidney transplant
  17. 17. Hemodialysis• 3-4 times a week• Takes 2-4 hours• Machine filters blood and returns it to body
  18. 18. Peritoneal Dialysis• Abdominal lining filters blood• 3 types o Continuous ambulatory o Continuous cyclical o Intermittent

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