Landforms and Changes in the Earths Surface Vocabulary GuideWeathering is the wearing away of earth materials. It is a constantprocess. Weathering is caused by many things including wind, ice, waterand chemicals.Erosion is when weathered earth materials move from one place toanother.Deposition is when eroded earth materials stop moving and settle in anew place. One way to remember this is to think DEPOSIT.Key Point: often times "erosion" is used to describe all 3 process above.However on your assessment, you will need to be able to understand all 3terms independently.
Weathering: the water has worn down the earth material forming the V-shaped canyon. Erosion: The earth materials or sediments are moving down the channel. Deposition: The sediments have settled to create a delta.Hopefully this diagram will help you to remember howall 3 of these terms work together
Landforms: PlainsPlains are generally flat landforms. In some cases plainswere formed by glaciers that pushed across the earth.Most of the western half of Ohio is considered a plain.Plains are also usually considered lowlands.
Landforms: Plateaus Plateaus are like plains, but they are generally because they are flat surfaces. They are different because plateaus are higher than the surrounding areas. Plateaus can be formed in many ways, but the most common way is that over a long period of time, pressure from insideCreating a plateau is a slow process. the earth pushed a large section of the earth upward.
Landforms: ValleysValleys are have more gently sloped wall and are more U-shaped thancanyons. Valleys are often thought to be between mountains ormountain ranges. Some valleys are the result of a glacier movingthrough an area between mountains. The floor of a valley can be verylarge and often times, valleys have fertile soil in them.
Landforms: CanyonsCanyons are steep-walled, V-shaped landforms that are causedby a river weathering and erodingaway materials from a plateau.The making of a canyon is a veryslow process, sometimes takingmillions of years.Sometimes the rift between twomountain peaks is also called acanyon.
Landforms: Dunes Creating dunes can be a slow process.Dunes are landforms that are caused by wind eroding ormoving large amounts of sand and depositing the sand in anew location. Dunes can be found in deserts and nearoceans very easily.
Landforms: Deltas Deltas are "fan-shaped" landforms that are caused by the erosion or movement of sand, rock and other earth materials by a river. When a river moves these material down river, the deposition of the materials into the ocean or sea is the delta. Nile River Delta as seen from a satellite. Creating deltas is a slow process.
Landforms: Hill Hills are landforms that are generally smaller than 1,000 feet tall. Hills generally have rounded tops and smoothed sides. Hills can be formed in many ways, but one interesting way is that over a very long time a mountain can be weathered down into a hill.
Landforms: MountainsMountains are landformsthat have been causedbecause pressure frominside the earth upliftsthe earths crust.Tectonic Plates thatpush together is anotherway mountains areformed. Mountainsgenerally are taller than "Making" a mountain is a slow process.1,500 ft and havepointed tops or peaks.
Landforms: Volcanos Volcanos are landforms that are formed when magma inside the earth pushes through the earths crust. Volcanos can be active or dormant. Many volcanoes start in the ocean and can eventually form islands after millions of years.Even though it can take avery long time for avolcano to form an island(slow process), volcaniceruptions can change thesurface of the earth veryquickly so we call avolcanos effect on theearth a fast process.
Landforms: GlaciersGlaciers are massive sheets of ice that move very, very slowly over land(maybe a foot a year). Glaciers are formed by a process where lots andlots of snow accumulate over many years and the freezing/thawing cyclecause the formation of layers of ice and snow. When there is enoughpressure because of the build up of ice and snow, glaciers will start tomove.
Landforms: Glacial MorainesGlacial moraines are formed by the deposition of material from aglacier and glacial moraines are exposed after the glacier hasretreated. Glacial moraines usually appear as linear mounds of a mixtureof rock, gravel, boulders and a fine powdery material. Terminal or endmoraines are formed at the foot or terminal end of a glacier. The formation of a glacial moraine is a slow process.
EarthquakesEarthquakes are not landforms, but they do change the earthssurface a great deal. We would classify an earthquake as a fastprocess for changing the earths surface. Earthquakes happenwhen there is a sudden release of energy in the earths crustthat creates waves of energy. These waves of energy cause theearths crust to shake and crack.Geologists observing theeffects of an earthquake inAlaska.
Rapid (Fast) Earth Changing Processes:1) Volcanic Eruptions ( page 12 of "earthquakes andvolcanoes")2) Earthquakes ( page 83 in science text book)3) Landslides and Mudslides (page 24 of "earthschanging crust")Slow Earth Changing Processes:1) Formation of Mountains (page 12 of HowMountains Are Made)2) Glaciers ( Ice page 10)3) Volcanoes forming islands ( from "earthquakesand volcanoes)4) Weathering and erosion of rock due to waterand/or wind (Science text and other resources)