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H202 1 Themes And Late Middle Ages
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H202 1 Themes And Late Middle Ages

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Western Humanities 202 Lecture 1

Western Humanities 202 Lecture 1

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    • 1. Themes in the Western Humanities Late Middle Ages to the Modern Age
    • 2. Three Fundamental Themes
      • Growth of a tradition of rational, scientific inquiry
      • Persistent tension between Judeo-Christian religious ideals and social realities
      • Emergence of constitutional forms of government
    • 3.
    • 4.
    • 5. Why Do They Hate Us? Bin Laden’s Beliefs For this and other acts of aggression and injustice, we have declared jihad against the US … in our religion it is our duty to make jihad so that God's word is the one exalted to the heights and so that we drive the Americans away from all Muslim countries … The country of the Two Holy Places has in our religion a peculiarity of its own over the other Muslim countries. In our religion, it is not permissible for any non-Muslim to stay in our country.
    • 6. Large Sets of Questions
      • Growth of a tradition of rational, scientific inquiry
        • Classical legacies of study, education, and critical thinking; social, economic, political, and intellectual pluralism
        • Liberalism /tolerance and discernment concerning non-tolerance
        • Ethics/morality not directly tied to religion, tradition, or authority
        • Individualism
        • Technology used to improve the material standard of living across the social spectrum
        • Human realism in art, music, architecture, sculpture
        • Study and use of both deductive and inductive reasoning
    • 7. Large Sets of Questions
      • Tension between Judeo-Christian religious ideals and social realities
        • Nathan vs. David (II Samuel 12)
        • City of God vs. City of Man
        • Ambrose vs. Emperor Theodosius
        • Investiture Conflict to the First Amendment
        • Relationship between faith and reason
        • Separation of religious and secular life in government
        • Guarantees of individual rights
        • Academic freedom from Abelard onward
    • 8. Large Sets of Questions
      • Emergence of constitutional forms of government
        • Democracy /Republic /Oligarchy /Constitutional Absolutism
        • Rule of law
        • Equality before the law
        • Concept of citizen rather than a subject
        • Freedom of citizens/individual liberty
        • Concepts of human rights
        • Politics as a shared endeavor
        • Free market /enterprise concepts
        • Limits on arbitrary power (Becket and Magna Carta )
    • 9. Areas of Intersection
      • How did the West grow rich?
      • Where did the Western sense of “self” come from?
      • What happened to the Western soul?
    • 10. How the West Grew Rich
      • Transformative mechanisms present in West, but…
      • Real story of move from poverty to wealth starts in 14 th century, with breakdown of feudalism…
    • 11. How Did Distinctive Institutions Arise?
      • Free markets
      • Private property
      • Money and banking
      • Insurance/risk calculation and management
      • Freedom to organize economic enterprises
    • 12. How Did System for Generating Growth and Wealth Arise?
      • Non-economic factors
        • Demographics
        • Urbanization
        • Political approaches
          • Government involvements
            • Legal systems/protections
            • Subsidies/tariffs
            • Currency
            • Education
            • Transport systems
          • Laissez-faire
    • 13. How Did System for Generating Growth and Wealth Arise?
      • Organizational factors
        • Hierarchical
        • Market/non-hierarchical
        • Manorial
        • Science
    • 14. Are Western Economic Systems “Capitalist”?
      • Dominant features:
        • Pragmatism
        • Lack of ideological commitment to principles other than efficiency/survivability
      • Capitalism is a term of convenience
    • 15. From Poverty to Wealth
      • From:
      • Death
      • Famine/malnutrition
      • Plague/disease
      • Illiteracy, ignorance, and superstition
      • Limited horizons
      • Crowding
      • Limited choices
      • To:
      • Longer life expectancy
      • Improved nutrition
      • Better health and living conditions
      • Literacy and education
      • Variety of experience
      • Privacy
      • Personal choice
    • 16. Possible Mechanisms
      • Science and invention
      • Natural resources
      • Psychology
      • Luck
      • Misconduct
      • Inequalities of income and wealth
      • Exploitation
      • Imperialism
      • Slavery
    • 17. Deep Mechanism
      • Institutional mechanism built deep into structure of Western economies, continuously seeking out and adopting growth-inducing changes.
      • Deep is operative word…many (Malthus, Spengler) could not imagine continued growth.
    • 18. The Beginning: The Late Middle Ages
      • Periods of Economic Growth
        • Roman Empire
        • Early Middle Ages
        • 1400s
    • 19. The Country: Key Features of Manorial System
      • Unified Political/Economic Spheres
        • Fertile Crescent
        • Egypt
        • Family/Clan/Tribal leadership
      • Widespread use of servile labor
        • Ancient solution to contract issues
      • High degree of self-sufficiency
        • Barter/lack of adaptability
      • They
    • 20. Uncertainty and Risk
      • Uncertainties huge
        • Agriculture
        • Warfare/ransom/expropriation
        • Markets
      • Role of calculation minor
        • Did same things/same ways
        • “ Security” enforced by law, custom, political control, claims of justice; actually reduced security
    • 21. Towns and Political Rights
      • Some autonomy through purchase of charters (city-states)
      • Central monarchies (France, England, Spain)
      • But nowhere is desire found to end political control of trade and taxation..simply to transfer control
    • 22. Medieval Technology
      • Metallurgy
      • Chemistry
      • Ceramics/glassmaking
      • Textiles
      • Architecture
      • Clock
      • Optics
    • 23. Decline of Feudalism
      • 100 Years’ War
        • Shift from chivalry to professional army
        • Introduction of siege cannon, rendering castles obsolete
      • Decay of barter economy
        • Inheritable interest in land
        • Saleable interest in land
      • Disasters
    • 24. The Result
      • Change
      • The
      • System!
    • 25. The Collapse of the High Middle Ages
      • The “calamitous” 14 th Century
        • Famine and plague
        • Warring European states
        • New weapons and tactics/decline of chivalry and feudal system
    • 26. The Collapse of the High Middle Ages
      • The “calamitous” 14 th Century
        • New ideas drive a wedge between philosophy and theology
        • Balanced High Gothic style gives way to florid Late Gothic style in architecture and art
    • 27. Hard Times Come to Europe
      • Ordeal by Famine, Plague, and War
      • 1. Climate Shift
        • Modest cooling
        • Higher rainfall
        • Soil exhaustion
        • Epizootics
      From the Apocalypse in a Biblia Pauperum , created around the time of the Great Famine of 1315–1317. Death "(Mors") sits astride a lion whose long tail ends in a ball of flame. Famine points to her mouth.
    • 28. Hard Times Come to Europe
      • Ordeal by Plague, Famine, and War
      • 2. The Black Death
    • 29.
    • 30. Hard Times Come to Europe
      • Ordeal by Plague, Famine, and War
      • 3. The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453)
      Romantic painting of Joan of Arc at the Siege of Orléans.
    • 31. Hard Times Come to Europe
      • Ordeal by Plague, Famine, and War
      • 4. Depopulation and the Crisis in the Towns
    • 32. Hard Times Come to Europe
      • Ordeal by Plague, Famine, and War
      • 5. Peasant Uprisings in France (1358) and England (1381)
      Richard II meeting with the rebels of the Peasants' Revolt of 1381.
    • 33. Hard Times Come to Europe
      • Ordeal by Plague, Famine, and War
      • 5. Urban Rebellions
      Statue of Cola Di Rienzo by Girolamo Masini, located near the Campidoglio, where he was killed .
    • 34. Decline of Feudalism
      • 100 Years’ War
        • Shift from chivalry to professional army
        • Introduction of siege cannon, rendering castles obsolete
      • Decay of barter economy
        • Inheritable interest in land
        • Saleable interest in land
    • 35. Hard Times Come to Europe
      • The Secular Monarchies
        • France
        • England
      • The Papal Monarchy
        • Avignon papacy (1309-1377)
        • Great Schism (1378-1417)
        • Conciliar movement
        • Restoration of Papal power
    • 36. Hard Times Come to Europe
      • Technology
        • The Rise of Industries
      Wool trade, multiple spinning bobbins,  Isaac Claes Swanenburgh, 1614-1638, London History Museum
    • 37. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages
      • Political, social economic events reflected in breakdown of cultural synthesis of High Middle Ages
      • Secular voices challenge traditional views
        • Interests of bourgeoise have impact on art and architecture
        • Emergence of “individual”
    • 38. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages
      • Religion
        • Absence of monastic reform
        • Lay piety
          • The devotio moderna
          • The flagellants
        • Heresies
          • John Wycliffe
          • Jan Hus
        • The Inquisition
        • Witchcraft
    • 39. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages
      • Theology and Philosophy
        • The Via Antiqua vs. the Via Moderna
        • Duns Scotus and William of Ockham
    • 40. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages
      • Science
        • High Gothic forerunners
          • Robert Grosseteste
          • Roger Bacon
        • Nicholas Oresme
      This fresco shows the life of a late medieval hospital . Di Bartolo, Hospital of Santa Maria deall Scala, Siena
    • 41. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages
      • Literature
        • Northern Italian Literature: Petrarch and Boccaccio
        • English Literature: Geoffrey Chaucer
        • French Literature: Christine de Pizan
    • 42. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages
      • Late Gothic Architecture
        • Late Gothic style more ornate
        • Virtuosity is main aesthetic goal
        • In architecture, basic forms pushed to stylistic limits
    • 43. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages The ornate exterior of the church of St. Maclou in Rouen, France, illustrates the Late Gothic Style. Note how the facade fans out to form a semicircular entrance, the number of portals (5), and the intricately designed arches.
    • 44. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages The choir of of Gloucester Cathedral illoustrates the Perpendicular Gothic style; note how the thin pier, attached to the walls, lace together on the ceiling, creating elaborate patterns that complement the glass.
    • 45. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages This view of the south cloister of Gloucester Cathedral with its fan vaulting and rich, delicate decoration, further illustrates the Late Gothic Style.
    • 46. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages While Italian Gothic architecture has much in common with the Romanesque style, the cathedral in Siena is a key example of Late Italin Gothic design.
    • 47. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages While built in the Late Middle Ages, Giotto’s Tower in Florence anticipates the Classical ideal that was revived in the Renaissance .
    • 48. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages
      • Late Gothic Sculpture
      • In Italy (Siena and Pisano family), sculptural forms foreshadow Classical themes and values of Renaissance
      • In Burgundy, sculpture become highly “personal”
    • 49. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages Giovanni Pisano, Pulpit in the Pisa Cathedral. The inscription on the piece -- in which he takes responsibility for the work -- shows the emergence of a new breed of artists in the 14 th century
    • 50. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages Pisano’s nativity scene in the Pisa Cathedral reveals a Classic sense of balance in a fundamentally Gothic piece – again foreshadowing the Renaissance.
    • 51. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages Claus Sluter’s Moses has a sense of drama and personal emotion that make the statue nearly an individual portrait, though rooted firmly in the allegorical tradition.
    • 52. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages
      • Late Gothic Painting and the Rise of New Trends
          • Illuminated manuscripts become more secular
          • The Print (woodcuts, engravings, drypoint)
          • New Trends in Italy: Giotto
          • Flemish Painting: Jan Van Eyck and Hans Memling
    • 53. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages Limbourg Brothers,Month of January, from Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. This mionaiature painting provides a wealth of detail about social history in the Late Middle Ages.
    • 54. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages Housebook Master. Leisure Time at the Bath. This Chaucerian-like scene, with its frank sensuality, shows that the Late Middle Ages were becoming increasingly secualr and even sensual.
    • 55. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages
    • 56. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages In his Pieta, which revives the realistic Classical tradition, Giotto creates three-dimensional space in a way even the Greeks and Romans had not used .
    • 57. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages In the Ghent Altarpiece, van Eyck sought reality through the accumulation or precise and often symbolic details
    • 58. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages van Eyck, The Arnolfini Wedding.
    • 59. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages Hans Memling, Madonna and Child with Angels. Memling introduced some Italian elements into this painting (putti, stringed musical instruments) suggesting awareness of developments in Italy.
    • 60. The Cultural Flowering of the Late Middle Ages
      • Music
      This painting surveys the state of music in the Late Middle Ages – partiiculalry how sacred music began to be overshadowed by secualr music .
    • 61. The Legacy of the Late Middle Ages
      • Release of powerful secular spirit
        • Greatest impact was separation of painting and sculpture from service of architecture
        • Emergence of new breed of secular ruler
      • Growth of middle class as dominant force in society
      • First stirrings of industrialism

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