Adhesives 101 by Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide


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Want to learn more about adhesives? Check out our Wiz 101 Adhesives presentation. The presentation includes detailed information on water-based, hot melt, pressure sensitive and dextrin adhesives used in today’s packaging and converting applications as well as practical knowledge and much more.

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Adhesives 101 by Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide

  1. 1. Tom Rolando  Chief Technical Officer Chief Technical Officer Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide
  2. 2. Wiz 101 Adhesives Wiz 101 Adhesives  An Overview of  An Overview of Hot Melt,  Water‐based,  Pressure Sensitive  and  Dextrin Adhesives  D t i Adh i Used in  Packaging  Packaging and  Converting  Applications Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  3. 3. Wiz Adhesives 101  Course Outline •What is an Adhesive? •History of Adhesives sto y o d es es •Types of Adhesives •Water‐Based •Hot Melt •Chemistry y •Applications •Pressure Sensitive •Starch‐Dextrin •Practical Knowledge •Key Questions to Ask Before Recommending Adhesives f •Adhesive Definitions Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  4. 4. What Is An Adhesive? What Is An Adhesive? • An adhesive or glue is a An adhesive, or glue, is a  mixture in a  liquid or semi‐ liquid state (as used) that  adheres or bonds items  adheres or bonds items together.  • Adhesives may come from Adhesives may come from  either natural or synthetic  sources and nearly all are  polymer based  most are  polymer based – most are highly specialized and  formulated. Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  5. 5. History of Adhesives History of Adhesives • The original adhesive was developed  by the caveman, who made glue out  by the caveman who made glue out of animal hides and proteins. • ( Water‐based adhesives (also known  as PVAc, White Glue or Resin Glue)  were invented in Germany during  World War I.  It is the key ingredient  in Wood Glue and Elmer's Glue.  • Hot Melt Adhesives (also known as  EVA's or Ethylene Vinyl Acetate) were  invented around 1900, and perfected  invented around 1900 and perfected after World War II during the  development of automated  packaging lines. 
  6. 6. An Overview of  Today’s Adhesives Adhesive Types Hot Melt Polyvinyl  Acetate   (PVAc) Technologies Water‐based Ethylene‐Vinyl  Acetate (EVA) A t t (EVA) Polyvinyl  Acetate  Acetate ‐ Polyolefin/ Ethylene(VAE)   Metallocene Copolymer Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide  Pressure  Sensitive Starch‐ Dextrin
  7. 7. Water‐Based Adhesives Water‐Based Adhesives Applied  as an Emulsion (Mixture of Two or More Liquids That are  Normally Non‐mixable) That Is Converted  to An Adhesive When  ll bl ) h d dh h the Water Evaporates Water‐Based Adhesive Types: Water Based Adhesive Types: • Polyvinyl Acetates (PVAc) •Polyvinyl Acetate‐Ethylene  Copolymer Based – (VAE) Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  8. 8. Differences Between  PVAc and VAE and VAE Property Chemistry Referenced Adhesion Formulation Latitude of  Formulation Speed of Set Speed of Set Machinability PVAc Polyvinyl Acetate Homopolymer Moderate Required q Vinyl Acetate Ethylene Copolymer Excellent Optional p Limited Good Moderate Wide‐Ranged Excellent Excellent Resistance Properties Resistance Properties Good Economics Best Economics Less is More Not Applicable Uses Specialty Uses VAE Excellent Moderate Economics Applicable Corrugated, Lower End Folding Carton, Higher End Copyright ©2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide  Heat Seal Difficult Surfaces
  9. 9. Key Materials Used in  Key Materials Used in  Water‐based Adhesives Water‐based Adhesives
  10. 10. Water‐ Water‐based  Chemistry Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  11. 11. Ingredients Chemistry Purpose              Polymers y polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl acetate‐ethylene,  polyvinyl alcohol polyvinyl alcohol adds strength and toughness Water H20 acts as the diluent for polymer emulsions and disperses or  solubilizes additives Plasticizers benzoate ester, non‐phthalate types benzoate ester non‐phthalate types increases tack, increase speed of set, improve adhesion,  lower the T for more flexible films, reduce heat seal  lower the Tg for more flexible films reduce heat seal temperatures and improve water resistance. Solvents high boiling alkyl‐based fugitive plasticiers, improve adhesion, improve set of speed,  reduce minimum film forming temperature Humectants urea, glycerine prevents skimming, improves film flexibility, slows set of  speed, extends open time Fillers clay, calcium carbonate lowers cost, reduces penetration, alters rheology, reduces  cold flow Surfactants non‐ionic, anionic wetting agents, foam control Defoamers Alkyl & oil based foam control Thickeners polyacrylate, polyurethane alters the viscosity of a given product, can be used as  rheology modifiers Adhesion Promoters polyamine, metal chelators adds specific adhesion to difficult surface Preservatives Biocides, fungicides prolongs the shelf‐life of the product Dyes/Indicators Food Grade Colorants, Black Light Indicators alters the color, or UV absorption of the adhesive film Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  12. 12. Water‐ Water‐Based  Adhesive Applications Adhesive Applications • Laminating g • Packaging • case and carton  sealing and  li d assembly • envelopes • bags • tube winding • Product Assembly Product Assembly • Bookbinding Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  13. 13. Hot Melt Adhesives Hot Melt Adhesives Applied as a Molten Film or Bead and Converted   Applied as a Molten Film or Bead and Converted to a Solid When the Molten Material Gels/Cools The Most Widely Used Hot Melt  Adhesive Types Are: •Ethylene‐Vinyl Acetate (EVA) y / •Polyolefin/Metallocene Thermoplastic in Nature p Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  14. 14. Difference Between EVA and  Polyolefin Hot Melts P l l fi H M l Property p y EVA Polyolefin y Base Chemistry Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Polyethylene (Metalocene  Catalyzed) Adhesion (to Paper/Cellulosics) Good Excellent Lattitude of Formulation Wide Range Limited Speed of Set Good Excellent Machinability Moderate Excellent Odor Viscosity Build at Operating  Temperature Characteristic of Adhesive None Yes, to Char/Gel Does not Gain Viscosity Resistance Properties Resistance Properties Good Excellent Service Temperature Range Moderate Economics Good Economics Wide Ranged Best Economics on a Per Usage  Basis Less is More Not Applicable Applicable Uses Packaging, Converting Packaging, Converting Copyright ©2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  15. 15. Key Materials in  Hot Melt Adhesives Hot Melt Adhesives H t M lt Adh i Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  16. 16. Hot Melt Chemistry Hot Melt Chemistry Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  17. 17. Hot Melt Chemistry y Ingredients g Chemistry y Purpose p Polymers polyvinyl acetate‐ethylene,  polyolefin (metalocene catalyzed), polyethylene  catalyzed) polyethylene adds strength and toughness Tackifiers Hydrocarbon based,  Hydrogenated, Non‐ Hydrogenated, Rosin Based Hydrogenated Rosin Based increases tackiness and speed of set Waxes Peteroleum based,  polyethyelene controls melt viscosity and reduces cost  and controls setting speeds Adhesion  Adhesion Promoters Other Polymers adds additional adhesion characteristics Antioxidant Free Radical Scavengers prevents discoloration, gel formation Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  18. 18. Hot Melt Adhesive  Applications  A li ti •Packaging Packaging •Case and carton  sealing •Assembly y •Book and magazine  binding •Disposables •Automotive •Bottle manufacturing •Product assembly  applications li ti Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  19. 19. Hot Melt Pressure  Sensitive Adhesives Form Bond When Pressure  is Applied  to Marry the  Adhesive with the Adherent. No Solvent, Water, or  Heat is Needed to Activate the Adhesive Ingredients Chemistry Polymers Tackifiers Process Oils Waxes Antioxidant Rubber Based, SBS, SIS  Type Hydrocarbon based,  Hydrogenated, Non‐ Hydrogenated, Rosin  Based Mineral Oil, Light Oil,  Petroleum Based Peteroleum based,  polyethyelene Free Radical Scavengers Purpose adds strength and toughness increases tackiness and speed of  set modified viscosity controls melt viscosity and reduces  cost and controls setting speeds prevents discoloration, gel  d l l formation Copyright ©2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide  Applications Product Assembly Tag and Label Tag and Label
  20. 20. Hot Melt Pressure  ii dh i Sensitive Adhesives • Key Materials in PSAs – Key Materials in PSAs  • Rubber • Tackifier • Oil Based (see Hot Melt Diagram) . • Types of PSAs – • High Strength/High Peel • Moderate Strength/Moderate Peel  (R iti bl ) (Repositionable) • Low Strength/Low Peel (Fugitive) • Where would you use PSAs • • • • General Purpose Product Assembly General Purpose Product Assembly Display Tag and Label Mailers Copyright ©2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  21. 21. Dextrin Adhesives Based  on Starches and Other Additives, Dextrin  Adhesives Bond Well to Porous Surfaces But are  Not as Water resistant  and Have a Slow Set Time. Not as Water‐resistant and Have a Slow Set Time. Ingredients Chemistry Purpose Polymers Polysaccaride, starches, dextrin Polysaccaride, starches, dextrin Water H20 Humectants urea, glycerine, sodium nitrate Fillers clay, calcium carbonate Surfactants Defoamers non‐ionic, anionic wetting agents, foam control Alkyl & oil based Alkyl & oil based foam control foam control Thickeners polyacrylate, polyurethane alters the viscosity of a given product,  can be used as rheology modifiers other polymers formation of a resin‐dextrin Biocides, fungicides prolongs the shelf‐life of the product Adhesion  Promoters Preservatives Dyes/Indicators/ Color Retention adds strength and toughness adds strength and toughness acts as the diluent for polymer  emulsions and disperses or solubilizes additives prevents skimming, improves film  flexibility, slows set of speed, extends  open time lowers cost, reduces penetration, alters  rheology, reduces cold flow Food Grade Colorants, Black Light  alters or preserves the color, or UV  Indicators, Color Retention absorption of the adhesive film Copyright ©2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide  Applications Laminating Product Assembly Product Assembly Paper Converting
  22. 22. Dextrin Adhesives Dextrin Adhesives • Key Materials in Dextrins (corn) – y ( ) starch/dextrin • Where  Would  You Use Dextrins • Layflat Laminating • Corrugated Build‐Ups • Light Product Assembly Copyright ©2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  23. 23. Practical Knowledge Practical Knowledge • • • • • • • • • • • • Applications and Adhesives Substrates Process Tree Adhesive Applicating Systems Adh i A li i S Emulsion/Dispersion/ Solution Comparison Comparison of Water‐based vs.  Hot Melt Adhesives Hot Melt Adhesives Less is More  Theory Behind Adhesion Regulatory Information g y Sustainability Key Questions to Ask Before  Recommending Adhesives Adhesive Definitions Adh i D fi iti Copyright ©2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  24. 24. Applications and Adhesives Copyright ©2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  25. 25. Paper/Paperboard Kraft TiO2 coated Substrates SBS Board  (bleached board) Calendared Printed Coated Wax Michelmann PE  Films PP PE PET Foil Metalized Copyright ©2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  26. 26. Applications vs. Product Type Water-based Hot Melt/HMPSA Converting – Lap Seal Laminating Copolymer Homopolymer (Folding Carton) Economical Corrugated Resin HMPSA Labeling Permanent FDA Direct Dextrin Starch/Dextrin Labeling Rotary HMPSA/Difficult stuff Lap Paste Glass (Starch) Removable PET Synthetic Magazine Fed F d General Purpose Case and Carton Seal Glass (Synthetic) Modified Metalocenes General Purpose Metallocene Copolymer Homopolymer Polycoated board Economical/Fast setting Fast set Increased Tack / Best Freezer resistance Standard Grade Low application temp. General purpose Slower setting General Purpose Varnished/Coated Stock Very Fast setting / High Heat g eat resistance Tube Winding, Wood Assembly Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide  Slow setting / Wax board Fast tti F t setting Medium set / Difficult stock
  27. 27. Adhesive Applicating Adhesive Applicating Systems Non‐Circulating System is used to apply both cold water‐ Non‐Circulating System is used to apply both cold water‐ based and hot‐melt adhesives. A non‐circulating system  essentially comprises a parallel series of guns, each one  y attached to the main tank by individual hoses. The adhesive  is pumped to each gun though the hose, and the adhesive  is applied by the nozzle of the gun.  Circulating System used for continually applying  and re‐applying adhesive, typically in a rotary  based application system. based application system Copyright ©2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  28. 28. Adhesive Applicating Adhesive Applicating Systems Cold‐Glue System ‐ hoses pump the fluid adhesive to  applicator heads which apply the adhesive to the substrate  in bead, spray, or droplet form (depending upon the  requirement) by means of attachments or special  i t) b f tt h t i l configurations on the applicator heads.  Hot‐Melt System – Same as above but with an  additional requirement: melting the adhesive. The  g g most common configuration for melting devices is a  tank melter, or essentially a large pot or tank in  which cold adhesive can be added and melted into  liquid form.  Copyright ©2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  29. 29. Emulsion/Dispersion/ Solution  / p / Comparison Copyright ©2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  30. 30. Water‐ Water‐based vs. Hot Melt  Adhesives Comparison Property Water‐based Hot Melt Hot Melt Emulsion Solution Physical Chemistry y y Thermosetting g Thermoplastic p Polymer Chemistry PVAc, VAE EVA, Olefin Molecular Weight >100,000 <10,000 Adhesion Excellent Good Speed of Set Moderate Very Fast Wide Narrow Excellent Moderate Type Range of Properties Range of Properties Resistance Properties Economics Similar on a per dry unit of usage Copyright ©2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  31. 31. Less is More – Less is More – O i i i Adh i U Optimizing Adhesive Use •Reduce the amount of adhesive applied, no matter the technology.   •Ensure the adhesive is applied in the specific bonding area and  pp p g matches both the surfaces being bonded and the application  equipment applying the adhesive. •Use the latest and best equipment and know‐how for applying the  adhesive. adhesive •Optimize the overall gluing process. Copyright ©2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  32. 32. Theory Behind Adhesion  Chemical Bonding Mechanical Bonding Van der Waals Forces &  d l Hydrogen Bonding The Ideal Gas Law:  PV=nRT Steric Hindrance
  33. 33. Regulatory Information Key Aspects •TSCA & similar Global Regulation •VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) •HAPs •FDA Clearances FDA Cl •Proposition 65 Chemicals •REACH, RoHS, SVHC •Heavy Metal (CONEG) •Heavy Metal (CONEG) •Phthalate, Allergen, PFCs, Latex, etc…  FREE •CPSIA •Patriot Act – Conflict Materials •Supplier Guarantee •+ Continuing Added Regulations!! Copyright ©2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  34. 34. Adhesive Sustainablity Adhesive  Adhesive Sustainablity Sustainable Adhesives Use A Combination of Appropriate Chemistry and  Technology, Manufacture Adhesives in the Most Efficient Manner Possible  and Optimize Adhesive Use. Key Particle Components are: •Relative performance strength of the  R l ti f t th f th chemistry of the adhesive. •Relative recyclability of the product. • Manufacturing Efficiency of the  Product. P d t • Renewability. •Biodegradability‐Compostability‐ Repulpability. •Overall Energy Conservation – f O ll E C ti from Raw  R Material to Adhesive Manufacturing to  Adhesive User – detailing the Energy Used  and Waste Material Generated. “LESS IS  MORE APPROACH”. MORE APPROACH” Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  35. 35. Key Questions to Ask  Key Questions to Ask  Before Recommending Adhesives Before Recommending Adhesives 1. What is the End Use Product being  1 Wh t i th E d U P d t b i Made? 2. What substrates are involved?  Bonding  What to What? h h ? 3. How will the Adhesive be Applied? 4. How is the End Product being Made  now? 5. What is the substrate temperature  when glued? 6. What is the application temperature? 7. What is the Open Time, Compression  Time? Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  36. 36. Thank You Thank You Thank you for participating  in Wiz 101 Adhesives  in Wiz 101 Adhesives presented by  Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide  Click here to download your  y Continuing Education Certificate Copyright ©2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  37. 37. Adhesive Definitions Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  38. 38. Adhesive Definitions Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  39. 39. Adhesive Definitions Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  40. 40. Adhesive Definitions Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  41. 41. Adhesive Definitions Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide 
  42. 42. Adhesive Definitions Copyright 2014 Wisdom Adhesives Worldwide