The combination of visibilityand temperature, strongsurrogate for icing occurrence?Jarkko HirvonenFinnish Meteorological I...
Background• Visibility (VIS) and temperature (T) measured since Oct 2005 in Puijo tower• Direct observations of icing only...
Background• Visibility (VIS) and temperature (T) measured since Oct 2005 in Puijo tower• Direct observations of icing only...
Case selection and criteria for icing• Only in-cloud cases are considered so far   • Icing by mist (BR) or patchy cloudine...
Case selection and criteria for icing• Only in-cloud cases are considered so far   • Icing by mist (BR) or patchy cloudine...
InstrumentPuijo tower: VIS, T, webcam                                                          elevations                 ...
InstrumentPuijo tower: VIS, T, webcam                                                          elevations                 ...
Local map• Distance between Savilahti  ceilometer and Puijo tower 2,2 km.                                07.02.12
Local map• Distance between Savilahti  ceilometer and Puijo tower 2,2 km.                                07.02.12
Icing instruments on the roof of Puijo tower• FD12P: VIS and T                   • LID-3300IP, right• webcam              ...
Icing instruments on the roof of Puijo tower• FD12P: VIS and T                   • LID-3300IP, right• webcam              ...
Ceilometer on Lake Kallavesi level Savilahti weather station                                            • Savilahti weathe...
Left: Rosemount     Dec 14 2010 at 07:30 UTC                 Aerospace 0871LH1                   Right: Labkotec          ...
Left: Rosemount     Dec 14 2010 at 07:30 UTC                 Aerospace 0871LH1                   Right: Labkotec          ...
Sensor signals during icing (FZDZ case)LID-3300IP: Icing if signal value drops from 100 significantly   Rosemount 0871LH1:...
Sensor signals during icing (FZDZ case)LID-3300IP: Icing if signal value drops from 100 significantly   Rosemount 0871LH1:...
Webcam, 10 hours icing Jan 16 2012 14:00 UTC                                               07.02.12
Webcam, 10 hours icing Jan 17 2012 02:00 UTC                                               07.02.12
Webcam, 10 hours icing Jan 16 2012 14:00 UTC                                               07.02.12
Webcam, 10 hours icing Jan 17 2012 02:00 UTC                                               07.02.12
Webcam, 10 hours icing Jan 16 2012 14:00 UTC                                               07.02.12
Webcam, 10 hours icing Jan 17 2012 02:00 UTC                                               07.02.12
Webcam, 3 days of sublimation between Jan 28 2012 06:45 UTC                                                              0...
Webcam, 3 days of sublimation between Jan 29 2012 06:45 UTC                                                              0...
Webcam, 3 days of sublimation between Jan 30 2012 06:45 UTC                                                              0...
Webcam, 3 days of sublimation between Jan 31 2012 06:45 UTC                                                              0...
Glaze ice formed by freezing drizzle on tower structures 23 Nov 2011                                                      ...
© Frisk Kim Ilmatieteen laitosPresent weather 1983-1992Tampere Airport when VIS < 8 km.            haze            mist   ...
Cloud base height (CBZ) during an (icing) in-cloud case       at least 3h of low cloudiness                               ...
Cloud base height (CBZ) during an (icing) in-cloud case       at least 3h of low cloudiness                               ...
General problem with icing detectors in weather station usage• every once in a while sensors do get ice all over if right ...
General problem with icing detectors in weather station usage• every once in a while sensors do get ice all over if right ...
Results: comparison table for 13 (from 132 available) cases from2009, (2010, 2011 TODO)                                   ...
Conclusions• Low cold (T<0°C) clouds practically always contain some liquid water• VIS and T rule strong indicator for in-...
Conclusions• Low cold (T<0°C) clouds practically always contain some liquid water• VIS and T rule strong indicator for in-...
Thank you!Jarkko HirvonenFinnish Meteorological Institutejarkko.hirvonen@fmi.fip.+358-50-523013007.02.12
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Comparison of visibility observations at a meteorological tower to cloud base height observations from nearby and distant weather stations Jarkko Hirvonen, Finnish Meteorological Institute

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Comparison of visibility observations at a meteorological tower to cloud base height observations from nearby and distant weather stations Jarkko Hirvonen, Finnish Meteorological Institute

  1. 1. The combination of visibilityand temperature, strongsurrogate for icing occurrence?Jarkko HirvonenFinnish Meteorological InstituteWinterwind2012Feb 6 – 7 2012 Skellefteå07.02.12
  2. 2. Background• Visibility (VIS) and temperature (T) measured since Oct 2005 in Puijo tower• Direct observations of icing only partially for icing seasons: • 2009-2010, 2010-2011, 2011-2012 • Webcam, LID-3300IP, Rosemount 0871LH1 FZ Sensor• How reliable is it to use visibility and temperature to deduce icing occurence? • Comparison between direct icing observation and VIS/T-measurements • Aim: longer period of “icing” measurements for icing climatology 07.02.12
  3. 3. Background• Visibility (VIS) and temperature (T) measured since Oct 2005 in Puijo tower• Direct observations of icing only partially for icing seasons: • 2009-2010, 2010-2011, 2011-2012 • Webcam, LID-3300IP, Rosemount 0871LH1 FZ Sensor• How reliable is it to use visibility and temperature to deduce icing occurence? • Comparison between direct icing observation and VIS/T-measurements • Aim: longer period of “icing” measurements for icing climatology 07.02.12
  4. 4. Case selection and criteria for icing• Only in-cloud cases are considered so far • Icing by mist (BR) or patchy cloudiness likely excluded • Icing by freezing (FZ) precipitation likely excluded• in-cloud cases selected independently according to nearby lower level cloud base height (CBZ) detector (ceilometer), in-cloud if CBZ < 200 m.• Surrogate icing: if VIS is poor (< 200 m) and freezing T (< 0°C)• Real icing: if one of the direct instruments hints for icing• Manual inspection of cases • low number of cases completed so far 07.02.12
  5. 5. Case selection and criteria for icing• Only in-cloud cases are considered so far • Icing by mist (BR) or patchy cloudiness likely excluded • Icing by freezing (FZ) precipitation likely excluded• in-cloud cases selected independently according to nearby lower level cloud base height (CBZ) detector (ceilometer), in-cloud if CBZ < 200 m.• Surrogate icing: if VIS is poor (< 200 m) and freezing T (< 0°C)• Real icing: if one of the direct instruments hints for icing• Manual inspection of cases • low number of cases completed so far 07.02.12
  6. 6. InstrumentPuijo tower: VIS, T, webcam elevations Savilahti: CBZ image: P. Tukiainen 07.02.12
  7. 7. InstrumentPuijo tower: VIS, T, webcam elevations Savilahti: CBZ image: P. Tukiainen 07.02.12
  8. 8. Local map• Distance between Savilahti ceilometer and Puijo tower 2,2 km. 07.02.12
  9. 9. Local map• Distance between Savilahti ceilometer and Puijo tower 2,2 km. 07.02.12
  10. 10. Icing instruments on the roof of Puijo tower• FD12P: VIS and T • LID-3300IP, right• webcam • Rosemount 0871LH1, left 07.02.12
  11. 11. Icing instruments on the roof of Puijo tower• FD12P: VIS and T • LID-3300IP, right• webcam • Rosemount 0871LH1, left 07.02.12
  12. 12. Ceilometer on Lake Kallavesi level Savilahti weather station • Savilahti weather station 07.02.12
  13. 13. Left: Rosemount Dec 14 2010 at 07:30 UTC Aerospace 0871LH1 Right: Labkotec LID 3300IPIcesensors on the roof of Puijotower seen through thewebcam 07.02.12
  14. 14. Left: Rosemount Dec 14 2010 at 07:30 UTC Aerospace 0871LH1 Right: Labkotec LID 3300IPIcesensors on the roof of Puijotower seen through thewebcam 07.02.12
  15. 15. Sensor signals during icing (FZDZ case)LID-3300IP: Icing if signal value drops from 100 significantly Rosemount 0871LH1: Ice event (cumulative): one 130 HzHeating starts at signal value 50 Decrease from 40 kHz 07.02.12
  16. 16. Sensor signals during icing (FZDZ case)LID-3300IP: Icing if signal value drops from 100 significantly Rosemount 0871LH1: Ice event (cumulative): one 130 HzHeating starts at signal value 50 Decrease from 40 kHz 07.02.12
  17. 17. Webcam, 10 hours icing Jan 16 2012 14:00 UTC 07.02.12
  18. 18. Webcam, 10 hours icing Jan 17 2012 02:00 UTC 07.02.12
  19. 19. Webcam, 10 hours icing Jan 16 2012 14:00 UTC 07.02.12
  20. 20. Webcam, 10 hours icing Jan 17 2012 02:00 UTC 07.02.12
  21. 21. Webcam, 10 hours icing Jan 16 2012 14:00 UTC 07.02.12
  22. 22. Webcam, 10 hours icing Jan 17 2012 02:00 UTC 07.02.12
  23. 23. Webcam, 3 days of sublimation between Jan 28 2012 06:45 UTC 07.02.12
  24. 24. Webcam, 3 days of sublimation between Jan 29 2012 06:45 UTC 07.02.12
  25. 25. Webcam, 3 days of sublimation between Jan 30 2012 06:45 UTC 07.02.12
  26. 26. Webcam, 3 days of sublimation between Jan 31 2012 06:45 UTC 07.02.12
  27. 27. Glaze ice formed by freezing drizzle on tower structures 23 Nov 2011 07.02.12
  28. 28. © Frisk Kim Ilmatieteen laitosPresent weather 1983-1992Tampere Airport when VIS < 8 km. haze mist mist 1h fog drizzle FZRA SNRA -SN SN/ +SN SHRA SHSN 07.02.12 28
  29. 29. Cloud base height (CBZ) during an (icing) in-cloud case at least 3h of low cloudiness 07.02.12
  30. 30. Cloud base height (CBZ) during an (icing) in-cloud case at least 3h of low cloudiness 07.02.12
  31. 31. General problem with icing detectors in weather station usage• every once in a while sensors do get ice all over if right meteorological conditions for icing prevail long enough 10.2.2011 Rosemount LID VIS sensor 10.2.2011 07.02.12
  32. 32. General problem with icing detectors in weather station usage• every once in a while sensors do get ice all over if right meteorological conditions for icing prevail long enough 10.2.2011 Rosemount LID VIS sensor 10.2.2011 07.02.12
  33. 33. Results: comparison table for 13 (from 132 available) cases from2009, (2010, 2011 TODO) 07.02.12
  34. 34. Conclusions• Low cold (T<0°C) clouds practically always contain some liquid water• VIS and T rule strong indicator for in-cloud icing as visibility is poor in-cloud • Exception might occur when T just slightly below zero (T=0...-1°C) • Then the ice detectors might stay quiet as latent heat release in phase transition (water->solid) is able to keep sensor surface above zero.3• Other icing phenomena excluded in this study • Mist, pathy cloudiness , freezing precipitation, snow mixed rain • VIS/T-rule probably not work as well in these situations • Cases with ice detectors indicating without clear reason needs further studying• Number of cases analyzed here is very small due to manual manipulation • further studies required with automated analysis• Heavy and/or long-lasting mid and late icing season cases harder to study as ice detectors more likely ice up 07.02.12
  35. 35. Conclusions• Low cold (T<0°C) clouds practically always contain some liquid water• VIS and T rule strong indicator for in-cloud icing as visibility is poor in-cloud • Exception might occur when T just slightly below zero (T=0...-1°C) • Then the ice detectors might stay quiet as latent heat release in phase transition (water->solid) is able to keep sensor surface above zero.3• Other icing phenomena excluded in this study • Mist, pathy cloudiness , freezing precipitation, snow mixed rain • VIS/T-rule probably not work as well in these situations • Cases with ice detectors indicating without clear reason needs further studying• Number of cases analyzed here is very small due to manual manipulation • further studies required with automated analysis• Heavy and/or long-lasting mid and late icing season cases harder to study as ice detectors more likely ice up 07.02.12
  36. 36. Thank you!Jarkko HirvonenFinnish Meteorological Institutejarkko.hirvonen@fmi.fip.+358-50-523013007.02.12

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