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Canadian R&D activities on wind energy production in cold climate and in complex terrain Hussein Ibrahim, Cédric Arbez, Mariya Dimitrova, Wind Energy TechnoCentre, Christian Masson
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Canadian R&D activities on wind energy production in cold climate and in complex terrain Hussein Ibrahim, Cédric Arbez, Mariya Dimitrova, Wind Energy TechnoCentre, Christian Masson

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  • 1. CANADIAN R&D ACTIVITIES ON WIND ENERGY PRODUCTION IN COLD CLIMATE AND IN COMPLEX TERRAIN Hussein Ibrahim, Christian Masson, Cédric Arbez, Mariya Dimitrova
  • 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE• Nordic climate• Major issues• Canadian R&D Activities on Wind Energy Production in Cold Climate2 www.eolien.qc.ca
  • 3. NORDIC CLIMATE Definition : Regions where T is lower than standard operational limits (-20oC) and/or with atmospheric icing Atmospheric icing Glaze ice (freezing rain or drizzle) • Usually dense & transparent ice Rime ice (in-cloud icing or freezing fog) • White & feathery accumulations of variable density Wet snowSource : Tammelin 2005 • Heavy & wet adhering snow 3 www.eolien.qc.ca
  • 4. MAJOR ISSUES Temperatures • Adapted technologies Storms & avalanches • Site access Source : Tammelin 2003 Atmospheric icing • Production losses • Vibration Source : Maissan 2005 • Security • Noise • Measure & control4 www.eolien.qc.ca Source : Tammelin 2005 Source : Tammelin 2003
  • 5. RESEARCH PROGRAM OF CANADIAN WIND ENERGY STRATEGY NETWORK (WESNET)Focus on 7 projects with cold weather issues:• Design of ice-free anemometers• Wind turbine composite materials for the Canadian context• Ice accretion modelling• Wind tunnel investigations of icing impact on wind turbine blade profiles• Forecasting icing events• Icing event monitoring• Atlas of icing events at high resolution5 www.eolien.qc.ca
  • 6. DESIGN OF ICE-FREE ANEMOMETERS Anemometer design (1st generation) Anemometer design (2nd generation) 150 W Better heat Lack of heating at distribution hub level and on the on the rotor anemometer shaft Additional heating anemometer in shaft Project goals and motivations: Simple, robust, low- consumption and reliable instrument for wind velocity measurement Researcher: Jean Ruel, André Bégin-Drolet, Université Laval6 www.eolien.qc.ca
  • 7. WIND TURBINE COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR THE CANADIAN CONTEXTObjectives:• Investigate possible limitations of current blade designs when used in cold climate. ETS - Material characterisation in extreme conditions: Sample Static and dynamic mechanical properties at low temperature. fabrication Failure modes analysis. Effect of freeze-thaw cycles. UVic - Finite element (FE) modelling of blade structure relying on cold temperature material data. Mechanical test set-upResearchers: Simon Joncas (ETS), Curran Crawford (UVic) 7 www.eolien.qc.ca
  • 8. ICE ACCRETION MODELLING General objectives • To evaluate icing impact on wind turbine performance • Optimize de-icing Specific objectives • Use commercial CFD codes to simulate ice accretion on objects and wind turbine blades; • Validate the 2D methods and extend to three- dimensional simulations of ice accretion around rotating blades; • Use CFD and heat transfer analysis to optimize electro- thermal de-icingResearchers: Adrian Ilinca, UQAR; Guy Fortin, Jean Perron UQAC; Marcelo Reggio – École Polytechnique 8 www.eolien.qc.ca 8
  • 9. ICE ACCRETION MODELLING : RESULTS Contours of normalized water volume fraction over a cylinder of 10.16 cm diameter 3D results – Aerodynamics - NREL case Comparison of local collection efficiency results: Eulerian approachin CFX, experimental results, Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches in FLUENT, numerical validation with FENSAP-ICE(DROP3D) 9 www.eolien.qc.ca
  • 10. ICE ACCRETION MODELLING : RESULTS PROICET Numerical simulator to predict the wind energy production losses due to icing (Developed by Mariya Dimitrova, UQAR-Wind Energy TechnoCentre) CIRALIMA 2D Numerical simulator to predict the ice shape (Developed by Guy Fortin, UQAC)Researchers: Adrian Ilinca, UQAR; Guy Fortin, Jean Perron UQAC; Marcelo Reggio – École Polytechnique 10 www.eolien.qc.ca
  • 11. WIND TUNNEL INVESTIGATIONS OF ICING IMPACT ON WIND TURBINE BLADE PROFILES T3 T1 Experimental Study of Hybrid Anti-icing Heating zone Thermocouple HE 1 HE 2 Systems combining Thermoelectric and T2 T4 Hydrophobic Coatings. Subscale Model Contact angle Icing Condition LWC 0.4 g/m³ , MVD 27 µm EXPERIMENTS Air Speed Aluminium sheet covered by 21 m/s 3MTM High Performance Protective Film 40 meters0.52 Glaze : -5ºC Hydrophobic and Superhydrophobic CoatingsTested under Icing Condition Rime : -20ºC Wearlon® StaClean HIREC Researchers: Jean Perron & Guy Fortin , AMIL at UQAC 11 www.eolien.qc.ca
  • 12. WIND TUNNEL INVESTIGATIONS OF ICING IMPACT ON WIND TURBINE BLADE PROFILES Experimental Study of Hybrid Anti-icing Systems combining Thermoelectric and Hydrophobic Coatings. 100 100 Hydrophobic Super Hydrophobic Super 90 90 Rime S W hydrophobic hydrophobic 80 Glaze Volume Reduction (%) 80 t e S Power Reduction (%) H H W 70 a a 70 t I I 60 c l r l R RESULTS 60 a c e a R E 50 E 50 r e o l C 40 C 40 l a n e 30 n 30 a o Rime n n 20 20 10 Glaze 10 0 0 60 90 120 150 180 60 90 120 150 180 Contact Angle (º) Contact Angle (º) RIME ICE CONDITION HIREC GLAZE ICE CONDITION 3M HIREC 3M Researchers: Jean Perron & Guy Fortin , AMIL at UQAC12 www.eolien.qc.ca
  • 13. MONITORING ICING EVENTSObjectives:• Study the capabilities of icing detectors• Investigate behaviour of wind measurement instruments in icing conditions• Construct a database of icing eventsInstrumentations:• Camera• Goodrich ice detector (0872E3)• Thies Ultrasonic anemometer• NRG cup anemometers (#40C & Icefree3) Researcher: Christian Masson, ETS13 www.eolien.qc.ca
  • 14. FORECASTING ICING EVENTSObjectives:• Managing energy production (fluctuations for network connection• Planning turbines shutdown for maintenance operations Researcher: Robert Benoit, ETS14 www.eolien.qc.ca
  • 15. ATLAS OF ATMOSPHERIC ICING EVENTS AT HIGH RESOLUTION Objective: • Construct a complete Canadian atlas of atmospheric icing events Methodology: • Based on reanalysis data at 32 km resolution (NARR) • Validated with Airport dataData : Resolution :Temperature 32 km gridRelative humidity Data every 3 hLiquid water contentCloud base height Time period :Visibility 28 years of dataFreezing rain forecast available Researchers: Christian Masson & Robert Benoit, ETS; Jean Perron, UQAC 15 www.eolien.qc.ca
  • 16. CONCLUSION Wind energy development in many countries is faced with cold climate conditions that require adapted technologies and techniques. Canada is a prime example for this kind of weather and many research activities focus on the specificities of wind energy in cold climates. The most important research initiative regarding the wind energy sector in the country is the Canadian Wind Energy Strategic Network (WESNet), a NSERC funded Strategic Research Network. It regroups highly productive researchers across Canada and is supported by the government, the industry, associations and institutions. The projects, financed by WESNet, are carried out by prominent researchers from many universities and involve three major groups (the Canadian research chair on the Nordic Envionment Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines (NEAT) at École de Technologie Supérieure (ÉTS), the Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL) at Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, and the TechnoCentre éolien, a full-size installation in a Nordic region. The research team can found its work on essential resources such as wind turbines farms, meteorological towers, icing monitoring towers, refrigerated wind tunnels, simulation software, super-computers, and excellent laboratories.16 www.eolien.qc.ca
  • 17. Hussein IBRAHIM 51 chemin de la mineMerci! G0E 1W0, Murdochville, QC hibrahim@eolien.qc.ca Tél:418-784-3646#223 www.eolien.qc.ca 1-888-EOLIENS