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Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines Michael J. Moser, Markus Brandner and Hubert Zangl, Graz University of Technology
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Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines Michael J. Moser, Markus Brandner and Hubert Zangl, Graz University of Technology

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  • 1. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 1 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines Michael J. Moser, Markus Brandner and Hubert Zangl Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria
  • 2. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 2 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Motivation • Why fusion?
  • 3. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 3 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Motivation • Why fusion? - Both capacitive and optical icing detectors have shown to work but might have drawbacks.
  • 4. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 4 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Motivation • Why fusion? - Both capacitive and optical icing detectors have shown to work but might have drawbacks. • Why blade-mount?
  • 5. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 5 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Motivation • Why fusion? - Both capacitive and optical icing detectors have shown to work but might have drawbacks. • Why blade-mount? - Detect icing where it is relevant.
  • 6. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 6 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Motivation • Why fusion? - Both capacitive and optical icing detectors have shown to work but might have drawbacks. • Why blade-mount? - Detect icing where it is relevant. • Why measure, not estimate from weather conditions?
  • 7. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 7 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Motivation • Why fusion? - Both capacitive and optical icing detectors have shown to work but might have drawbacks. • Why blade-mount? - Detect icing where it is relevant. • Why measure, not estimate from weather conditions? - Get reliable information e.g. to trigger heating.
  • 8. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 8 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 State of the Art • Weather monitoring and estimation - Detection of icing e.g. by means of standard ice detectors
  • 9. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 9 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 State of the Art • Weather monitoring and estimation - Detection of icing e.g. by means of standard ice detectors • Ultrasonic and microwave ice thickness measurement - Deterioration due to pollution is possible, power demand is high
  • 10. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 10 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 State of the Art • Weather monitoring and estimation - Detection of icing e.g. by means of standard ice detectors • Ultrasonic and microwave thickness measurement - Deterioration due to pollution is possible, power demand is high • Indirect Detection of aerodynamical changes - Loss of power generation is an indicator, detection of vibrations
  • 11. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 11 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 State of the Art • Weather monitoring and estimation - Detection of icing e.g. by means of standard ice detectors • Ultrasonic and microwave thickness measurement - Deterioration due to pollution is possible, power demand is high • Indirect Detection of aerodynamical changes - Loss of power generation is an indicator, detection of vibrations • Measurement of rotor blade weight - Averages over entire blade surface
  • 12. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 12 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 New Approach • Aim #1: „Direct“ measurement
  • 13. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 13 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 New Approach • Aim #1: „Direct“ measurement – Measurement of icing on multiple points on the rotor blade surface
  • 14. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 14 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 New Approach • Aim #1: „Direct“ measurement – Measurement of icing on multiple points on the rotor blade surface • Aim #2: Scalability
  • 15. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 15 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 New Approach • Aim #1: „Direct“ measurement – Measurement of icing on multiple points on the rotor blade surface • Aim #2: Scalability – In principle, applicable to any surface
  • 16. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 16 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 New Approach • Aim #1: „Direct“ measurement – Measurement of icing on multiple points on the rotor blade surface • Aim #2: Scalability – In principle, applicable to any surface • Aim #3: Low power consumption
  • 17. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 17 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 New Approach • Aim #1: „Direct“ measurement – Measurement of icing on multiple points on the rotor blade surface • Aim #2: Scalability – In principle, applicable to any surface • Aim #3: Low power consumption – In particular: energy harvesting is feasible -> no wires
  • 18. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 18 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 New Approach • Aim #1: „Direct“ measurement – Measurement of icing on multiple points on the rotor blade surface • Aim #2: Scalability – In principle, applicable to any surface • Aim #3: Low power consumption – In particular: energy harvesting is feasible -> no wires • Aim #4: No change in aerodynamics
  • 19. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 19 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 New Approach • Aim #1: „Direct“ measurement – Measurement of icing on multiple points on the rotor blade surface • Aim #2: Scalability – In principle, applicable to any surface • Aim #3: Low power consumption – In particular: energy harvesting is feasible -> no wires • Aim #4: No change in aerodynamics – Mounted e.g. within heating foil / on or under shell coat
  • 20. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 20 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 EMT‘s Key Competences Which measurement principles are suitable?
  • 21. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 21 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 EMT‘s Key Competences Which measurement principles are suitable?
  • 22. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 22 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 EMT‘s Key Competences Which measurement principles are suitable?
  • 23. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 23 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Capacitive Sensing Evaluation of the variable capacitance of a measurement capacitor, modification of
  • 24. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 24 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Capacitive Sensing Evaluation of the variable capacitance of a measurement capacitor, modification of - capacitor‘s geometry
  • 25. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 25 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Capacitive Sensing Evaluation of the variable capacitance of a measurement capacitor, modification of - capacitor‘s geometry - permittivity of the dielectric medium
  • 26. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 26 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Capacitive Sensing Evaluation of the variable capacitance of a measurement capacitor, modification of - capacitor‘s geometry - permittivity of the dielectric medium Planar capacitor Dielectric medium Parallel plate capacitor
  • 27. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 27 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Capacitive: Pros and Cons + -
  • 28. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 28 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Capacitive: Pros and Cons High accuracy High resolution Temp. Range -40°C + -
  • 29. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 29 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Capacitive: Pros and Cons High accuracy High resolution Temp. Range -40°C Wireless Low Power Thickness measurement + -
  • 30. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 30 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Capacitive: Pros and Cons x Small signal changes x Large offsets High accuracy High resolution Temp. Range -40°C Wireless Low Power Thickness measurement + -
  • 31. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 31 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Capacitive: Pros and Cons x Small signal changes x Large offsets x Disturbers / EMC x Ambiguities x Model needed High accuracy High resolution Temp. Range -40°C Wireless Low Power Thickness measurement + -
  • 32. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 32 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Method: Capacitance Tomography (ECT)
  • 33. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 33 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Capacitive Icing Detection on OHTL Capacitive Icing Sensor for OHTL
  • 34. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 34 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Capacitive Icing Detection on OHTL Capacitive Icing Sensor for OHTL Field Test since 2009-2011
  • 35. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 35 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Capacitive Icing Detection on OHTL Capacitive Icing Sensor for OHTL Field Test since 2009-2011 Commercial Product since 2011
  • 36. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 36 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Optical Icing Detection - Make use of optical properties of ice, water and air
  • 37. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 37 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Optical Icing Detection - Make use of optical properties of ice, water and air
  • 38. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 38 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Optical Icing Detection - Make use of optical properties of ice, water and air
  • 39. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 39 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Optical Icing Detection: Pros and Cons + -
  • 40. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 40 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Optical Icing Detection: Pros and Cons High accuracy High resolution + -
  • 41. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 41 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Optical Icing Detection: Pros and Cons High accuracy High resolution Robustness against disturbers Selectivity + -
  • 42. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 42 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Optical Icing Detection: Pros and Cons High accuracy High resolution Robustness against disturbers Selectivity + -x more power needed x pollution effects x lifetime of optical components
  • 43. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 43 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Optical Icing Detection: Pros and Cons High accuracy High resolution Robustness against disturbers Selectivity + -x more power needed x pollution effects x lifetime of optical components x mechanical issues x no thickness measurement
  • 44. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 44 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Lab Measurement Setup
  • 45. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 45 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Lab Measurement Setup
  • 46. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 46 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Lab Measurement Setup
  • 47. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 47 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Icing Experiment Results 0 500 1000 1500 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 x 10 4 Icing Experiment IcingIndicator(a.u.)
  • 48. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 48 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Summary • A capacitive measurement principle for the detection of rotor blade icing is feasible.
  • 49. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 49 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Summary • A capacitive measurement principle for the detection of rotor blade icing is feasible. • Capacitance Tomography methods can be applied to estimate ice layer thickness and quality.
  • 50. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 50 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Summary • A capacitive measurement principle for the detection of rotor blade icing is feasible. • Capacitance Tomography methods can be applied to estimate ice layer thickness and quality. • Water (melting ice layers, rain and drying) can be clearly distinguished from any other state.
  • 51. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 51 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Summary • A capacitive measurement principle for the detection of rotor blade icing is feasible. • Capacitance Tomography methods can be applied to estimate ice layer thickness and quality. • Water (melting ice layers, rain and drying) can be clearly distinguished from any other state. • Ice layers can be watched while growing, thickness can be determined.
  • 52. Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz University of Technology, Austria Professor Horst Cerjak, 19.12.2005 52 Sensor fusion for a blade surface-mount icing detector for wind turbines – Winterwind 2012, Skellefteå, Sweden – 7./8.2.2012 Summary • A capacitive measurement principle for the detection of rotor blade icing is feasible. • Capacitance Tomography methods can be applied to estimate ice layer thickness and quality. • Water (melting ice layers, rain and drying) can be clearly distinguished from any other state. • Ice layers can be watched while growing, thickness can be determined. • Sensor Fusion approach: Optical icing detection can eliminate ambiguities in capacitive measurement (improved ice/water discrimination)