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Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective
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Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective

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Jos Beurskens presentation at Winterwind 2012. "Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective"

Jos Beurskens presentation at Winterwind 2012. "Global Wind Energy development in a European R&D perspective"

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  • 1. Global wind energy development from a European R&D PerspectiveSET Analysis Jos Beurskens SET Analysis Jos Beurskens WinterWind 2012, February 7, 2012 Skellefteå (S) 2012-02-07 1
  • 2. This presentationSET Analysis •  Putting Cold Climate issues in a wider perspective •  Mainstream developments; review Jos Beurskens •  Similarities between CC and Offshore issues •  Towards a universal (= IEA, EU) Research Agenda 2012-02-07 2
  • 3. CC in perspective Why is it necessary to put CC issues in a wider perspective?! !SET Analysis Because:! •  Mainstream Politics and Industry is only impressed by GW’s and size Jos Beurskens •  Instead, the number of people served should be accounted for 2012-02-07 3
  • 4. External Conditions CC in perspective •  The vast majority of wind turbines have been installed in ‘moderate’ climatesSET Analysis •  Remote and extreme areas are under explored and exploited Jos Beurskens 2012-02-07 4
  • 5. CC in perspective Remote RuralSET Analysis Cold Mainstream Wind Climate Mainstream Wind Power Power Offshore Jos Beurskens Hot Deserts The present Research Agenda is incomplete ! 2012-02-07 5
  • 6. SET Analysis CC in perspective •  Claim x % of offshore R&D resources for CC, hot deserts, remote& rural areas •  Claim y% of this part for CC Jos Beurskens 2012-02-07 6
  • 7. Various types of electricity CC in perspective producing wind turbines Grid connected turbines; wind farms Grid connected turbines; small scale offshore Grid connected turbines;SET Analysis wind farms on land Jos Beurskens Autonomous Hybrid systems (AWDS) Hybrid systems (W-PV) 2012-02-07 7
  • 8. SET Analysis Grid connection of offshore wind farms CC in perspective E.g.: OWEZ (NL) Jos Beurskens E.g.: Q7 (NL) Bron: Arjen van der Meer, TUDelft Photo: Jos Beurskens 2012-02-07 8
  • 9. Electrical lay-out of autonomous CC in perspective wind diesel systems (AWDS) Frøya. 50 kW + 50 AWDS developed by TUEindhoven kW and ECNSET Analysis Jos Beurskens 2012-02-07 9
  • 10. SET Analysis Jos Beurskens Autonomous wind turbines CC in perspective Copied from National Geographic Magazine 2012-02-07 10
  • 11. Maturity of the technologies CC in perspective Grid connected turbines; wind farms offshore Rated power [MW] 10SET Analysis 1 Grid connected turbines; medium scale Hybrid systems (AWDS) Grid connected turbines; wind farms on land Jos Beurskens 0.1 Missing link: Reliability of ‘mature’ technologies Grid connected turbines; under extreme conditions 0.01 small scale Autonomous & Hybrid (W-PV) Circle areas indicate maturity Rotor diameter [m] 0 25 50 75 100 125 2012-02-07 11
  • 12. Market (31-12-2010) Main stream developments Installed Wind Power in the World - Annual and Cumulative - 40,000 200,000SET Analysis 35,000 175,000 Total installed offshore wind power: 3554 MW Total number of projects: 43 30,000 Average power per project: 83 MW/project 150,000 Average power of 10 smallest projects: 8.1 MW/project Average power of 10 largest projects: 198 MW/project 25,000 125,000 W r a M e e y v r 20,000 e 100,000 i t a p l Jos Beurskens u W m M 15,000 75,000 u C 10,000 50,000 5,000 25,000 0 0 1983 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 Year Source: BTM Consult - A Part of Navigant Consulting - March 2011 2012-02-07 12
  • 13. SET Analysis EWEA’s wind power scenarios (in GW) Main stream developments Annual installation rates Jos Beurskens Offshore is the driver ! Time lines displaced by 16 years ! Source: EWEA Oceans of Opportunity 2012-02-07 13
  • 14. The evolution of wind turbines" Main stream developments Up scalingSET Analysis Jos Beurskens 2012-02-07 14
  • 15. The evolution of wind turbines" Main stream developments Average size Wind turbine (kW), installed each year Global Average Annual WTG in kW Source: BTM Consult - A Part of Navigant Consulting - March 2011SET Analysis 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 W k 800 Jos Beurskens 600 400 200 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Year China Denmark Germany India Spain Sweden UK USA 2005 897 1381 1634 780 1105 1126 2172 1466 2006 931 1875 1848 926 1469 1138 1953 1667 2007 1079 850 1879 986 1648 1670 2049 1669 2008 1220 2277 1916 999 1837 1738 2256 1677 2009 1360 2368 1976 1117 1904 1974 2241 1731 2010 1,469 2,514 2,047 1,293 1,929 1,995 2,568 1,875 Source: BTM Consult - A Part of Navigant Consulting - March 2011 2012-02-07 15
  • 16. The evolution of wind turbines" Main stream developments Wind turbine capacity product cycleSET Analysis X Jos Beurskens Offshore Source: DEWI Magazin 2012-02-07 16
  • 17. Main stream developments Wind energy share of EU electricity demand 6 000SET Analysis 4 051 5 000 3 910 3 690 3 524 4 000 3 307 3 320 2 994 3 000 Jos Beurskens 2 000 1 154 1 000 873 581 23 182 330 83 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Wind energy production (TWh) EU reference (TWh) Source: EWEA and EC 2010 2012-02-07 17
  • 18. Main stream developments Capital cost of on- and offshore wind powerSET Analysis 3500 3000 Offshore 2500 Onshore EWEA EC 2000 Jos Beurskens 1500 1000 500 0 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2012-02-07 18
  • 19. Main stream developments Wind power investments 30 (€bn)SET Analysis 25 20 15 Jos Beurskens 10 5 0 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2022 2024 2026 2028 2030 Onshore Investments (€2010 bn) Offshore Investments (€2010 bn) 2012-02-07 19
  • 20. Main stream developments Wind power energy sector employment (People) 500 000 246 175 296 548SET Analysis 169 550 450 000 400 000 350 000 300 000 86 731 293 306 250 000 Jos Beurskens 22 458 34 945 231 198 200 000 202 694 6 374 13 931 183 373 150 000 174 174 147 419 154 151 140 544 100 000 50 000 0 2007 2008 2009 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 Onshore Offshore Total 153,793 154,476 196,632 189,096 289,425 462,856 477,373 479,921 Source: EWEA and EC 2010 20 2012-02-07
  • 21. Main stream developments Installed capacity, electricity productionand share in EU demand Contribution of electricity from RES and wind energy 1970-2010 + expected contribution 2011-2050 (% of consumption) 120SET Analysis 100 80 60 40 20 0 Jos Beurskens 1971 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 All RES (%) Wind (%) Wind Total wind Average Average EU-27 power’s Onshore Offshore energy capacity capacity gross share of wind wind capacity factor factor TWh TWh TWh electricity electricity (GW) (GW) (GW) onshore offshore onshore offshore total consumption demand 2020 190 40 230 26% 42.30% 433 148 581 3,690 16% 2030 250 150 400 27% 42.80% 591 562 1,154 4,051 29% 2050 275 460 735 29% 45% 699 1,813 2,512 5,000 50% Sources: 1971-1989 3E/EWEA assumption: 1990-2008 Eurostat: 2009 EWEA assumption: 2010-2020 NREAPs: 2020-2030 EWEA (based on PRIMES consumption 2030: 2031-2050 EWEA). 2012-02-07 21
  • 22. Main stream developments Wind energy in 2030 – EWEA targetsSET Analysis Onshore Offshore Total Installed capacity (GW) 250 150 400 Annual installations (GW) 10 13.7 23.7 Jos Beurskens Annual investments (bn€) 8.2 17.1 25.3 Electricity production (TWh) 591 562 1,154 2012-02-07 22
  • 23. Main stream developments Wind energy’s share of national electricity demand, end 2010 Denmark 25,6% Portugal 15,5%SET Analysis Spain 15,0% Ireland 12,9% Germany 8,0% EU-27 5,3% Greece 4,3% Netherlands 4,1% United Kingdom 3,7% Estonia 3,5% EU average Sweden 3,2% 5.3% Italy 3,2% Austria 2,8% Jos Beurskens Lithuania 2,7% Belgium 2,3% France 2,3% Bulgaria 2,1% Romania 1,7% Poland 1,6% Hungary 1,5% Luxembourg 1,1% Latvia 0,9% Czech Republic 0,6% Finland 0,5% Slovakia 0,0% Slovenia 0,0% Malta 0,0% Cyprus 0,0% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% Source: EWEA, GWEC and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 2012-02-07 23
  • 24. Main stream developments Wind energy capacity [kW] per 1000 citizens, end 2010SET Analysis Denmark 686 Spain 450 Portugal 366 Germany 333 Ireland 320 Sweden 232 EU-27 168 Netherlands 135 Austria 121 Estonia 111 EU average 107 Greece Cyprus 102 168 kW Jos Beurskens Italy 96 France 87 Luxembourg 84 Belgium 84 United Kingdom 84 Bulgaria 50 Lithuania 46 Finland 37 Hungary 29 Poland 29 Romania 22 Czech Republic 20 Latvia 14 Slovakia 1 Slovenia 0 Malta 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Source: EWEA, GWEC and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 2012-02-07 24
  • 25. Main stream developments Installed wind power per 1000 km², end 2010SET Analysis Denmark 88,1 Germany 76,2 Netherlands 54,1 Portugal 42,6 Spain 41,0 Belgium 29,9 UK 21,3 Ireland 20,3 EU-27 19,5 Italy 19,2 EU average Luxembourg 16,4 Austria 12,1 19.5 MW Jos Beurskens France 10,3 Greece 9,2 Cyprus 8,9 Sweden 4,8 Poland 3,5 Bulgaria 3,4 Estonia 3,3 Hungary 3,2 Czech Republic 2,7 Lithuania 2,4 Romania 1,9 Finland 0,6 Latvia 0,5 Slovakia 0,1 Slovenia 0,0 Malta 0,0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Source: EWEA, GWEC and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 2012-02-07 25
  • 26. Main stream developments Global Cumulative wind power capacity (1996-2010) (GW) 200SET Analysis 180 160 84,3 140 120 75,1 100 Jos Beurskens 64,7 80 56,5 60 112,7 48 40 40,5 83,8 34,4 55,6 28,5 20 23,1 37,3 17,3 26 9,7 12,9 18,6 3,5 4,8 6,5 8 10,9 13,2 2,6 2,8 3,7 3,9 4,5 6,6 0 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total 6.1 7.6 10.2 13.6 17.4 23.9 31.1 39.4 47.6 59.1 74.1 93.8 120.3 158.9 197.0 Rest of the world EU Source: “Global wind report – annual market update 2010” – GWEC 2011; EWEA 2011 26 2012-02-07
  • 27. Main stream developments Global annual wind power capacity (1996-2010) 45SET Analysis 40 35 10,5 9,3 30 25 8,3 20 Jos Beurskens 15 8,5 28,3 28,9 7,6 10 18,3 6,2 5 5,5 5,8 11,3 4,4 5,9 7,7 3,2 5,3 1,7 3,2 2,7 2,4 1 1,3 0,8 2,1 1,4 0 0,3 0,3 0,2 0,6 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Rest of the world EU Total 1.3 1.6 2.5 3.4 3.8 6.5 7.3 8.2 8.2 11.5 15.3 19.8 26.6 38.8 38.2 Source: “Global wind report – annual market update 2010” – GWEC 2011; EWEA 2011 2012-02-07 2727
  • 28. Offshore and Cold Climate SimilaritiesSET Analysis Offshore & Cold Climate Jos Beurskens issues 2012-02-07 28
  • 29. R&D drivers for offshore and remote Offshore and Cold Climate and extreme climate applications of WE Offshore Issue Remote, extreme Foundation, grid Cost breakdown Grid, foundationSET Analysis Waves, saline atm, turbulence, External conditions Temperature, humidity, icing, varying soil sea bottom, eaxtreme winds conditions in time, turbulence (forest) RAMS, dedicated wind turbines Wind turbne concept RAMS, dedicated CC wind turbines 3 media (soil, water, air) Support structure 3 media (soil properties highly variable, air); (perma frost, ice) Marine weather windows Transport & assembly Arctic weather windows Jos Beurskens Marine weather windows Accessibility for O&M Arctic weather windows No electrical infrastruture; large Grid connection & No or poor electrical infrastructure; weak scale integration on HV level integration grids Large scale operations Scale and risks Small scale & remoteness Marine eco-systems, shipping, oil Nature & safety Artic (marine) eco-systems, oil and gas and gas safety safety Wind farm interaction, alternative Spatial planning ? use of oceans 2012-02-07 29
  • 30. Offshore and Cold Climate Dedicated cold climate R&D Offshore is motor for R&DSET Analysis Jos Beurskens Cold Climate wind power technology 2012-02-07 30
  • 31. SET Analysis Offshore wind turbines Offshore and Cold Climate Cost of support structures are dominant and are relatively insensitive to load carrying capacity Jos Beurskens The wind turbines should be as big as possible ! 2012-02-07 31
  • 32. Up scaling wind turbines" Offshore and Cold Climate For the engineer: For the economist:SET Analysis mass ~ (D³) investment cost ~ (D³) cross section ~ (D²) energy output ~ (D²) stress (= mass/cross section) ~ D COE (= inv. cost/energy output) ~ D Jos Beurskens Development of advanced materials with a higher strenth to mass ratio 2012-02-07 32
  • 33. Three important consequences Offshore and Cold Climate of extreme up scaling!SET Analysis •  Extreme up scaling only possible if materials with low mass to strength ratio become available •  Distributed aerodynamic control needed Jos Beurskens •  More flexibility in structure to cope with (dynamic) fatigue loads 2012-02-07 33
  • 34. Up scaling: weight requirements Offshore and Cold Climate for blades Technology Evolution with Blade SizeSET Analysis 30,00 Gl-P HLU Gl-P RI 25,00 Gl-Ep RI Gl-Ep Prep 20,00 Blade Mass (tn) Gl-C Hybrid 1 Gl-C Hybrid 2 15,00 New Tech 1 Jos Beurskens New Tech 2 10,00 New Tech 3 5,00 REFERENCE Ep Prep 0,00 P RI 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 P HLU Rotor Radius (m ) Hybrid Source: UpWind; CRES, GR 2012-02-07 34
  • 35. Wind turbines Offshore and Cold Climate Distributed blade control necessary" Wind fieldSET Analysis Jos Beurskens Photo: Jos Beurskens 2012-02-07 35
  • 36. Wind turbines" Offshore and Cold Climate Faigue load reduction by
 distributed blade control"SET Analysis Wind tunnel tests on a scaled smart rotor – flapwise root bending moment with and without flap activation Jos Beurskens Comparison with Individual Pitch Control:•  15-25% reduction of fatigue damage equivalent load, depending on load case•  Can add up to 30% 2012-02-07 36
  • 37. SET Analysis Jos Beurskens Wind turbines" Offshore and Cold Climate Thermoplastic blades 2012-02-07 37
  • 38. Operation and Maintenance Offshore and Cold Climate Planning phaseSET Analysis Photo: Jos Beurskens ECN O&M Tool Ampelmann Harbour at sea Validated by GL Many licenses sold Flight Leader concept Jos Beurskens Many wind farms analysed HEDEN 2012-02-07 38
  • 39. Offshore and Cold Climate Operation and Maintenance; AccessSET Analysis Jos Beurskens Foto: Jos Beurskens Photo:Jos Beurskens Foto: Jos Beurskens Ampelmann concept" 2012-02-07 39
  • 40. Access Offshore and Cold Climate Availability = f (reliability, accessibility) 100SET Analysis 100% accessibility Ampelmann: Hs= 2.5 m, (onshore) 50 m vessel (93 %) 90 OWECS Availability [%] 80% accessibility 80 60% accessibility Jos Beurskens 70 40% accessibility (exposed offshore) 60 Strategy 1 50 state-of-the-art improved highly improved Reliability of design [-] 2012-02-07 40
  • 41. Offshore and Cold Climate Lessons learned of small turbines in extreme climates •  Turbines do require ongoing maintenance •  Many locations are remote and lack onsite or accessible technicalSET Analysis •  Support and spare parts •  Potential for small faults or maintenance •  Items lead to long downtimes •  Therefore, Staging of spare parts and •  Technical knowledge at central •  Critical to long term success Jos Beurskens Source: EAPC 2012-02-07 41
  • 42. R&D Agenda Towards a universal CCSET Analysis Research (& Implementation) Jos Beurskens Agenda 2012-02-07 42
  • 43. SET Analysis R&D Agenda •  Physics of icing (accretion of ice; types of icing) •  Atlas of icing probability •  Impact on wind turbines; energy output, loads, acoustic noise emission) Jos Beurskens •  Anti-icing and De-icing •  Safety And: 2012-02-07 43
  • 44. R&D Agenda DedicatedSET Analysis Cold Climate Jos Beurskens wind turbines 2012-02-07 44
  • 45. R&D Agenda Identification of systemsSET Analysis •  Grid connected •  Autonomous •  Hybrid (AWDS) Jos Beurskens •  Size and capacity •  External conditions (standards) 2012-02-07 45
  • 46. External Conditions R&D Agenda hot & dry cold & dry humidSET Analysis cold & humid saline air dusty wind classes I, II, III Jos Beurskens waves extreme wind speed lightning soil characteristics high turbulence earthquakes complex terrain 2012-02-07 46
  • 47. External Conditions R&D Agenda Surprises remain showing up !!SET Analysis Jos Beurskens Russia Source: EAPC 2012-02-07 47
  • 48. R&D Agenda Full integration of requirements into designSET Analysis •  Transport & Installation •  RAMS •  O&M (Accessibility) Jos Beurskens •  Anti- & De- icing •  Foundations & Support structures •  Decommissioning 2012-02-07 48
  • 49. Requirement Solution ConceptsUp scaling Distributed blade control with(Full blade pitch becomes advanced (LIDAR based) controlineffective due to large systemsvariations in the wind field inthe rotor plane)Reliability Reduced number of components Lagerwey (central conversion unit in wind farm,SET Analysis direct drive generators, passive yawing) DOT Hydraulic conversionWeight reduction Two bladed rotor Stork (reduces rotor weight and increases Ultimate turbine rotor speed, which leeds to reduced drive train weight) 2B-EnergyIntegrated operations and Transport of floating components. Deep Wind Selsam-Sea Jos Beurskensdesign Self erecting and installing systems SwayServicebility Access technology Z Technologies AmpelmannMaintainability Floating cantilever structures LagerweyWind farm efficiency Movable foundations Topfarm Non conventional wind farm lay outs Ideol (movable foundations) 2012-02-07 49
  • 50. Concluding remarks •  Measuring EU targets in [MW’s] only, denies potential of windSET Analysis energy in areas with extreme climates and low population density •  An adopted strategic R&D and implementation Agenda, similar to Offshore issues is needed, among others as an input for: Jos Beurskens TPWind WG4: WG5: WG1: WG2: WG3: Offshore devt. Policy Wind Resources Wind Power Systems WE integration & operation Economy 2012-02-07 50
  • 51. Thank you very much forSET Analysis your attention ! Jos Beurskens 2012-02-07 51
  • 52. Jos Beurskens SET Analysis2012-02-07 52
  • 53. R&D Agenda of remote and Consequences for R&D extreme cold conditions Priorities (1)SET Analysis Dedicated cold weather wind turbine concepts •  Anti icing & de-icing: 
 
 Innovations, integrated blade design
 (priority number 1)
 Jos Beurskens 
 Intensification innovation and using know- how from other disciplines and technologies (aircraft, material science, ENERCON physics, …)" From: Conclusions from WinterWind 2011, Umeå (S), February 9, 2011 by Jos Beurskens 2012-02-07 53
  • 54. R&D Agenda of remote and Consequences for R&D extreme cold conditions Priorities (2) External conditionsSET Analysis •  Conditions for icing (super cooling, sublimation, (T, Humidity, V))
 " •  Combination of icing conditions with other aspects: water spray (offshore), wind speed, altitude.
 NMI " Jos Beurskens •  Icing probability mapping of areas with high wind potential (ʻiso icing days/annumʼ contours)
 
 " NMI •  Cold climate resistant measuring instruments and associated power supply units WindREN AB (performance, resource assessment, ice detection, loads, heating system control" From: Conclusions from WinterWind 2011, Umeå (S), February 9, 2011 by Jos Beurskens 2012-02-07 54
  • 55. R&D Agenda of remote and Consequences for R&D extreme cold conditions Priorities (3) Wind turbine concepts, assembly, O&MSET Analysis •  Impact on performance (how big are ʻhiddenʼ energy losses?) 
 " •  Impact on loading (aerodynamically and mechanical/aerodynamically induced loads, scale effects
 " Jos Beurskens •  Transport and assembly, because of poor access 
 " •  Operation and maintenance/access
 " •  Safety, standards" © In Situ 2008 From: Conclusions from WinterWind 2011, Umeå (S), February 9, 2011 by Jos Beurskens 2012-02-07 55
  • 56. R&D Agenda of remote and Consequences for R&D extreme cold conditions Priorities (4) General issuesSET Analysis •  Field test facilities for problem definition and verification of models
 " •  Feed back of operational experiences to designers
 " Jos Beurskens •  Bridging gap between meteorological aspects and wt technology impacts" VTT From: Conclusions from WinterWind 2011, Umeå (S), February 9, 2011 by Jos Beurskens 2012-02-07 56
  • 57. R&D Agenda of remote and Consequences for R&D extreme cold conditions Priorities (5)SET Analysis •  Continuous up-dating market potential based upon Mapping, Performance losses, Market developments" •  The grid !!!! " Jos Beurskens VTT From: Conclusions from WinterWind 2011, Umeå (S), February 9, 2011 by Jos Beurskens 2012-02-07 57

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