Movement with wartime and garrisons<br />Wine and logistics through the ages<br />Neil Franklyn 20110011996<br />
Introduction<br />“An army marches on its stomach” is a famous quote attributed to the French military and political leade...
Alexander the Great (356-323 BC)<br />Alexander III was a king in the Greek north east region state of Macedon. He created...
Topalidis (2007) noted that another Greek soldier and mercenary Xenophon and his army of 10,000 soldiers were gifted prese...
Roman army and wartime<br />There is much to admire about the logistical approach of the armies associated with the Roman ...
                                                          Figure 4. Amphorae (from Littlemrsmiddleton)<br />Chartrand (n.d...
In a comprehensive study of logistics during Roman times, Roth (1998) notes that storing provisions in one place was often...
Most Roman provinces bordered the Mediterranean, the Black Sea or the Atlantic Ocean, providing great advantage in moving ...
                                                                                             Figure 5. Roman warship (from...
Roth (1998) says that desert campaigns were extremely challenging. Only pack animals or wagons could be used to transport ...
Figure 6. The Roman Empire in the Time of Jesus (from Bible history online)<br />Neil Franklyn 20110011966<br />
Middle Ages<br />Abels (n.d.) mentions that the English and Viking armies consumed a remarkable quantity of wine. Viking l...
Napoleonic wars<br />Despite the oft mentioned quote attributed to Napoleon referred to in my introduction, he was essenti...
20th Century<br />So far we have seen that soldiers’ foraging, plundering and looting was rife during wartime for much of ...
conclusion<br />As we have seen there were a number of logistical methods utilized by armies worldwide to transport and st...
Appendix <br />Vivandiere is a French name for women attached to military regiments who were employed as canteen keepers. ...
Neil Franklyn 20110011966<br />
Neil Franklyn 20110011966<br />
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Movement with Wartime and Garrisons

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Wine and logistics through the ages.

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Movement with Wartime and Garrisons

  1. 1. Movement with wartime and garrisons<br />Wine and logistics through the ages<br />Neil Franklyn 20110011996<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />“An army marches on its stomach” is a famous quote attributed to the French military and political leader Napoleon Bonaparte. Wine was an important commodity during the Napoleonic wars and supplying, storing and distributing the alcoholic beverage was thwart with problems.<br />But these issues were encountered long before Bonaparte made his mark on history. In fact it stretches back centuries to Greek and Roman times and beyond. <br />So what were these logistical challenges? And how did leaders through the ages overcome them?<br />We shall investigate that but first we must define logistics:<br />(“www.articlesbase.com”) (n.d.) defines logistics as: “ The movement of goods from their point of origin to the point of eventual consumption. This includes storage and transportation and controls the flow of the goods.”<br />Figure 2. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769) (photo from Malaspina Great Books)<br />Neil Franklyn 20110011966<br />
  3. 3. Alexander the Great (356-323 BC)<br />Alexander III was a king in the Greek north east region state of Macedon. He created one of the largest empires in ancient history and proved undefeated in battle. <br />There is not a lot of information on the wine consumption of his 35,000-man mobile army. But his logistics wereof such meticulous planning that he is an important historical figure to include here.<br />In a systematic study of the Macedonian army’s logistics, (Engels, 1980) noted:<br />Only a limited amount of supplies could be transported from one district to another. <br />Arrangements were made to collect provisions in advance. (Arranged with local officials who would often surrender prior to the army marching into their region).<br />Local resources were used (including foraging) although occasionally long distance sea routes were utilized for importing goods.<br />Main Persian road routes and pack animals (camels and mules) were used for transporting of goods.<br />Engels also found that Alexander’s success in battle – the longest military campaign in history – was due to his fastidious attention to the provisioning of his army.<br />Neil Franklyn 20110011966<br />
  4. 4. Topalidis (2007) noted that another Greek soldier and mercenary Xenophon and his army of 10,000 soldiers were gifted presents of wine and other goods by the people of Trapezous(inhabited Greek city) when visiting there.<br />(“Jrank.org”) (n.d.) mentions that foraging was common at this time, but that:<br />Goods were bought at markets.<br />Provisions were carried where none would be available at destinations.<br />Pack-animals, ox-carts, human bearers and wagons were used as transportation.<br />Helots (serfs – neither slaves or free men) brought in wine by boat.<br />Neil Franklyn 20110011966<br />
  5. 5. Roman army and wartime<br />There is much to admire about the logistical approach of the armies associated with the Roman empire. And a lot has been written about this topic including the fact that wine was considered an important part of the Roman soldier’s daily diet.<br /> Figure 3. Roman centurion (from Wikipedia)<br />Neil Franklyn 20110011966<br />
  6. 6. Figure 4. Amphorae (from Littlemrsmiddleton)<br />Chartrand (n.d.) asks if good Italian wines would have been available throughout the Roman empire? And goes onto say that this was indeed the case as communications were excellent. <br />Large clay wine jars (amphorae) were used for storage which held approx. 35 litres of wine and were sealed with a large cork covered with wax. They were airtight and the contents would last up to 20 years. <br />Dalby (n.d.) found that wooden barrels later replaced amphorae and it’s believed ox-skins were also used to carrywine, but it’s unknown how often this method was used.<br />Chartrand also notes that as the empire advanced north – up the Moselle River to the areas now known as Provence, Bordeaux and Burgundy – new vineyards were planted to supply the legions and colonies.<br />Vines were also planted locally (e.g. Bordeaux, Trier & Colchester) to cut the cost of long distance trading. Or wine would be exported via Bordeaux to soldiers stationed in British garrisons. The Rhineland would be used to cater for those stationed along the Limes Germanicus (German Frontier). (Wikipedia).<br />Neil Franklyn 20110011966<br />
  7. 7. In a comprehensive study of logistics during Roman times, Roth (1998) notes that storing provisions in one place was often more secure and convenient. A constraint on a military force is the sheer size of the train: pack animals and wagons are resource-hungry and as tens of thousands of them would be required to accompany the soldiers, they more than often did not. Convoys were used between depots (e.g. by the Archaemenid Persian military - unlike the Greek armies), supply dumps, or operational bases (where goods were gathered, stockpiled, and sent onto the armies).<br />Common soldiers did not bring slaves with them – merchants and contractors would join the trains.<br />Each soldier would also be expected to carry a certain amount of their own provisions via a backpack.<br />When supplies were low the army would take provisions from anyone who passed. <br />Roth (1998) goes onto say that supplies were often transported on ships as the Romans preferred this method. Contracted merchant fleets shipped tons of wine year after year. But there were advantagesand disadvantagesto using seafaring methods as we shall soon see.<br />Neil Franklyn 20110011966<br />
  8. 8. Most Roman provinces bordered the Mediterranean, the Black Sea or the Atlantic Ocean, providing great advantage in moving supplies. Also rivers provided distant access (the Rhine, Danube and Nile)<br />Less expensive<br />Faster<br />Frequent accidents<br />Dangerous<br />Large monetary investment<br />Placed military assets at risk<br />Co-ordination issues between land forces and supply ships<br />Seafaring transport (roth, 1998)<br />Advantages<br />Disadvantages<br />Neil Franklyn 20110011966<br />
  9. 9. Figure 5. Roman warship (from Hobbylinc)<br />Sometimes it was necessary for armies to shift provisions overland due to rivers being blocked or unusable. Roth (1998) discusses this further when he mentions that it was sometimes quicker to move the army to the supplies rather than the other way round. Roth states that land transportation does have its advantages over sea:<br />Not limited to the summer months.<br />Most major roads remained passable.<br />More flexibility.<br />Wine was generally safe from spoilage or loss due to storms.<br />Neil Franklyn 20110011966<br />
  10. 10. Roth (1998) says that desert campaigns were extremely challenging. Only pack animals or wagons could be used to transport goods. Amphorae containing wine would be balanced one on each side over an animal’s back. Water skins and leather bags were also used to carry wine, although these deteriorated rapidly and were easily broken. Granaries were excellent storage facilities as they were subject to low temperature and ventilation. Roth also notes that a thirsty soldier may have used his helmet as a handy drinking vessel. <br />The Romans in particular left a lasting legacy in relation to the transport of wine and other commodities and influenced many future army leaders. This will be discussed briefly in what follows.<br />Neil Franklyn 20110011966<br />
  11. 11. Figure 6. The Roman Empire in the Time of Jesus (from Bible history online)<br />Neil Franklyn 20110011966<br />
  12. 12. Middle Ages<br />Abels (n.d.) mentions that the English and Viking armies consumed a remarkable quantity of wine. Viking leaders would negotiate provisions as part of the peace-making process.<br />Abels states: “In 1013 the English found themselves in the unenviable situation of having to supply provisions to both the invading army of King Swein and to the forces of their nominal defender Thorkell.” <br />Ravaging and looting were prevalent and men were often found in a drunken stupor.<br />(“www.au.af.mil”) (n.d.) finds that oxen, horses and mules pulled carts for supplies. Wine was often consumed before the completion of the aging process retaining much of the grapes’ minerals and vitamins. This made it an important part of the medieval diet. Sailing ships with supplies would follow an army along a coast or river. Plundering and foraging of the countryside would also occur.<br />Neil Franklyn 20110011966<br />
  13. 13. Napoleonic wars<br />Despite the oft mentioned quote attributed to Napoleon referred to in my introduction, he was essentially an improviser when it came to logistics.<br />Gunther Rothenberg (as cited in “www.militaryhistoryonline.com”) (n.d.) explains: “He could never free himself from the experience of his first Italian campaign when a small, highly motivated army moving rapidly in a rich countryside had sustained itself from local resources and captured supplies.” This included bottles of wine.<br />McGhee (n.d.) notes that as a result his soldiers became experts at foraging due to breakdowns in the supply system and it was not discouraged. Russia for example was not a rich country, but there were opportunities. The problem was that the retreating Russians had foraged their own countryside’s villages and burnt them to the ground, leaving little for the advancing army.<br />That said, Napoleon did use both land and seafaring methods to supply his troops, but eventually the sheer size and scale of the French army campaigns meant that foraging and plundering were the preferred methods of sustaining the soldiers.<br />Neil Franklyn 20110011966<br />
  14. 14. 20th Century<br />So far we have seen that soldiers’ foraging, plundering and looting was rife during wartime for much of man’s existence on the planet. And that did not stop when the Great War (1914 – 1918) broke out; especially in Belgium.<br />(“oldandsold.com”) (n.d.) says that: “In numbers of villages the Germans proceeded to devote themselves to a systematic pillage from the moment of their arrival.” And goes onto say that 60,000 bottles of wine were stolen from a wine-merchant. At Louvain bands of soldiers plundered goods including wine from the town people.<br />At Andenne, 96 wine-cellars were emptied and contents taken away on motor-wagons.<br />(“oldandsold.com”) also mentions that goods including wine were taken from nearly <br />all the shops at Tongres in the Rue de Maestricht. And in Ostend, 40,000 bottles were <br />discovered and removed from behind a wall. <br />At Charleroi, in November 1914, the inhabitants were told to draw up a list of<br />the number of barrels and bottles of the various vintages. These were destined for<br />the German field army. While in Tournai, 110,000 bottles had to be provided at Christmas<br />as an ‘extra’.<br />Figure 7. Book cover - The Rape of Belgium, Larry Zuckerman (Google images)<br />Neil Franklyn 20110011966<br />
  15. 15. conclusion<br />As we have seen there were a number of logistical methods utilized by armies worldwide to transport and store wine. By road, sea, river, using pack animals and humans were used to various degrees. Depots and the like as a storage facility. And from amphorae to barrels to ultimately bottles as the main storage devices.<br />Foraging of course was a major tool used by soldiers and its use is a common theme throughout history. <br />The main difference with modern day warfare is the use of aircraft as a transportation tool. Foraging may or will still occur to a certain degree, particularly in more primitive societies.<br />What the future holds is unknown, but it’s likely that the logistical methods I have noted will continue on unabated.<br />Neil Franklyn 20110011966<br />
  16. 16. Appendix <br />Vivandiere is a French name for women attached to military regiments who were employed as canteen keepers. Their function was to sell wine to the troops. The fact they worked in canteens led to the term ‘cantiniere’ which first came into use in 1793.<br />These women served in the French army up to the commencement of the Great War, but were utilized by many other armies. These included both sides in the American Civil War, the armies of Spain, Italy, Switzerland, the German states and a number of South American armies.<br />(from Wikipedia)<br />Neil Franklyn 20110011966<br />
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