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“Integrating Source Material,
Kevin Winchester, Writing Center Director
Is necessary in most academic writing
Serves as Supporting or Rebuttal
Evidence or Example
May be from a Primary, Secondary, or
Must be presented as a Direct Quote,
Paraphrase or Summary
Quotations, Paraphrasing, or
Provide support for claims and add credibility
Refer to prior work leading up to your work
Give examples of several points of view on your subject
Highlight a particular phrase, sentence, passage, or
Create distance and cue readers that the words are not
Expand the breadth and depth of your writing
2 Important Requirements for all
MUST be Properly Cited MUST Read Seamlessly
within your essay
Gives credit to the original
author While the source material
“belongs” to the original
author, you are using it
Identifies for your
to support your position.
audience where the
material originated and
provides info for them to
verify or research the
Puts the main idea into YOUR OWN
Should be significantly shorter than the
original source material
Presents a broad overview (the main
point) of the original source material
Utilize your Research Dossier (Be sure to include
Read the entire source text—note the key points
& main ideas
In your own words, state the single main idea of
the source text
Review to make sure you didn‟t include exact
words or phrases from the source text
A passage from source material rewritten in your
Usually shorter than the original source text
Takes a somewhat broader segment of the
source and condenses it
Reread the passage until you understand its full meaning
Write your paraphrase on your research dossier
Jot down notes to remind you later how you’ll use this
Compare your paraphrase to the original to make sure
Use quotation marks to identify words, terms, or short
phrases taken directly from the source
MAKE SURE YOU RECORD CITATION INFO
on your Research Dossier
Is better than quoting info from an
Is a legitimate way to “borrow” from a source
as long as you cite properly
Provides more detail and support than a
oAre identical to the original source
oUse a narrow segment of the source
oMatch the original source word for word
oMust be cited properly
Provide support or rebuttals for
Must flow smoothly with
your own writing style
In order for quotations to
flow smoothly with your
own writing style, you
must provide some
context for your reader.
Each Time you use a Quote, Think:
T - Tagline
I - Interpretation
C - Connection
Tagline: Introduces the quote and
establishes the source‟s credibility
Interpretation: Explains your
understanding or Interpretation of the
evidence or support the quote provides
Connection: Explains and clarifies the
Connection between the quote and your
thesis or other evidence in your essay
This method creates a Complete Thought Cycle
IF ANY ONE PART is MISSING…
…the reader is confused.
In a Rolling Stone article, Marilyn
Manson states, “from Jesse James Tagline: In a Rolling Stone
to Charles Manson, the media article, Marilyn Manson states…
have turned criminals into folk
heroes” (citation). He implies the Interpretation: He implies the
media sensationalizes the
media sensationalizes the
exploits of criminals and the
exploits of criminals…and that
media’s coverage feeds the
the general public is eager to
criminals’ desire for fame and
bestow that notoriety upon them.
notoriety and that the general
public is eager to bestow that
Connection: As such, a
notoriety upon them. As such, a
disenfranchised youth may be
disenfranchised youth may be
influenced by the perceived
influenced by the perceived fame
fame…which leads them to
of these criminals, which leads
similar acts of violence…in the
them to similar acts of violence
hopes of being heard.
against their peers, all in hopes of
Revision vs. Editing
“Re-seeing” the paper as Comes after Revision, and
Focuses on Individual
Addresses Higher Order
Sentences and Words
Addresses Lower Order
support, etc. Concerns: word choice,
clarity, conciseness, grammar
Verifies the paper MEETS the
REQUIREMENTS of the
Most importantly, take some time away from your paper.
RE-READ YOUR ASSIGNMENT SHEET!
Read your essay all the way through with the assignment
sheet in mind and answer these questions:
-Did you meet all the assignment requirements?
-Is the paper appropriate for audience and purpose?
-Do you provide enough supporting evidence?
-Does your paper flow in a natural order?
If not—revise, re-organize, or re-write
Don’t worry about LOC—that’s editing, NOT revising!
Other Revision Strategies:
Leave yourself enough time—READ SLOWLY!
Read the paper BACKWARDS
Read Aloud (record it and play it back!)
Ask a friend to read it to you
Visit the Writing Center
Addresses Lower Order Concerns
Focuses on Individual Sentences and Words
Checks for clarity, conciseness, and
Checks for Grammar and Mechanical Issues
Re-read your paper, slowly, looking for LOC
Run a Spell, Grammar, and Style Check
with your computer adjusted to academic
Finally, utilize the Paramedic Editing Method
The Paramedic Editing Method
1) Circle the Prepositions
Draw a box around the “is” verb forms
Ask, “where‟s the action?”
4) Change the action into a verb
Move the „doer‟ into the subject (Who‟s
6) Eliminate any unnecessary wind-ups
7) Eliminate any redundancies or
Example of Paramedic Editing
In this paragraph is a demonstrationnn the use of good
style in the writing of a report.
Find the action / eliminate slow wind-ups
This paragraph demonstrates good style in report writing.
The verb is more active
The “doer” is in the subject
The Last Steps:
Check the Assignment Sheet once more
Is your paper in the proper format?
Spacing / Font?
Properly Cited (MLA, APA, etc.)?
Turn It In!
Please take a minute to complete our exit survey.
Good Luck with your Research Papers!