Magna Carta• The Magna Carta is a document that King John of England was forced into signing in 1215. King John was forced into signing the charter because it greatly reduced the power he held as the King of England and allowed for the formation of a powerful parliament. The Magna Carta became the basis for English citizens rights.• The purpose of the Magna Carta was to curb the King and make him govern by the old English laws that had prevailed before the Normans came. The Magna Carta was a collection of 37 English laws - some copied, some recollected, some old and some new. The Magna Carta demonstrated that the power of the king could be limited by a written grant.
Glorious Revolution• The Glorious Revolution of 1688 was the bloodless revolution in England that overthrew King James II. During his short reign (1685–88), James disregarded Parliament and tried to restore Catholicism.Among the results of the Glorious Revolution was the enactment of the Bill of Rights, which limited the power of the monarchy and made Parliament supreme.•
English Bill Of Rights • It was signed in 1689 by William of Orange and Mary II in return for their being afﬁrmed as co- rulers of England and Ireland by the English Parliament after the Glorious Revolution. • Certain acts of James II were speciﬁcally named and declared illegal on this basis.
The enlightenment The 18th-century Enlightenment may be represented as a new way of thinkingabout mankind and the environment. The main proponents of this intellectualmovement, the philosophers, were primarily men of letters - men like Voltaire, Locke,Diderot, Montesquieu and Rousseau - but their views stemmed from the scientiﬁcrevolution of the previous century. The discoveries of Galileo, Kepler and Newton inphysics and cosmology revealed a universe that was inﬁnite, yet governed by universallaws that could be discovered by the human intelligence. The enlightenment took amajor role in the development and construction of modern Europe
Charles-Louis Montesquieu• The French jurist, satirist, and political and social philosopher Charles Louis de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755), was the ﬁrst of the great French men of letters associated with the Enlightenment.• Montesquieu deﬁned the basic types of government, identiﬁed the dominant virtues associated with each, and stated his most widely known concept of the balance of powers as the best means of establishing and preserving liberty.
John Locke• He was born in Aug. 29, 1632, Wrington, Somerset, England and he died in Oct. 28, 1704.He was an English philosopher. Educated at Oxford, principally in medicine and science, he later became physician and adviser to the future 3rd earl of Shaftesbury (1667 – 72). He moved to France, but after Shaftesburys fall in 1683 he ﬂed to the Netherlands, where he supported the future William III.• Locke wanted to explain the origins of property and political authority, maintaining an interpretation of the biblical story as the creation of natural equality, without falling foul of Filmers criticisms of incoherence in earlier natural rights theories.
Jean Jacques Rousseau• He was born in June 28, 1712, Geneva, Switzerland and he died in July 2, 1778, Ermenonville, France) He wasSwiss-French philosopher. At age 16 he ﬂed Geneva to Savoy, where he became the steward and later the lover of the baronne de Warens. At age 30, having furthered his education and social position under her inﬂuence, he moved to Paris, where he joined Denis Diderot at the centre of the philosophes; he wrote on music and economics for Diderots Encyclopédie• Civil society, he held, comes into being only to ensure peace and to protect property, which not everyone has; it thus represents a fraudulent social contract that reinforces inequality. In the Social Contract (1762), which begins with the memorable line, "Man was born free, but he is everywhere in chains," Rousseau argues that a civil society based on a genuine social contract rather than a fraudulent one would provide people with a better kind of freedom in exchange for their natural independence, namely, political liberty, which he understands as obedience to a self-imposed law created by the "general will."
Thomas Jefferson• Third president of the US (Mar 4, 1801–Mar 3, 1809), second vice president (1797– 1801), born at Albermarle County, VA. Jefferson, who died at Charlottesville, VA, July 4, 1826, wrote his own epitaph: “Here was buried Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of American Independence, of the statute of Virginia for religious freedom, and father of the University of Virginia.” A holiday in Alabama and Oklahoma. See also: “Adams, John, and Jefferson, Thomas: Death Anniversary” (July 4).• While arguing against the commonly held belief that Jefferson took this phrase - but lightly - from Lockes "life, liberty, and property", Wills also argues against the belief that Jefferson was merely offering some vapid nicety, to which the government could not be held to account:
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