Poultry prod

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  • 1. The Poultry Industry One of the fastest growing segments of the animal industry
  • 2. Consumption
    • Worldwide consumption of poultry is increasing
    • Per capita consumption of broilers is 90 pounds
  • 3. Poultry
    • generally accepted in most cultures
  • 4. Largest Producers
    • in the world are China
    • the countries of the former Soviet Union
    • United States
  • 5. The Broiler Industry
    • Today, almost all of the poultry is raised in large operations
    • the term broiler refers to chickens which are about 7-8 weeks of age and are raised for meat
  • 6. The Broiler Industry
    • concentrated in the South East
    • leading states are Arkansas, Georgia, and Alabama
    • majority of broilers raised in this country are raised on contract
  • 7. Broiler Houses
    • raised in large houses where the birds spend most of their lives
    • designed to provide the ultimate in environmental conditions for the comfort of the birds.
  • 8. Broiler Houses
    • generally lighted 24 hours a day
    • helps cut down on cannibalism
  • 9. Cannibalism
    • according to research, fitting birds with red contact lenses helps to decrease cannibalism
    • not a common practice because of the cost.
  • 10. Broiler Production
    • process begins with the production of eggs that will be hatched into chicks.
    • Parents are selected from breeds that are large and muscular
  • 11. Broiler Production
    • different in appearance from those chickens used to produce eggs for consumption
    • Layers are selected on their ability to lay eggs
  • 12. Broiler Production
    • most are hybrids derived from mating of different breeds
    • usually mated through artificial insemination
    • results in heterosis or hybrid vigor
  • 13. Hybrid Vigor
    • the resulting offspring are healthier and outproduce the average of their parents.
  • 14. Broiler Production
    • most are white
    • colored birds have pigmentation spots in their skin which is undesirable to the consumer
  • 15. Egg Production
    • eggs are expelled from the hens body and the embryo develops outside the mother’s body.
    • Eggs are encased in a hard shell and can weigh several ounces
  • 16. Egg Production
    • most mammal eggs are microscopic
    • process begins with the release of the ovum (yolk) from the ovary
  • 17. Egg Production
    • if the female has been mated, the ovum will be fertilized within the infundibulum.
    • The albumin or white of the egg is secreted by cells in the magnum.
  • 18. Egg Production
    • Chalazae is formed
    • it is a ropelike substance which holds the yolk in place in the center of the egg.
    • Inner and outer shell membranes are formed in the isthmus
  • 19. Egg Production
    • the shell is formed in the uterus
    • in 18-20 hours the shell is completed and moves to the vagina and out of the hens body.
  • 20. Egg Production
    • hens prefer nesting boxes that are enclosed
    • gives the chickens a feeling of security
  • 21. Egg Production
    • some facilities collect eggs with the use of a conveyor belt
    • the egg rolls out of the nest box and onto the belt
  • 22. Egg Production
    • eggs must be kept clean and free from contamination
    • if the egg becomes soiled it will not be used for hatching
  • 23. Egg Production
    • dirt may be easily scrubbed off the egg
    • this process can press dirt into the shell and removes the protective coating on the egg
  • 24. Egg hatching
    • eggs are stored at 70-80 degrees until being placed in the hatchery
    • within 48 hours after incubation begins the embryo has developed a circulatory system
  • 25. Egg hatching
    • circulatory system sustains life by carrying nourishment from the yolk to the embryo
    • eggs are turned at least two times per day
  • 26. Egg hatching
    • turning eggs keeps the embryo from sticking to the inside of the shell
    • by the end of the first week, embryos are recognizable as chickens
  • 27. Egg hatching
    • after two weeks, the chicks are covered with down
    • incubation takes about 21 days.
  • 28. Egg hatching
    • After hatching, chicks are removed from the incubator, dried off, cleaned, and placed in a warm dry environment.
    • The chicks are sexed and separated into groups.
  • 29. Egg hatching
    • At one day of age chicks are vaccinated and the beaks are trimmed to prevent canabalism.
    • Chicks are then placed in ventilated cardboard boxes to be shipped to the broiler house.
  • 30. Egg hatching
    • Before the chicks arrive at the broiler house it must be cleaned and disinfected.
    • Fresh bedding is placed in the house.
    • Heaters, called brooders are suspended from the ceiling to keep the birds warm.
  • 31. Egg hatching
    • Chicks are usually kept in the broiler house for seven to eight weeks.
    • At that time they weigh about 4 1/2 pounds and are ready for market.
  • 32. Egg hatching
    • When the broilers are transported to the processing plant, the house is again cleaned.
    • The bedding is very high in Nitrogen and is used for fertilizer, it may also be used as a source of protein in cattle rations.
  • 33. Layer Industry
    • Per capita egg consumption in the U.S. has drastically decreased over the past thirty years.
    • Even with the decrease in demand, the layer industry is quite strong.
  • 34. Layer Industry
    • Over 90% of eggs produced are by layers in cages.
    • The most common grouping is four hens per cage.
    • Some layers produce brown eggs and some produce white eggs.
  • 35. Layer Industry
    • Most eggs sold in the U.S. are white.
    • In commercial operations, lighting is used to stimulate the hormonal activity of the hens to increase their production of eggs.
  • 36. Layer Industry
    • They produce eggs naturally when the days are longer than the nights.
    • Most operations allow 14 - 15 hours of light per day.
  • 37. Layer Industry
    • As eggs are laid they roll onto a conveyor belt where they go to a work room where they are cleaned if necessary and refrigerated.
  • 38. Layer Industry
    • Eggs are coated with a thin coat of mineral oil to prevent carbon dioxide from escaping from within the egg.
    • Eggs are graded according to size and checked for cracks and interior spots by candling.
  • 39. The turkey industry
    • The sale of turkey is second to chicken in the overall sale of poultry meat.
    • Between 1980 and 1990 turkey consumption increased 92% in the U.S.
  • 40. The turkey industry
    • Turkey represents a high quality, low cost, nutritious source of food protein.
    • One third of all turkey sales occur during the weeks around Thanksgiving and Christmas.
  • 41. The turkey industry
    • The modern white turkey is a descendant of the wild turkey and is result of a mutation which left the gene out for feather and skin pigmentation.
    • Heavy muscled, broad breasted birds have been developed.
  • 42. The turkey industry
    • These highly developed birds are not efficient breeders.
    • The physical act of mating is difficult because of the weight of the birds and because of this they are reluctant to breed.
  • 43. The turkey industry
    • This problem is solved through artificial insemination.
    • They heavy breasted birds have another problem.
    • Their legs can’t support them when they reach a certain size and the weight of their breasts makes them tip over.
  • 44. The turkey industry
    • Turkeys are grown in confinement houses and on ranges.
  • 45. Other poultry
    • In some parts of the world ducks and geese make up a major portion of the poultry raised and consumed.
    • This is true in China and Southeast Asia.
  • 46. Other poultry
    • In some areas quail and pheasant are grown for the gourmet food and restaurant market and for release in the wild to stock the population for hunters.