Physiological adaptations to strength training visual bee


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Physiological adaptations to strength training visual bee

  1. 1. Long Term Neuro-muscular Adaptations to resistance training<br />
  2. 2. Overload Principle<br />
  3. 3. Adaptation and Specificity<br />Muscles adapt differently based on the type of overload placed on them.<br />Specify the training regimen to elicit the desired adaptations.<br />
  4. 4. Specificity of Training<br />Training should “overload” the system / muscle type that the individual wishes to train!<br />IE: Energy systems, muscle fiber type, and sport specificity.<br />
  5. 5. Muscle Fiber Types<br />
  6. 6. Muscle Fiber Types<br />
  7. 7. Muscle Fiber Types and Performance<br />Genetics<br />Specificity of Training<br />Fiber Conversion* Power = Force X Velocity *<br />
  8. 8. Types of Contractions<br />
  9. 9. Types of Training<br />
  10. 10. Fatigue<br />
  11. 11.
  12. 12. DOMS<br />
  13. 13. Adaptations to Strength Training<br />Neural Adaptations (First 8-12 weeks)<br />Learn Movement (Motor Learning)<br />Coordination<br />Motor Unit Recruitment<br /> Coordination of Motor Unit<br />Neuromuscular inhibition (GTO , Muscle Spindles)<br />
  14. 14. Muscular Adaptations<br />Muscle Fibers (Physical Changes)<br />Increase in Size: Hypertrophy (Particularly Type II)<br />Directly proportional to the VOLUME of overload<br />Volume = Resistance X Repetitions<br />Increase in Number: Hyperplasia (?)<br />
  15. 15. Neural Control<br /><ul><li>Initial increase in expression of strength due to improved neural control of muscle contraction.</li></li></ul><li>Neural Drive<br />Electromyographic studies indicate lower level in EMG activity to muscular force ratio.<br />Muscle produced more force with lower amount of EMG activity.<br />More force with less neural drive.<br />The increase in maximal neural drive to muscle increases maximal strength.<br />
  16. 16. Muscle Hypertrophy<br />Muscle enlargement is generally paralleled by increased muscle strength.<br />Increased muscle strength is NOT always paralleled by gains in muscle size.<br />Increase in cross-sectional fiber area of both ST and FT muscle fibers.<br />FT fiber area appears to increase to greater extent than ST fiber area.<br />Zoe Smith weighs in at 58kg but can clean and press 100kgs<br />
  17. 17. Connective Tissue and Bone<br />Supporting ligaments, tendons and fascia strengthen as muscle strength increases.<br />Connective tissue proliferates around individual muscle fibers, this thickens and strengthens muscle’s connective tissue harness.<br />Bone mineral content increases more slowly, over 6- to 12-month period.<br />
  18. 18. Muscle Fiber Conversion?<br />Studies are inconclusive???<br />Most show no change or very little<br />Appears that IIb  IIa w/ intense aerobic training<br />Largely genetic and relatively stable (Absolute Number)<br />
  19. 19. Energy System Adaptations<br />
  20. 20. Capillary Supply<br />Increase number of capillaries in a muscle helps support metabolism and contributes to total muscle size.<br />Improved capillarization has been observed with resistance training by body builders but decreased in power and weight lifters.<br />Increase of capillaries linked to intensity and volume of resistance training.<br />Time course of changes in capillary density slow (more than 12 weeks).<br />
  21. 21. Gains in the Beginning of a Program<br />Steroids<br />8-12 Weeks<br />Strength<br />Steroids<br />Hypertrophy<br />Progress<br />Neural Adaptations<br />Training Duration<br />
  22. 22. Other Adaptations<br />
  23. 23. Other Adaptations<br />
  24. 24. Other Adaptations<br />
  25. 25. Specificity of Training<br />
  26. 26. Specificity of Training<br />
  27. 27. Strength<br />Strength is a function of:<br />Neural Factors<br />Type of fibers engaged<br />Anthropometrics/Biomechanics<br />Size of Muscle (CSA) *<br />
  28. 28. Frequency Systems<br />
  29. 29. Lifting Systems<br />
  30. 30. Recommendations<br />
  31. 31. Body Composition Adaptations<br />For the most part,<br />Small decreases in body fat<br />Minimal increases in total body mass<br />Minimal increases in FFM, about 0.3 kg/weekly<br />
  32. 32. Recommendations<br />ALWAYS allow 48 hours for complete recovery !<br />Start slow !<br />NEVER overload a sore muscle !<br />