Greenhouse Gas <ul><li>How to get an Emissions Baseline & What’s next? </li></ul>Village of  Croton-on-Hudson  New York Co...
“ If you cannot measure it,  you cannot improve it.&quot; — Lord Kelvin Why measure? How to do a GHG inventory: WMPF  Marc...
What’s best for the economy <ul><li>1. Use smart growth  concepts in local zoning and planning; </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Inve...
How to do a GHG inventory Engage hearts, heads, and hands How to do a GHG inventory: WMPF  March 10, 2010
Step #1:  Know what your “Ask“ is! 3 streams   x  3 sectors <ul><li>Direct emissions </li></ul><ul><li>vehicles, heating, ...
Step #2:  Measure Easy Stuff first! 3 streams   x  3 sectors <ul><li>Direct emissions </li></ul><ul><li>vehicles, heating,...
Step #3:  Know what  you missed! 3 streams   x  3 sectors <ul><li>Direct emissions </li></ul><ul><li>vehicles, heating, co...
Step #4:  Use all hands on deck! 3 streams   x  3 sectors <ul><li>Direct emissions </li></ul><ul><li>vehicles, heating, co...
a holiday example... <ul><li>1. Use smart growth  concepts in local zoning and planning; </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Inventory o...
what’s our tonnes? (table) www.crotononhudson-ny.gov   How to do a GHG inventory: WMPF  March 10, 2010 Summary by Sector E...
Mapping our emissions Top 20  Emitters in Village Operations tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent www.crotononhudson-ny.gov...
What’s next?  Immediate savings and more planning How to do a GHG inventory: WMPF  March 10, 2010
Step #5:  Share data=Get results! 3 streams   x  Gov. sector action <ul><li>Direct emissions </li></ul><ul><li>vehicles, h...
Resources Croton’s GHG report  (Gov. sector for all 3 emission sources 12/2009) www.crotononhudsonny.gov/Public_Documents/...
my contact info <ul><li>Leo Wiegman, mayor </li></ul><ul><li>Village of Croton-on-Hudson, NY </li></ul><ul><li>[email_addr...
Appendix: Samples from slide deck we used for the GHG rollout in Croton with our residents and village staff and volunteers
Emission Inventory steps www.icleiusa.org Five-Milestone Methodology www.crotononhudson-ny.gov   Lessons from GHG Emission...
3 emission streams to track This is what we examined:  We asked 3 questions of each area:  1. Direct emission   <ul><li>Wh...
3 sectors to count For a full inventory, 3 different sectors need to counted. Governmental Sector Commercial Sector Reside...
2007 emissions inventory <ul><li>110 hours of staff time  to complete the emissions inventory using ICLEI method for  gove...
Mapping our emissions Top 20  Emitters in Village Operations tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent www.crotononhudson-ny.gov...
what’s our tonnes? (table) www.crotononhudson-ny.gov   Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climat...
what’s our tonnes? pie chart The total cost of the energy consumed by each sector is displayed, together with the percent ...
Some things we learned <ul><li>In 2007, village employees travelled 412,000 miles commuting an average of 24 miles roundtr...
What does this data mean? <ul><li>The Village will find ways to reduce its direct and indirect emissions by  </li></ul><ul...
What are the next steps? <ul><li>Develop Croton’s reduction goals and plans </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the energy, cost and...
Carbon Reduction Steps <ul><li>Publish Baseline Emissions Report  (Dec, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Set reduction target for 2...
“ Doing nothing about climate change is far more expensive and risky than taking strong pro-active and immediate measures....
#3:  what citizens can do? <ul><li>Home Owners: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get a “ Blower Door ” home energy audit, by locating...
#3:  US family’s emission pie Typical US family’s annual greenhouse gas emissions pie: www.crotononhudson-ny.gov   Lessons...
#3:  7 low hanging family fruits <ul><li>#1. Reduce Engine Idling (Cost: $0, Benefit: immediate) </li></ul><ul><li>Restart...
One small example:  http://bit.ly/Croton_Firehouse_SolarPanels www.crotononhudson-ny.gov   Lessons from GHG Emissions Base...
http://bit.ly/Croton_Firehouse_SolarPanels   The Grand Street Firehouse consumed 52,459 kWh in 2007 at a utility cost of $...
#2b:  GHG report in 1 sentence <ul><li>In 2007 Village of  Croton-on-Hudson  </li></ul><ul><li>spent ~ $532,000 on energy ...
#2b:  #1=Water Dept: 400,000 gallons/year Emission sources within Water Dept  The dept-wide figures include water delivery...
#2b:  #2=DPW Dept: 7,455 tons/yr solid waste collected Emission sources within DPW Dept  (excluding street lighting) (Note...
#2b:  #3=Fire Dept: 3 firehouses Emission sources within Fire Dept: 188 tonnes emitted by 3 Firehouses combined, compared ...
Energy & costs per resident Emissions (lbs/resident)  Energy consumed (kWh/resident) Energy cost ($/resident) Buildings & ...
Fuel cost per unit of energy <ul><li>In 2007, </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity was the most expensive fuel per unit of energy...
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Croton_ghg_wmpf_20100310

  1. 1. Greenhouse Gas <ul><li>How to get an Emissions Baseline & What’s next? </li></ul>Village of Croton-on-Hudson New York Community-Based Climate Action Strategies for the Westchester Municipal Planning Federation 10 March 2009 Leo Wiegman, Mayor www.crotononhudson-ny.gov
  2. 2. “ If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it.&quot; — Lord Kelvin Why measure? How to do a GHG inventory: WMPF March 10, 2010
  3. 3. What’s best for the economy <ul><li>1. Use smart growth concepts in local zoning and planning; </li></ul><ul><li>2. Inventory our greenhouse gas emissions; </li></ul><ul><li>3. Build knowledge networks with neighbors.  </li></ul>www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Outdoor Lighting (Holiday Lights Benedict Blvd.) 2007 (energy cost from line 4.11 on Table 2) $491 2008 (estimated cost of electricity) $500 Cost of new LED lights $1700 Annualized cost of LED light (10 year lifespan) $170 2009 (estimated electric bill of 1,600 new LED lights) $125 New annual cost $295 Savings (each year) $205 41% is also what is best for the environment. How to do a GHG inventory: WMPF March 10, 2010
  4. 4. How to do a GHG inventory Engage hearts, heads, and hands How to do a GHG inventory: WMPF March 10, 2010
  5. 5. Step #1: Know what your “Ask“ is! 3 streams x 3 sectors <ul><li>Direct emissions </li></ul><ul><li>vehicles, heating, combustion, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Power emissions </li></ul><ul><li>electricity purchased from grid </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect emissions </li></ul><ul><li>solvents, commutation, fertilizer, waste stream, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>Residential </li></ul>How to do a GHG inventory: WMPF March 10, 2010
  6. 6. Step #2: Measure Easy Stuff first! 3 streams x 3 sectors <ul><li>Direct emissions </li></ul><ul><li>vehicles, heating, combustion, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Power emissions </li></ul><ul><li>electricity purchased from grid </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect emissions </li></ul><ul><li>solvents, commutation, fertilizer, waste stream, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>Residential </li></ul>How to do a GHG inventory: WMPF March 10, 2010
  7. 7. Step #3: Know what you missed! 3 streams x 3 sectors <ul><li>Direct emissions </li></ul><ul><li>vehicles, heating, combustion, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Power emissions </li></ul><ul><li>electricity purchased from grid </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect emissions </li></ul><ul><li>solvents, commutation, fertilizer, waste stream, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>Residential </li></ul>How to do a GHG inventory: WMPF March 10, 2010
  8. 8. Step #4: Use all hands on deck! 3 streams x 3 sectors <ul><li>Direct emissions </li></ul><ul><li>vehicles, heating, combustion, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Power emissions </li></ul><ul><li>electricity purchased from grid </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect emissions </li></ul><ul><li>solvents, commutation , fertilizer, waste stream, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>Residential </li></ul>How to do a GHG inventory: WMPF March 10, 2010
  9. 9. a holiday example... <ul><li>1. Use smart growth concepts in local zoning and planning; </li></ul><ul><li>2. Inventory our greenhouse gas emissions; </li></ul><ul><li>3. Build knowledge networks with neighbors.  </li></ul>www.crotononhudson-ny.gov photo courtesy of C. Romedenne Outdoor Lighting (Holiday Lights Benedict Blvd.) 2007 (energy cost from line 4.11 on Table 2) $491 2008 (estimated cost of electricity) $500 Cost of new LED lights $1700 Annualized cost of LED light (10 year lifespan) $170 2009 (estimated electric bill of 1,600 new LED lights) $125 New annual cost $295 Savings (each year) $205 41% Holiday tree lights on Benedict Boulevard 2008: $500 for tree’s electricity 2009: $295 for lights & power Switching to LED lights will save us 40% every year. How to do a GHG inventory: WMPF March 10, 2010
  10. 10. what’s our tonnes? (table) www.crotononhudson-ny.gov How to do a GHG inventory: WMPF March 10, 2010 Summary by Sector Emissions (tonnes of CO 2 e) (%) Energy (MMBtu) (%) Cost ($) (%) 1. Buildings and Facilities 528 29.8% 6,525 37% $149,262 28% 2. Water Delivery Facilities 369 20.8% 3,583 20% $149,560 29% 3. Vehicle Fleet 415 23.4% 5,701 32% $126,894 24% 4. Streetlights & Traffic Signals 184 10.4% 1,699 10% $88,791 17% 5. Wastewater Facilities 24 1.4% 252 1% $9,269 2% 6. Indirect Emissions: Commuting, solvents, etc. 254 14.3% 0 0% $8,430 0% Totals 1,774 100% 17,760 100% $532,206 100%
  11. 11. Mapping our emissions Top 20 Emitters in Village Operations tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009)
  12. 12. What’s next? Immediate savings and more planning How to do a GHG inventory: WMPF March 10, 2010
  13. 13. Step #5: Share data=Get results! 3 streams x Gov. sector action <ul><li>Direct emissions </li></ul><ul><li>vehicles, heating, combustion, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Power emissions </li></ul><ul><li>electricity purchased from grid </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect emissions </li></ul><ul><li>solvents, commutation, fertilizer, waste stream, etc. </li></ul>How to do a GHG inventory: WMPF March 10, 2010 <ul><li>2-3 year payoff for low-hanging fruit: </li></ul><ul><li>Firehouses Audit </li></ul><ul><li>Municipal Bldg Audit </li></ul><ul><li>Water Delivery Audit </li></ul><ul><li>Street Lighting Audit </li></ul><ul><li>Fleet & waste experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer changes </li></ul><ul><li>= used GHG data for this facililty to apply for NYSERDA RFP10 grant! </li></ul>
  14. 14. Resources Croton’s GHG report (Gov. sector for all 3 emission sources 12/2009) www.crotononhudsonny.gov/Public_Documents/CrotonHudsonNY_BComm/Croton_GHG_Inventory_v2007.pdf Other Westchester GHG inventories: Town of Bedford Town of Somers Village of Mt Kisco Town of New Castle ...who am I missing....? for more see: Northern Westchester Energy Action Consortium www.nweac.org How to do a GHG inventory: WMPF March 10, 2010
  15. 15. my contact info <ul><li>Leo Wiegman, mayor </li></ul><ul><li>Village of Croton-on-Hudson, NY </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>www.crotononhudson-ny.gov </li></ul>thank you!
  16. 16. Appendix: Samples from slide deck we used for the GHG rollout in Croton with our residents and village staff and volunteers
  17. 17. Emission Inventory steps www.icleiusa.org Five-Milestone Methodology www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009)
  18. 18. 3 emission streams to track This is what we examined: We asked 3 questions of each area: 1. Direct emission <ul><li>What did it cost to operate this in 2007? </li></ul><ul><li>How much stuff did we buy to run this? </li></ul><ul><li>How much emission did our stuff produce? </li></ul>exhaust from vehicles (gas, diesel) heating fuel combustion, etc. 2. Power emission electricity from grid 3. Indirect emissions employee commuting solid waste disposal fertilizer & solvent use, etc.
  19. 19. 3 sectors to count For a full inventory, 3 different sectors need to counted. Governmental Sector Commercial Sector Residential Sector 1. Direct emission exhaust from vehicles fuel oil combustion, etc. 2. Power emission electricity from grid 3. Indirect emissions employee commuting solid waste disposal fertilizer & solvent use, etc. Croton will use 2010/2011 data for these 2 Croton used 2007 data
  20. 20. 2007 emissions inventory <ul><li>110 hours of staff time to complete the emissions inventory using ICLEI method for governmental operations (using 2007 data from village records). </li></ul><ul><li>Some surprises : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water delivery is most costly service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(30% of total energy bill) and 3rd biggest emission source. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric power is really expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and has gone up steeply since 2007 (even for NYPA customers). </li></ul></ul></ul>www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009) Energy: Operating Village government consumed 17.8 billion Btus in 2007 Expenses: $532,000 Emissions & Pollution: 1,774 metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent gas & 21 metric tonnes of other pollutants
  21. 21. Mapping our emissions Top 20 Emitters in Village Operations tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009)
  22. 22. what’s our tonnes? (table) www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009) Summary by Sector Emissions (tonnes of CO 2 e) (%) Energy (MMBtu) (%) Cost ($) (%) 1. Buildings and Facilities 528 29.8% 6,525 37% $149,262 28% 2. Water Delivery Facilities 369 20.8% 3,583 20% $149,560 29% 3. Vehicle Fleet 415 23.4% 5,701 32% $126,894 24% 4. Streetlights & Traffic Signals 184 10.4% 1,699 10% $88,791 17% 5. Wastewater Facilities 24 1.4% 252 1% $9,269 2% 6. Indirect Emissions: Commuting, solvents, etc. 254 14.3% 0 0% $8,430 0% Totals 1,774 100% 17,760 100% $532,206 100%
  23. 23. what’s our tonnes? pie chart The total cost of the energy consumed by each sector is displayed, together with the percent of the overall greenhouse gas emissions the energy consumption for that sector produced. We sorted these by largest to smallest emission source, with building and facilities as the #1 emitting sector. Notice that if we sort by largest to smallest cost, water delivery would be #1 most expensive sector, followed by buildings and facilities. (data is from table in prior slide) www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009)
  24. 24. Some things we learned <ul><li>In 2007, village employees travelled 412,000 miles commuting an average of 24 miles roundtrip to/from their village jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2007, 1 metric tonne of fertilizer was spread on village fields that subsequently released 9.8 metric tonnes of greenhouse gases. (Every pound of fertilizer causes over 9 pounds of climate disruption emissions.) </li></ul><ul><li>In 2007, our government’s solid waste actually helped reduce our “carbon footprint.” Why? It is burned in an energy from waste plant in Peekskill rather than landfilled. </li></ul>www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009)
  25. 25. What does this data mean? <ul><li>The Village will find ways to reduce its direct and indirect emissions by </li></ul><ul><li>seeking more efficient use of energy, </li></ul><ul><li>generating or purchasing more renewable energy, and </li></ul><ul><li>switching to cleaner fuels, and many other means. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, electrifying half our vehicle fleet would reduce our fleet fuel costs by $26,000 a year (a 20% savings). </li></ul><ul><li>But is it cost-effective or desirable to buy electric vehicles? </li></ul>www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009)
  26. 26. What are the next steps? <ul><li>Develop Croton’s reduction goals and plans </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the energy, cost and emission reduction options (efficiency measures, renewables sources, fuel switching, etc). </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the lowest cost way to achieve them. </li></ul><ul><li>Commit to a climate action plan , while safeguarding taxpayers. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Invite home & business owners to participate in community wide greenhouse gas inventory to include private sector buildings & operations. </li></ul>www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009)
  27. 27. Carbon Reduction Steps <ul><li>Publish Baseline Emissions Report (Dec, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Set reduction target for 2010 (Feb-Mar 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop 2010 climate action plan (Apr-May 2010) </li></ul><ul><li>Low hanging fruit for 2010: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore HVAC makeover of Municipal Bldg (#1 emitter of village’s 10 buildings) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting audit for street and muni parking lots. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase carbon offset credits from savings gained. </li></ul></ul>www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009)
  28. 28. “ Doing nothing about climate change is far more expensive and risky than taking strong pro-active and immediate measures.” –Sir Nicholas Stern (2007) www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/sternreview_index.ht m Why bother? www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009)
  29. 29. #3: what citizens can do? <ul><li>Home Owners: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get a “ Blower Door ” home energy audit, by locating a “Home Performance Contractor” at the “Resource” page at www.getenergysmart.org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Faith Communities: </li></ul><ul><li>Visit the New York Interfaith Power and Light for guidance on energy conservation and building energy audit for your buildings: www.nyipl.org </li></ul><ul><li>Businesses: </li></ul><ul><li>Visit NYSERDA’s Commercial/Industrial web page for more on Flex-Tech and other programs: www.nyserda.org/programs/Commercial_Industrial/ </li></ul><ul><li>More energy saving tips: </li></ul><ul><li>www.askpsc.com </li></ul><ul><li>www.coned.com/customercentral/energysavings.asp </li></ul><ul><li>www.energystar.gov </li></ul><ul><li>www.poweryourway.com </li></ul>www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009)
  30. 30. #3: US family’s emission pie Typical US family’s annual greenhouse gas emissions pie: www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009) (Adapted from: Vandenbergh et al (2008) Individual carbon emissions: low hanging fruit . UCLA Law Review.) See also http://behavioralwedge.msu.edu/ Fact: Each gallon (3 . 7 liters) of gasoline burned produces 19 . 4 pounds (8 . 8 kilograms) of carbon dioxide emissions. The average US automobile emits 5 . 7 tons (5 , 200 kilograms) of carbon dioxide per year.
  31. 31. #3: 7 low hanging family fruits <ul><li>#1. Reduce Engine Idling (Cost: $0, Benefit: immediate) </li></ul><ul><li>Restarting a warm engine consumes less fuel and emits less pollution than idling for 5 to 10 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>#2. Maintain Tire Pressure (Cost: $10, Benefit: immediate) </li></ul><ul><li>The USDOE estimates that vehicle gas mileage improves an average of 3.3 percent by inflating tires regularly to proper pressures. </li></ul><ul><li>#3. Replace Air Filters (Cost: about $30, Benefit: immediate) </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic air filter changes can save the vehicle owner anywhere from 7 to 10 percent in fuel mileage (as much as $240 per year). </li></ul><ul><li>#4. Reduce Standby Power (Cost: $0, Benefit: immediate) </li></ul><ul><li>Devices with remote controls, computer wireless networks, and home entertainment centers are big standby power hogs by drawing power on standby. Switch off their power strips at night. </li></ul><ul><li>#5. Install CFL Bulbs (Cost: $5 –$10, Benefit: immediate) </li></ul><ul><li>CFLs use 75% less electricity for the same amount of light and last two to four times longer. </li></ul><ul><li>#6. Lower Thermostat Settings (Cost: $0, Benefit: immediate) </li></ul><ul><li>Lowering the thermostat 2ºF in winter and raising it 2ºF in summer could save at least $125 a year in costs per household and add up to big emission reductions. </li></ul><ul><li>#7. Lower Water Temperatures (Cost: $0, Benefit: immediate) </li></ul><ul><li>Lowering the water heater setting by 20°F would make very little difference in our comfort level and yield an everyday savings in energy and emissions. </li></ul>(Adapted from: Vandenbergh et al (2008) Individual carbon emissions: low hanging fruit . UCLA Law Review.) See also http://behavioralwedge.msu.edu/ www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009)
  32. 32. One small example: http://bit.ly/Croton_Firehouse_SolarPanels www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009)
  33. 33. http://bit.ly/Croton_Firehouse_SolarPanels The Grand Street Firehouse consumed 52,459 kWh in 2007 at a utility cost of $5,988. The solar electric panel may generate 20% or more of the building’s electricity in 2009-2010. (Clean energy output should be about 12,000 kWh and represents and 8,000 kg ( 17,600 pounds) of avoided CO 2 e emissions . NYPA provided a grant that paid for the PV panel. The Village bore the installation costs. . www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009)
  34. 34. #2b: GHG report in 1 sentence <ul><li>In 2007 Village of Croton-on-Hudson </li></ul><ul><li>spent ~ $532,000 on energy </li></ul><ul><li>emitted ~ 1,774 tonnes of CO 2 e emissions </li></ul><ul><li>consumed~ 17.8 billion Btus from all fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>Background info on energy costs: </li></ul><ul><li>Since 2005, energy overall expenses rose ~20% to 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>Since 2007, all fuels have become even more expensive. </li></ul>www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009)
  35. 35. #2b: #1=Water Dept: 400,000 gallons/year Emission sources within Water Dept The dept-wide figures include water delivery total (369 t) plus heating/cooling for buildings operated by water dept (14 t) for 383 total tonnes. (Note on units: scale in tonnes is same for both figures; 1 metric tonne = 1 long ton = 2,204 pounds) } www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009)
  36. 36. #2b: #2=DPW Dept: 7,455 tons/yr solid waste collected Emission sources within DPW Dept (excluding street lighting) (Note on units: scale in tonnes is same for both figures; 1 metric tonne = 1 long ton = 2,204 pounds) www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009) }
  37. 37. #2b: #3=Fire Dept: 3 firehouses Emission sources within Fire Dept: 188 tonnes emitted by 3 Firehouses combined, compared with 191 tonnes from Mun. Bldg. with its 24/7 Police Station. (Note on units: scale in tonnes is same for both figures; 1 metric tonne = 1 long ton = 2,204 pounds) { www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009) }
  38. 38. Energy & costs per resident Emissions (lbs/resident) Energy consumed (kWh/resident) Energy cost ($/resident) Buildings & Facilities Vehicle Fleet Water Delivery Streetlights Wastewater Indirect Emissions Big “jumps” from energy to cost show up in those sectors MOST reliant on electricity which is MORE expensive per unit of energy consumed than other fuel sources: water and waste water (electric pumps). Note on energy units: 1 MMBtu = 1 millions Btus (therms) = 293 kiloWatt-hours (kWh) www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009)
  39. 39. Fuel cost per unit of energy <ul><li>In 2007, </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity was the most expensive fuel per unit of energy ($44/MMBtu). </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity also varies the most (cheaper at night, & more during midday). </li></ul><ul><li>Average kilowatt-hour price Village paid NYPA for electricity was $0.15/kWh. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural gas is the least expensive ($11.79/MMBtu). </li></ul>Note on energy units: 1 MMBtu = 1 millions Btus (therms) = 293 kiloWatt-hours (kWh) www.crotononhudson-ny.gov Lessons from GHG Emissions Baseline Inventory: Communities & Climate Action (Fall 2009)

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