Data to evidence


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Data to evidence

  1. 1. Presenting your evidenceDr Will Stahl-TimminsAssociate Research Fellow – Visualisation of data and information
  2. 2. Presenting Your Evidence• Data visualisation at the European Centre• Visual Representation• Design and production methods
  3. 3. Presenting Your Evidence• Data visualisation at the European Centre• Visual Representation• Design and production methods
  4. 4. Distance of dwelling from sea 0–1km > 50 km 20–50 km 5–20km 1–5km (baseline) Coast Health 1.5 1.5 % Change in 1.0population with 1.0 0.5 ‘good health’ + 95% CI 0.5 0.0 -0.5 0.0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 most least -0.5 deprived deprived All urban areas All urban areas by income deprivation quintile
  5. 5. outcome measures used no. of design, size baseline study cog func be glo author location centres & follow-up MMSE sex ages quality ADCS-ADL ADCS-CGIC ADAS-cog other other other CIBIC MMSE DAD PDS CDR QoL SIB NPI GDS 0yr 1 2 0 10 20 30 55 75 95 Donepezil 1mg N = 42 M F Rogers & Rand Donepezil 3mg N = 40 M F ? N = 161 Donepezil 5mg N = 39 M F Char Blind Analy 1mg 3mg 1996 F Placebo N = 40 M 5mg Donepezil 5mg N = 154 M F 5mgRogers et al. Rand M F Char 10 Donepezil 10mg N = 157 Blind mg 1998 (A) N = 473 Analy M F Placebo N = 162 Donepezil 5mg N = 157 M F 5mgRogers et al. Rand M F Char 10 Donepezil 10mg N = 158 mg Blind 1998 (B) N = 468 Analy M F Placebo N = 153 Donepezil 5mg N = 271 M F 5mg Burns et al. Rand M F Char 10mg Donepezil 10mg N = 273 Blind 1999 Analy N = 818 M F Placebo N = 274 Greenberg Donepezil 5mg (D) Rand et al. group 1 (p-D-p-p) N=30 M F Char group 2 (p-p-D-p) N=30 M F Blind N = 60 Analy 2000 Placebo (p) Donepezil 5mg N = 134Homma et al. M F Rand Char Blind 2000 N = 268 M F Analy Placebo N = 129 Donepezil 10mg N = 214 Mohs et al. M F Rand Char ADCS-CGIC ADCS-ADL Blind ADAS-cog 2001 N = 431 M F Analy MMSE CIBIC Placebo N = 217 DAD other other other CDR GDS PDS QoL NPI SIB 0yr 1 2 0 10 20 30 55 75 95 cog func be glo
  6. 6. © GOfERGraphical Overview for Evidence Reviews
  7. 7. Investigating the use of FLOODS AND STORMS AIR QUALITY AND DISEASEinformation graphics Floods are low-probability, high-impact events that can overwhelm physical infrastructure, human resilience and social organisation. Weather at all time scales determines the development, transport, dispersion and deposition of air pollutants, with the passage of fronts, cyclonic and anticyclonic systems and their associated air masses being of particular importance. This information graphic shows Floods are the most frequent natural weather disaster. This informationto explain the effects some of the causes and health impacts of air pollution, and shows how both the amount graphic shows some of the causes and health impacts of floods, and of air pollution, and our exposure to it, may increase in the future. shows how the number and severity of floods may increase in the future.of climate change CLIMATE CHANGE URBANISATION CLIMATE CHANGE The majority of climate scientists agree that human activity is causing temperatures to rise around the world. These higher These changes may affect air pollution in two main ways. First, it may mean that the atmospheric conditions are right for more GLOBAL TRENDS temperatures can affect weather systems, causing extremely air pollution to form. Secondly, it may change the patterns of air The majority of climate scientists agree that human activity is causing The number of people living inon health, compared high or extremely low winds. Rising temperatures also affect flow, meaning that more people are exposed to this pollution. temperatures to rise around the world. As these higher temperatures free cities is growing, particularly in the amount of water in the atmosphere. water that is usually frozen at the poles, sea levels are rising. Increased low income countries. temeratures also lead to more evaporation of water from seas and lakes. This can lead to increased rainfall and greater numbers of storms, 1900to textual presentation. cyclones and extreme weather events. 1950 POLLUTION SOURCES 2005 ENERGY URBAN FOREST PRODUCTION TRANSPORT FIRES As well as producing In urban areas, transport Naturally-occuring forest = 100m people greenhouse gasses vehicles are the key sources fires mean that toxic in towns or cities such as carbon dioxide, that of nitrogen oxides and volatile gaseous and particulate air lead to global warming, organic compounds (VOCs) pollutants are released the burning of fossil fuels that lead to ground-level into the atmosphere. for energy releases small ozone. Burning fossil fuels particles into the air, called for transport also releases FLOOD CAUSES particulate matter (PM). other gasses and particles. SEA LEVEL RAINFALL STORMS EVAPORATION SURFACE LOCAL Coastal regions Extreme rainfall Drowning by Global warming RUN-OFF TOPOGRAPHY are more can overwhelm storm surge is and changes in Urbanisation can Sometimes, Ozone generation PM generation The number vulnerable to rivers and lakes, the major killer land use (like is affected by: is affected by: of forest fires affect how much the shape of the — Bright sunlight — Raised is affected by: flooding as sea causing them to in coastal urbanisation) excess water land can make levels rise. flood. storms. affect how much — Raised temperatures temperatures — Raised can be absorbed areas vulnerable — Atmospheric temperatures water is carried into the ground. to flooding. — Low winds in the air. moisture — Atmospheric — Atmospheric moisture moisture OZONE PARTICULATE OTHER TOXIC AIR POLLUTION (AP) FLOODS AND STORMS Ozone is a secondary pollutant formed through photochemical reactions involving nitrogen MATTER (PM) Many different kinds of GASSES As well as ozone, other Floods are low-probability, high-impact events that can overwhelm physical VULNERABLE PLACES One-quarter of the FLOODS VULNERABLE world’s population oxides and volatile organic combustion, both artificial toxic gasses such as infrastructure, human resilience and social organisation. Floods are the most THE NORTH THE NILE resides within 100 km compounds (VOCs) in the and natural, can cause carbon monoxide can have frequent natural weather disaster. Floods result from the interaction of rainfall, SEA COAST DELTA PEOPLE presence of bright sunshine particles of solid matter can effects on human health. distance and 100 m surface runoff, evaporation, wind, sea level and local topography. In inland areas, Those living in elevation of the with high temperatures. become suspended in the air. flood regimes vary substantially depending on catchment size, topography and Low lying places coastline. PM is known to affect climate. Water management practices, urbanisation, intensified land use and SOUTH ASIA (especially those morbidity and mortality. with high density) In the USA, lower-income forestry can substantially alter the risks of floods. Windstorms are often THE GULF MICRONESIA groups were most associated with floods. COAST affected by Hurricane The amount of air Poorer communities Katrina in 2005. pollution breathed Major storm and flood disasters have occurred in the last two decades. In 2003, in by people BAY OF BENGAL Those with limited depends on: 130 million people were affected by floods in China. In 1999, 30,000 died from ability to escape Such as children, the (particularly at storms followed by floods and landslides in Venezuela. In 2000/2001, 1,813 died LATIN GULF OF risk from storm infirm, or those living — Wind / circula- in sub-standard housing. tion of air in floods in Mozambique. Improved structural and non-structural measures, AMERICA GUINEA SEYCHELLES surges) — Topography particularly improved warnings, have decreased mortality from floods and storm — Housing surges in the last 30 years; however, the impact of weather disasters in terms of characteristics social and health effects is still considerable and is unequally distributed, — Activity patterns particularly affecting women. Flood health impacts range from deaths, injuries, ALLERGIC PNEUMONIA COPD ASTHMA OTHER BURNS infectious diseases and toxic contamination, to mental health problems. RHINITIS Particularly Chronic Can affect DISEASE & SMOKE Severe affects obstructive quality of life, Other Cardio- INHALATION In terms of deaths and populations affected, floods and tropical cyclones have the allergies can children. pulmonary and is vascular and forest fires limit quality disease. increasingly respiratory can have greatest impact in South Asia and Latin America. Deaths recorded in disaster DEATH & INJURY INFECTIOUS TOXIC CON- MENTAL common, of life. diseases are direct effects databases are from drowning and severe injuries. Deaths from unsafe or unhealthy DISEASES TAMINATION HEALTH particularly in also caused by on health. Deaths recorded in disaster databases HEALTH IMPACTS conditions following the extreme event are also a health consequence, but such children. air pollution. are from drowning and severe injuries. Particularly in From storage or Insufficiently information is rarely included in disaster statistics. Drowning by storm surge is the VENEZUELA 1999 30,000 DEAD places with from chemicals investigated, major killer in coastal storms where there are large numbers of deaths. An poor sanitation: already in the but may include: assessment of surges in the past 100 years found that major events were confined environment: to a limited number of regions, with many events occurring in the Bay of Bengal, MOZAMBIQUE 2000/2001 1,813 DEAD Diarrhoeal Post-traumatic particularly Bangladesh. diseases Oil stress CHINA 2003 130m AFFECTED Pesticides Cholera Behavioural Populations with poor sanitation infrastructure and high burdens of infectious disorders in Improved warnings have decreased mortality from floods Cryptosporidiosis Heavy metals disease often experience increased rates of diarrhoeal diseases after flood events. Increases in cholera, cryptosporidiosis and typhoid fever have been reported in and storm surges in the last 30 years; however, the impact of weather disasters in terms of social and health effects Typhoid fever Hazardous children Anxiety? MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY low- and middle-income countries. Flood related increases in diarrhoeal disease is still considerable and is unequally distributed, waste have also been reported in India, Brazil and Bangladesh. The floods in Mozambique particularly affecting women. Depression? in 2001 were estimated to have caused over 8,000 additional cases and 447 deaths from diarrhoeal disease in the following months. OZONE MODELS PM MODELS The risk of infectious disease following flooding in high income countries is Future emissions are, of course, uncertain, and depend on Evidence for the health impacts of particulate matter generally low, although increases in respiratory and diarrhoeal diseases have been assumptions of population growth, economic development, is stronger than that for ozone. However, there are reported after floods. An important exception was the impact of Hurricanes Katrina regulatory actions and energy use. Changes in few models of the impact of climate change on pollutants and Rita in the USA in 2005, where contamination of water supplies with faecal concentrations of ground-level ozone driven by scenarios other than ozone. These tend to emphasise the role of bacteria led to many cases of diarrhoeal illness and some deaths. CASE STUDY 1: BANGLADESH CASE STUDY 2: USA of future emissions and/or weather patterns have been local abatement strategies in determining the future If human activity continues to warm global temperatures, Studies in industrialised countries indicate that densely projected for Europe and North America: levels of, primarily, particulate matter, and tend to project Flooding may lead to contamination of waters with dangerous chemicals, heavy countries like Bangladesh are likely to see more flooding. populated urban areas are at risk from sea-level rise. the probability of air-quality standards being exceeded FUTURE CHANGES FUTURE CHANGES metals or other hazardous substances, from storage or from chemicals already in assumed changes instead of absolute concentrations; the results vary by 2050s the environment (e.g., pesticides). Chemical contamination following Hurricane ASSUMPTIONS by region. NEW ORLEANS (USA) TEMP. Katrina in the USA included oil spills from refineries and storage tanks, pesticides, REFERENCE AREA INCREASE EMISSIONS EFFECTS Global temperature rise 2°c 4°c Because transboundary transport of pollutants plays metals and hazardous waste. Concentrations of most contaminants were within Mid-range estimate Knowlton New York 1.6 – medium 4.5% more a significant role in determining local to regional air acceptable short-term levels, except for lead and volatile organic compounds Global Sea level rise 30cm 100cm 1.5–3m below of 48 cm sea level et al., 2004 area, USA 3.2°C increase deaths quality, changing patterns of atmospheric circulation (VOCs) in some areas. There are also health risks associated with long-term rise by 2100 plus sea level now subsidence Bell et al., 50 cities, 1.6 – medium 0.6% more at the hemispheric to global level are likely to be just contamination of soil and sediment; however, there is little published evidence Increase in monsoon rains 18% 33% 2007 East USA 3.2°C increase deaths as important as regional patterns for future local air demonstrating a causal effect of chemical contamination on the pattern of Increase in monsoon 5% 10% Anderson England 0.9 – no ozone + quality. morbidity and mortality following flooding events. Increases in population density discharge into rivers This would mean that 2.5–4m below et al., 2001 & Wales 2.4°C increase other AP - and accelerating industrial development in areas subject to natural disasters a storm surge from a sea level by 2100 (all models assume population increase the probability of future disasters and the potential for mass human LIKELY EFFECTS Category 3 hurricane constant at year 2000 level) exposure to hazardous materials released during disasters. (estimated at 3 to 4 m People affected 4.8% 57% without waves) could be 6 to 7 m above There are no projections for cities in low- or middle- There is increasing evidence of the importance of mental disorders as an impact of areas that were heavily populated in 2004. income countries, despite the heavier pollution burdens disasters. Prolonged impairment resulting from common mental disorders (anxiety Flooding depth 30–90cm 90–180cm in these populations. and depression) may be considerable. Studies in both low- and high-income countries indicate that the mental-health aspect of flood-related impacts has been insufficiently investigated. A systematic review of post-traumatic stress disorder in high income countries found a small but significant effect following disasters. There is also evidence of medium- to long-term impacts on behavioural disorders in young children. Vulnerability to weather disasters depends on the attributes of the person at risk (including where they live, age, income, education and disability) and on broader social and environmental factors (level of disaster preparedness, health sector responses and environmental degradation). Poorer communities, particularly slum dwellers, are more likely to live in flood-prone areas. In the USA, lower-income groups were most affected by Hurricane Katrina, and low-income schools had twice the risk of being flooded compared with the reference group. High-density populations in low-lying coastal regions experience a high health burden from weather disasters, such as settlements along the North Sea coast in north-west Europe, the Seychelles, parts of Micronesia, the Gulf Coast of the USA and Mexico, the Nile Delta, the Gulf of Guinea, and the Bay of Bengal. Environmentally degraded areas are particularly vulnerable to tropical cyclones and coastal flooding under current climate conditions. Future vulnerability to climate change
  8. 8. Presenting Your Evidence• Data visualisation at the European Centre• Visual Representation• Design and production methods
  9. 9. 1) increased resources2) reduced search3) enhanced pattern recognition4) perceptual inference5) perceptual monitoring6) manipulable mediumThomas, J. J. and K. A. Cook (2005). Illuminating the Path: TheResearch and Development Agenda for Visual Analytics. AvailableOnline at:, IEEE Computer Society.!
  10. 10. 1) increased resources - high bandwidth of sensory information
  11. 11. 1) increased resources - high bandwidth of sensory information vision - 12 MB/s touch - 1 MB/s hearing, smell & taste - 1 MB/sNørretranders, T. (1999). The user illusion: cutting consciousnessdown to size. Penguin, London, UK.
  12. 12. 1) increased resources - high bandwidth of sensory informationNørretranders, T. (1999). The user illusion: cutting consciousnessdown to size. Penguin, London, UK.
  13. 13. 1 3 7 2
  14. 14. 1 3 7 2
  15. 15. 350px 150px 100px50px 1 3 7 2
  16. 16. 350px 150px 100px50px 1 3 7 2 the 1D size element
  17. 17. 1 3 7 2
  18. 18. area = 17500px 2 area = area = 5000px 2 7500px2area =2500px2 1 3 7 2
  19. 19. area = 17500px 2 area = area = 5000px 2 7500px2area =2500px2 1 3 7 2 the area element
  20. 20. 1 3 7 2 the count element
  21. 21. 1 3 7 2
  22. 22. 100 1 3 7 2
  23. 23. red = 255 green = 0 blue = 010 red = 255 green = 231 red = 255 blue = 0 green = 177 red = 255 blue = 0 green = 68 red = 255 blue = 0 green = 205 blue = 00 1 3 7 2 red = 255 green = 255 blue = 0
  24. 24. red = 255 green = 0 blue = 010 red = 255 green = 231 red = 255 blue = 0 green = 177 red = 255 blue = 0 green = 68 red = 255 blue = 0 green = 205 blue = 00 1 3 7 2 the colour element
  25. 25. 1 3 7 24 6 1 2
  26. 26. 10 0 1 3 7 2 4 6 1 2
  27. 27. 10 0 1 3 7 2 4 6 1 2 2 4 2 1
  28. 28. 10 4 3 2 1 0 1 3 7 2 4 6 1 2 2 4 2 1
  29. 29. the-world-bbc/
  30. 30. size1d one dimensional sizing of objects (think bar graphs).size2d two dimensional sizing of objects. (including bubble charts and pie charts,which rely on area)size3d three dimensional sizing of objects.position1d 1 meaningful axis. Data represented by position on a line, circle or other shape, from one point (often representing 0) to another. Can be nominal (no particularly significant order numerically, but could be alpabetical); ordinal (list from highest to lowest for example); interval (position represents numerical value) or ratio (like interval, but with a 0 value meaning nothing, eg. not temperature in celcius)position2d information represented using 2 axes, like a scatter plot, line graph or points on a mapposition3d unusual, and clumsy to represent on paper/screen.textposition1d where the position of text has significance.textposition2dtextposition3dtypesizefontweight use of text that appears bolder or italicised.scale when objects are represented to scaleorientationcountshape (including pictograms and logotypes)symbol assumed convention, such as an arrow for directiongrouping grouping elements, for example using an outline or enclosure.highlighting use of border etc to highlight element/elements. (static highlighting)linking physical joining of elements using a line, etc.
  31. 31. Presenting Your EvidencePhD thesis 4.1 - Design Elements
  32. 32. Presenting Your Evidence• Data visualisation at the European Centre• Visual Representation• Design and production methods
  33. 33. 1. Use standard graph tools
  34. 34. Open Office / Microsoft Excel / Apple Numbers
  35. 35. 2. Use specialist data visualisation tools
  36. 36. Title Gender Ages Sites Features Outcomes Design M F 500mg N=22Able Baker et al. 2010 N=50 M F Control N=28Doggs Hamlet 2009 M F N=150Echo Bazaar 2006 M F ? N=25
  37. 37.
  38. 38.
  39. 39. 3. Do it by hand(or consult a professional information designer)
  40. 40.
  41. 41.
  42. 42. Presenting Your EvidenceIn Summary:Simple graph tools are suitable for simple data.Online tools (like Gapminder) and specialist software(like GOfER, Tableau, Many Eyes) are available for morecomplex data.Bespoke presentations (possibly made by informationdesign professionals) will be needed for the mostchallenging data. Contact through Information DesignAssociation / International Institute for InformationDesign.
  43. 43. Presenting Your EvidenceA word of warningYou may need to present raw data alongside visuals
  44. 44. Thank youDr Will Stahl-TimminsTwitter: @will_s_t