Dolly A dolly is a cart which travels along tracks. The camera is mounted on the dolly and records the shot as it moves. Dolly shots have a number of applications and can provide very dramatic footage. In many circles a dolly shot is also known as a tracking shot or trucking shot.However some professionals prefer the more rigid terminology which defines dolly as in-and-out movement (i.e. closer/further away from the subject), while tracking means side-to-side movement.
A dolly zoom is a cinematic technique in which the camera moves closer or further from the subject whilesimultaneously adjusting the zoom angle to keep the subject the same size in the frame. The effect is that thesubject appears stationary while the background size changes (this is called perspective distortion).In the first example pictured, the camera is positioned close to the subject and the lens is zoomed out. In the secondshot, the camera is several meters further back and the lens is zoomed in.The EffectDolly zooms create an unnatural effect — this is something your eyes would never normally see. Many peoplecomment on the shot after seeing it for the first time, e.g. "That was weird" or "What just happened there?".The exact effect depends on the direction of camera movement. If the camera moves closer, the background seemsto grow and become dominant. If the camera moves further away, the foreground subject is emphasized andbecomes dominant.The effect is quite emotional and is often used to convey sudden realization, reaction to a dramatic event, etc.
Follow/ SteadicamThe Follow shot is fairly self-explanatory. It simply means that the camerafollows the subject of action. The following distance is usually kept more orless constant.The movement can be achieved by dollying or tracking, although in manycases a Steadicam is the most practical option. Hand-held follow-shots arequite achievable in many situations but are not generally suited to featurefilm cinematography.
PanA pan is a horizontal camera movement in which the camera moves left andright about a central axis. This is a swiveling movement, i.e. mounted in a fixedlocation on a tripod or shoulder, rather than a dolly-like movement in which theentire mounting system moves.To create a smooth pan its a good idea to practice the movement first. If youneed to move or stretch your body during the move, it helps to positionyourself so you end up in the more comfortable position. In other words youshould become more comfortable as the move progresses rather than lesscomfortable.
PedestalA pedestal shot means moving the camera vertically with respect to thesubject. This is often referred to as "pedding" the camera up or down.The term comes from the type of camera support known as a pedestal(pictured right). Pedestals are used in studio settings and provide a greatdeal of flexibility as well as very smooth movement. Unlike standard tripods,pedestals have the ability to move the camera in any direction (left, right,up, down).
TiltA tilt is a vertical camera movement in which the camera points up or down from astationary location. For example, if you mount a camera on your shoulder and nodit up and down, you are tilting the camera.Tilting is less common than panning because thats the way humans work — welook left and right more often than we look up and down.The tilt should not be confused with the Dutch Tilt which means a deliberatelyslanted camera angle.
TrackThe term tracking shot is widely considered to be synonymous with dolly shot that is, ashot in which the camera is mounted on a cart which travels along tracks.However there are a few variations of both definitions. Tracking is often more narrowlydefined as movement parallel to the action, or at least at a constant distance (e.g. thecamera which travels alongside the race track in track & field events). Dollying is oftendefined as moving closer to or further away from the action.Some definitions specify that tracking shots use physical tracks, others consider tracking toinclude hand-held walking shots, Steadicam shots, etc.
ZoomA zoom is technically not a camera move as it doesnot require the camera itself to move at all.Zooming means altering the focal length of the lensto give the illusion of moving closer to or furtheraway from the action.The effect is not quite the same though. Zooming iseffectively magnifying a part of the image, whilemoving the camera creates a difference inperspective — background objects appear tochange in relation to foreground objects. This issometimes used for creative effect in the dollyzoom.
CraneA crane shot is a shot taken by a camera on a crane. The most obvious uses are toview the actors from above or to move up and away from them, a common way ofending a movie. Some filmmakers like to have the camera on a boom arm just tomake it easier to move around between ordinary set-ups. Most cranes accommodateboth the camera and an operator, but some can be operated by remote control. Theyare usually, but not always, found in what are supposed to be emotional orsuspenseful scenes
Reverse ShotA reverse zoom is where the camera pansout from where it is zoomed in a prop ora characters facial features or so theaudience can what the characters actionsare.