Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Teresa Ann Huges, Dissertation Defense PPT.

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Teresa Ann Huges, Dissertation Defense PPT.

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair for Teresa Ann Huges, Dissertation Defense PPT.

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  • Typically I would address the review of literature before the research questions and methods, but I am putting them with the major findings to make it clearer how the study meshes with the theoretical framework.
  • The PLC model flows from the assumption that the core mission of formal education is not simply to ensure that students are taught but to ensure that students learn. Educators realize they must work together to achieve their collective purpose of learning for all. Therefore, they create structures to promote a collaborative culture. PLC educators judge their effectiveness on the basis of results. If these 3 big ideas are properly implemented the result should be improved student performance.
  • The following research questions will guide the study…… Principals responding to the instrument, School Professional Staff as Learning Community, will answer this research question.
  • TAKS data was obtained from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to answer this research question.
  • TAKS data was obtained from the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to answer this research question.
  • Descriptive Statistics were used to compile demographic information on each principal responding to the instrument. Pearson Correlation Coefficients were then calculated to establish whether or not a relationship existed between schools functioning as PLCs and student achievement. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine predictability for each of the 5 indicator items on the instrument as they related to student achievement.
  • PLC schools were obtained through 2 sources: Solution Tree – districts hosting PLC conferences in Texas Southwest Educational Development Laboratories (SEDL) – schools given grant money because of NCLB to implement learning communities. The response rate was low but is considered acceptable considering the population and time of year. The instrument was mailed in April and again in June to the non-respondents. Don Dillman’s Total Design Method was also used to increase the response rate. --short instrument --short and personal introduction letter --self-addressed stamped envelope --assured confidentiality by coding the instrument
  • The instrument used in this study is….. And was created by Shirley Hord at SEDL.
  • The majority of principals rated their campuses as mature professional learning communities. The mean length of time was 2.5 years. This would indicate that the professional learning communities were a relatively new approach.
  • This correlation is significant in that the length of time a campus is a professional learning community directly impacts the development level of the campus as perceived by the principal.
  • TAKS data will be obtained to answer this research question.
  • For the 2004 and 2005 school years,
  • It was not necessary to calculate stepwise multiple regression for Mathematics TAKS scores because the Pearson correlation coefficients for the total instrument scores and each indicator, did not reflect a relationship.
  • TAKS data will be obtained to answer this research question.
  • For the 2004 and 2005 school years,
  • Stepwise multiple regression analysis was calculated to determine predictability for each of the 5 indicators as they related to student achievement.
  • Predictor 2 continues to emerge as a predictor variable. While indicator 5 was included in the model of stepwise multiple regression analysis the analysis excluded it. This could be because indicator 5 is measuring the same constructs in indicator 2. In fact, when I ran a Pearson’s correlation coefficient between indicators 2 and 5, r = .608, p = .000 (p < .01).
  • Significant increases in student achievement did occur.
  • NCLB mandates have put a lot of pressure on schools to address student learning. Districts and/or schools could be implementing multiple initiatives while at the same time implementing PLCs.
  • This indicates that PLCs are a relatively new idea and might explain why a relationship between student achievement and PLC schools was not significant.
  • Thank you for your attention.

Transcript

  • 1. October 25, 2006 1:00 PM Teresa Ann Hughes P1The Relationship BetweenProfessional LearningCommunities and StudentAchievement in High SchoolsA Dissertation DefensebyTeresa Ann HughesMajor Professor: William Allan Kritsonis, PhDPhD Program in Educational Leadership
  • 2. Teresa Ann Hughes 2October 25, 2006 1:00 PMDissertation Defense FormatI. Theoretical FrameworkII. Purpose of the StudyIII. Research QuestionsIV. MethodV. Major FindingsVI. Review of LiteratureVII. Recommendations
  • 3. Teresa Ann Hughes 3October 25, 2006 1:00 PMTheoretical Framework3 Big IdeasStudentPerformanceCollaborative CultureResultsRichard and Rebecca DuFour and Robert EakerStudent Learning
  • 4. Teresa Ann Hughes 4October 25, 2006 1:00 PMPurpose of the StudyThe purpose was two-fold:1. Identify the degree to which each schoolwas functioning as a professionallearning community as rated by theprincipal.
  • 5. Teresa Ann Hughes 5October 25, 2006 1:00 PMPurpose of the Study2. Identify whether improved studentachievement in Mathematics andReading/English Language Arts TexasAssessment of Knowledge and Skills(TAKS) scores increased as a result ofprofessional learning communities for the2004, 2005, and 2006 school years.
  • 6. Teresa Ann Hughes 6October 25, 2006 1:00 PMResearch Questions1. To what degree do principals rate theirschool as functioning as a professionallearning community as measured by theSchool Professional Staff as LearningCommunity instrument?
  • 7. Teresa Ann Hughes 7October 25, 2006 1:00 PMResearch Questions2. Is there a relationship between studentachievement, based on change inMathematics Texas Assessment ofKnowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores, andthe degree to which the principals reportthat the school is functioning as aprofessional learning community?
  • 8. Teresa Ann Hughes 8October 25, 2006 1:00 PMResearch Questions3. Is there a relationship between studentachievement, based on change inReading/English Language Arts TexasAssessment of Knowledge and Skills(TAKS) scores, and the degree to whichthe principals report that the school isfunctioning as a professional learningcommunity?
  • 9. Teresa Ann Hughes 9October 25, 2006 1:00 PMNull HypothesesH01 - There is no statistically significantrelationship between studentachievement, as measured byMathematics Texas Assessment ofKnowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores, andthe degree to which a school is functioningas a professional learning community.
  • 10. Teresa Ann Hughes 10October 25, 2006 1:00 PMNull HypothesesH02 - There is no statistically significantrelationship between studentachievement, as measured byReading/English Language Arts TexasAssessment of Knowledge and Skills(TAKS) scores, and the degree to which aschool is functioning as a professionallearning community.
  • 11. Teresa Ann Hughes 11October 25, 2006 1:00 PMMethod Descriptive Statistics Correlational StatisticsPearson’s Correlation Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis
  • 12. Teresa Ann Hughes 12October 25, 2006 1:00 PMMethod Independent Variable – The degree to which aschool functions as a professional learningcommunity as rated by the principal. Dependent Variable – Student achievementbased on change in Mathematics andReading/English Language Arts TAKS scores.
  • 13. Teresa Ann Hughes 13October 25, 2006 1:00 PMMethod Subjects of the StudyAll accessible regular instruction public highschools that functioned as a PLC in TexasGrades 9 through 12Total student enrollment greater than 1,00064 principals responded out of 142
  • 14. Teresa Ann Hughes 14October 25, 2006 1:00 PMMethod InstrumentationSchool Professional Staff as LearningCommunity Instrumentfive-point Likert-type instrumentPilot Test and Field Test for reliability andvalidity conducted by Appalachia EducationalLaboratories (AEL)5 Indicators (17 total questions)
  • 15. Teresa Ann Hughes 15October 25, 2006 1:00 PMMethodInstrumentation – 5 Indicators1. School administrators participate democraticallywith teachers by sharing power, authority, anddecision making.2. There is a shared vision for school improvement inwhich the school has an undeviating focus onstudent learning.3. Staff’s collective learning and application of thelearning create high intellectual tasks and solutionsto address student needs.
  • 16. Teresa Ann Hughes 16October 25, 2006 1:00 PMMethodInstrumentation – 5 Indicators4. Peers review and give feedbackbased on observing each other’sclassroom behaviors.5. Conditions and capacities support theschool’s arrangement as aprofessional learning community.
  • 17. Teresa Ann Hughes 17October 25, 2006 1:00 PMMajor FindingsResearch Question 1To what degree do principals rate theirschool as functioning as a professionallearning community as measured by theSchool Professional Staff as LearningCommunity instrument?
  • 18. Teresa Ann Hughes 18October 25, 2006 1:00 PMMajor FindingsResearch Question 1Mean PLC Score = 68.8Possible Range: 17 to 85Reported Range: 52 to 83Mean Length of Time as a PLC = 2.5 years
  • 19. Teresa Ann Hughes 19October 25, 2006 1:00 PMMajor FindingsResearch Question 1Correlation Between Total PLC Score onInstrument and Years as a PLCr = .347,p = .005, (p < .01)
  • 20. Teresa Ann Hughes 20October 25, 2006 1:00 PMReview of LiteratureResearch Question 1Lezotte (1997) - The best way to build this broad-basedcommitment to the goals and strategies is throughinvolvement of the staff and administrators.Eaker, DuFour, & DuFour (2002) - In a professionallearning community, collaboration is embedded intoevery aspect of the school culture. Every major decisionrelated to the learning mission is made throughcollaborative processes.
  • 21. Teresa Ann Hughes 21October 25, 2006 1:00 PMReview of LiteratureResearch Question 1Gale (1997) - For change to be sustained, it isessential that those in authority support thechange and those at the site of change must beinvolved in decisions regarding the change.Twadell (2006) - The seeds of change in ourdepartmental culture were planted whenteachers worked together to develop a sharedvision of the department they hoped to becomeand the students they hoped to shape.
  • 22. Teresa Ann Hughes 22October 25, 2006 1:00 PMReview of LiteratureResearch Question 1DuFour and Eaker (1998) - Teachers inprofessional learning communities recognizethat teaching has not occurred until learning hasoccurred, and they act accordingly.Hinman (2006) - Collaboration and collectiveinquiry are essential to the PLC concept, butonly if teachers remain focused on the rightissues.
  • 23. Teresa Ann Hughes 23October 25, 2006 1:00 PMReview of LiteratureResearch Question 1Muhammad (2006) - They recognize studentscannot continually learn at higher levels unlesseducators are continually developing theircapacity to meet the needs of students.Eaker, DuFour & DuFour (2002), Members of aPLC are not ‘invited’ to work with colleagues:they are called upon to be contributing membersof a collective effort to improve the school’scapacity to help all students learn at high levels.
  • 24. Teresa Ann Hughes 24October 25, 2006 1:00 PMMajor FindingsResearch Question 2Is there a relationship between studentachievement, based on change inMathematics Texas Assessment ofKnowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores, andthe degree to which the principals reportthat the school is functioning as aprofessional learning community?
  • 25. Teresa Ann Hughes 25October 25, 2006 1:00 PMMajor FindingsResearch Question 2Freq. % Freq. % Freq %Decrease 9 14.1 38 59.4 6 9.4Increase 55 85.9 26 40.6 58 90.62004-2005 2004-20062005-2006Change in Mathematics TAKS Scores
  • 26. Teresa Ann Hughes 26October 25, 2006 1:00 PMMajor FindingsResearch Question 2Pearson’s “r” for the total PLC score and eachindicator as they relate to Mathematics TAKSscores were not significant for any of the schoolyears.The null hypotheses was not rejected.Stepwise multiple regression analysis was notcalculated.
  • 27. Teresa Ann Hughes 27October 25, 2006 1:00 PMMajor FindingsResearch Question 3Is there a relationship between studentachievement, based on change inReading/English Language Arts TexasAssessment of Knowledge and Skills(TAKS) scores, and the degree to whichthe principals report that the school isfunctioning as a professional learningcommunity?
  • 28. Teresa Ann Hughes 28October 25, 2006 1:00 PMMajor FindingsResearch Question 3Freq. % Freq. % Freq %Decrease 28 43.7 1 1.6 1 1.6Increase 36 56.3 63 98.4 63 98.42004-2005 2004-20062005-2006Change in Reading/English Language Arts TAKS Scores
  • 29. Teresa Ann Hughes 29October 25, 2006 1:00 PMMajor FindingsResearch Question 3For the 2004 and 2005 school years,Indicator 2 (Undeviating focus on student learning):r = .289, p = .021 (p < .05)Indicator 5 (Conditions and capacities support thelearning community school):r = .252, p = .045 (p < .05)
  • 30. Teresa Ann Hughes 30October 25, 2006 1:00 PMMajor FindingsResearch Question 3Stepwise Multiple Regression AnalysisExcluded VariablesSig. Partial CorrelationTotal Score: .789 -.034Indicator 1: .629 -.062Indicator 3: .601 -.067Indicator 4: .301 -.132Indicator 5: .434 .100The null hypotheses was not rejected.
  • 31. Teresa Ann Hughes 31October 25, 2006 1:00 PMReview of LiteratureResearch Questions 2 & 3Descriptive StatisticsMuhammad (2006) - A school that lagged far behind stateaverages had surpassed the state and eliminated theachievement gap. This transformation occurred, notbecause of an influx of better, brighter students, butbecause of the increased capacity, skill, and confidenceof the staff.Thompson, Gregg & Niska (2004) - In the area of studentlearning, every principal said that they felt students werelearning in their school and they know this by looking atvarious assessments, i.e. test scores, student work, andportfolios.
  • 32. Teresa Ann Hughes 32October 25, 2006 1:00 PMReview of LiteratureResearch Questions 2 & 3Correlational StatisticsSchools could be implementing otherinitiatives.Hatch (2000) refers to this excess ofinitiatives as “multiple innovationscolliding.”
  • 33. Teresa Ann Hughes 33October 25, 2006 1:00 PMReview of LiteratureResearch Questions 2 & 3Correlational StatisticsTime as a PLC = 2.5 yearsFullan (2000) - It takes about three years toachieve successful change in studentperformance in an elementary school.Depending on size, it takes about six years to doso in a secondary school.
  • 34. Teresa Ann Hughes 34October 25, 2006 1:00 PMConclusionIt can be concluded that while there are significantincreases in all TAKS scores, the results fromthe instrument can not be used to predictchange in TAKS scores. Therefore, it cannot beconcluded that professional learningcommunities impact student achievement and itcannot be concluded that they do not impactstudent achievement.
  • 35. Teresa Ann Hughes 35October 25, 2006 1:00 PMRecommendations Principals should follow professional learningcommunities over the next few years to document furtherprogress. Principals should continue participating democraticallywith teachers sharing power, authority, and decisionmaking. Principals should continue working to share visions forschool improvement that have an undeviating focus onstudent learning and are consistently referenced for thestaff’s work.
  • 36. Teresa Ann Hughes 36October 25, 2006 1:00 PMRecommendations Principals should continue to support the staff’s collectivelearning and application of the learning to addressstudent needs. Principals should implement peer reviews and peersproviding feedback based on observing each other’sclassrooms in order to increase individual andorganizational capacity. Principals should continue to support the school’sarrangement as a professional learning community.
  • 37. Teresa Ann Hughes 37October 25, 2006 1:00 PMRecommendationsfor Further Study A study could be conducted to compare schoolsfunctioning as professional learning communitieswith schools not functioning as professionallearning communities to determine if studentachievement is impacted. A study could be conducted to determine if arelationship exists between the number of yearsschools are professional learning communitiesand student achievement.
  • 38. Teresa Ann Hughes 38October 25, 2006 1:00 PMRecommendationsfor Further Study A study could be conducted to compare professionallearning community schools with similar demographics todetermine if student achievement is impacted. Schoolscould be identified by the campus group with which theyare assigned. A study could be conducted that includes bothelementary and middle schools. This study only includedhigh schools. A study could be conducted where both principals andteachers are surveyed and interviewed to determine theperceptions of their schools as professional learningcommunities.
  • 39. Teresa Ann Hughes 39October 25, 2006 1:00 PMRecommendationsfor Further Study A study could be conducted with a different instrumentthat addresses the differences in the respondent’s mindbetween what should be present for a professionallearning community to exist and what actually isoccurring on the respondent’s campus. A study could be conducted with a different instrumentthat has a wider range of choices within a Likert-typescale. This would provide a greater potential variance foreach variable so that true differences would emergeduring inferential statistical analysis.
  • 40. October 25, 2006 1:00 PM Teresa Ann Hughes P40The Relationship BetweenProfessional LearningCommunities and StudentAchievement in High SchoolsA Dissertation DefensebyTeresa Ann Hughes