RURAL AFRICAN AMERICAN ADMINISTRATOR  CAREER TRAJECTORIES  A Dissertation Proposal  by  Rhodena Townsell William Allan Kri...
Chapter I Introduction <ul><li>African Americans administrators are actively recruited  </li></ul><ul><li>and groomed to f...
Chapter I  Statement of the Problem <ul><li>Literature related to educational  </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership does not adequ...
Chapter I  Purpose of the Study <ul><ul><li>The purpose of this study will be to describe factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Research Questions <ul><li>What academic and work experiences influence the career pathways taken by rural African America...
Conceptual Framework <ul><li>The conceptual framework for this research  </li></ul><ul><li>study will be based The Career ...
Conceptual Framework <ul><li>The Career Choice Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiences and Encouragements </li></ul></ul><...
Conceptual Framework <ul><li>Traditional models in leadership are developed by using mostly Caucasian males and should not...
Significance   of the Study <ul><li>Data gathered in this study will add information to the body of knowledge in education...
<ul><li>Before  Brown v. the Board of Education (1954)  82,000 African American teachers were employed to teach approximat...
African Americans and  Public Schools <ul><li>After  Brown v. the Board of Education  approximately 38,000 African America...
Rural School Challenges  <ul><li>High poverty rate (The Rural School and Community Trust Organization, 2007)  </li></ul><u...
Rural School Challenges <ul><li>School boards </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Salaries </li></ul><ul><li>Social, Cultural and Prof...
Rural School Challenges <ul><li>Rural educators may have to  work as teachers in their school districts for many years bef...
Experiences (Academic and Work) <ul><li>Most held undergraduate degrees at HBCUs and graduate degrees from Colleges or Uni...
Encouragements <ul><li>Family Members (Bush, et al, 2005; Turner, 2004)  </li></ul><ul><li>Mentors (Manuel & Slate, 2003; ...
Barriers <ul><li>School Board Agendas (Bates, 2007; Laub, 2007 Kowalski, 2003; Ortiz, 2000; Willie & Willie, 2005)  </li><...
Characteristics (Bush, et al, 2005)  <ul><li>Resilience </li></ul><ul><li>Personal determination, courage, confidence, and...
Themes from the Literature  (Adell, 2004; Benson, 2006) <ul><li>Personal Motivation (Adell & Benson) </li></ul><ul><li>Mul...
Research Design <ul><li>This will be a qualitative descriptive study </li></ul><ul><li>Data will be collected in the form ...
Population & Sample <ul><li>The target population for this study will be African  </li></ul><ul><li>American administrator...
Instrumentation and  Pilot Study <ul><li>Permission was obtained from Dr. Dorothy Benson to  </li></ul><ul><li>use the que...
Data Collection <ul><li>Collection Format   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field Jou...
Data Analysis <ul><li>Research Question One </li></ul><ul><li>What academic and work experiences influence the career  </l...
Data Analysis <ul><li>Research Question Two </li></ul><ul><li>What encouragements found in the workplace and in  </li></ul...
Data Analysis <ul><li>Research Question Three </li></ul><ul><li>What barriers found in the workplace and in the </li></ul>...
Data Analysis <ul><li>Research Question Four </li></ul><ul><li>What characteristics of rural African American </li></ul><u...
Summary <ul><ul><li>The purpose of this study will be to describe the career </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trajectories of ru...
My Encouragement  for Your Questions <ul><li>“ I’m wide awake and full of fun, scared to  </li></ul><ul><li>death but I wo...
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Rhodena Townsell, PhD Proposal Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Rhodena Townsell, PVAMU, Member of the Texas A&M University System

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  • References: McCray &amp; Beachum- Commemorating Brown v. the Board of Edu.is a paper presented @ the Association of African American Principal Placements. Buxton- African American Teacher: The Missing Link Black Collegian Gertzwertz- Race, Gender and the Superintendency Education Week. Scott- The Black School Superintendent: Messiah of Scapegoat. Gary Bates- An Analysis of African American in the Public School Superintendency. James Laub- An Analysis of the Rural Public School Superintendent
  • This study will identify patterns in the career trajectories of rural African American administrators. Of particular interest are those factors, which appear to influence their career paths. Those factors are suspected to be the academic and work experiences, encouragements, barriers, and the characteristics of rural African American administrators. The literature indicates that these factors may be the forerunners of attitude formation for job choices. These are the job choices that are consistent with the achievement of leadership positions. The relationship between the factors may be described in terms of the cultural and social environments of the subjects (Delgado &amp; Stefanic, 2000; Kowalski, 2003; Manuel &amp; Slate, 2003).
  • Read Slide.
  • The Career Choice Model emphasizes the fit between an individual and her career success. Experiences related to work and academic success, as well as perceived encouragements will be variables investigated from this model. The Career Choice Model postulates that a number of independent variables influence career pathways. The study named work experience, academic success, role models, and perceived encouragement as those independent variables. Work experience and academic success will be renamed experience in this study. Role models will be incorporated with perceived encouragement. The interaction between the variables of experience and perceived encouragement are believed to be consistent with the attainment of high level administrative positions like that of superintendency (Kerka, 1998). Theodore Kowalski’s (2003) research on minority administrators reveals that the barriers impacting these individuals and the characteristics of these leaders merit the attention of all stakeholders involved in school administration. Although the barriers encountered by of African Americans entering the field of school administration are now receiving attention, little information exists about the characteristics of those individuals. Those perceived barriers and the characteristics of African American administrators will be investigated in this study. Premises of the Critical Race Theory (CRT) will be applied to the study during the investigation of barriers that are encountered by African American administrators (Delgado &amp; Stefanic, 2000). CRT begins with three premises: racism is normal in American society, America’s social world, with its rules, practices, and assignments of prestige and power, is not fixed because it can be constructed with words, stories, and even silence, and elite Caucasian Americans will tolerate or encourage racial advances for African Americans only when those advances also promote Caucasian self-interest (Delgado &amp; Stefanic, 2000).
  • The Career Choice Model emphasizes the fit between an individual and career success. It postulates that of independent variables of work experiences and encouragements can influence career pathways. The interaction between the variables are believed to be consistent with the attainment of high level administrative positions like that of superintendency (Kerka, 1998). Theodore Kowalski’s (2003) research on minority administrators reveals that the barriers impacting these individuals and the characteristics of these leaders merit the attention of all stakeholders involved in school administration. Although the barriers encountered by of African Americans entering the field of school administration are now receiving attention, little information exists about the characteristics of those individuals. CRT begins with three premises: racism is normal in American society, America’s social world, with its rules, practices, and assignments of prestige and power, is not fixed because it can be constructed with words, stories, and even silence, and elite Caucasian Americans will tolerate or encourage racial advances for African Americans only when those advances also promote Caucasian self-interest.
  • This particular conceptual framework resulted because research illustrates that traditional models in leadership are developed by using mostly Caucasian males and should not be generalized for other groups of individuals such as African Americans (Kezar &amp; Moriarty, 2000). Other individuals experience the social world in their own unique way (Valverde &amp; Brown cited in Kowalski, 2003).
  • Data gathered in this study will add information to the body of knowledge in educational leadership about a population of individuals who have not received a significant amount of attention in the literature. It will also benefit African Americans enrolled in leadership training programs to better prepare for administrative positions in rural area schools, and potentially inform rural teachers who desire to become administrators about such possibilities. Finally, the model of this project may be used in studies of similar populations. In recent years the call for African American administrators has been greatest in urban areas (Gewertz, 2006; Scott, 1980). Their counterpoints, rural African American administrators, have been given little attention in the literature. Indeed, the researcher has found dialogue at infrequent regional meetings and through various principal organizations more informative than the existing literature.
  • By the middle of the 1950s, African American parents were given the opportunity to fight in court for their children’s equal access to educational facilities, curriculum, instruction, and materials (Willie &amp; Willie, 2005). In 1896, The Plessy v. Ferguson decision provided the legal justification for action by state and local governments to legally separate African Americans and Caucasians in social settings (U.S. Supreme Court Center, 2008). In 1954, the landmark case of Brown v. the Board of Education was sent to the Supreme Court. The court was left to decide whether or not the segregation of public school children, based solely on race, deprived minority children of an equal opportunity for education even when everything else was equal (Kusimo, 1999). The court ruled that “separate but equal” facilities for public school students were no longer acceptable (Alexander &amp; Alexander, 2005). About 82,000 African American teachers were employed to teach approximately 8 million African American children (Toppo, 2004). Following the Brown v. the Board of Education decision, it took a span of 10 to15 years to reach legal compliance of desegregation laws. An excess of 38,000 African American teachers and administrators in many Southern states lost their jobs due to school closings and consolidations (Echols, 2007). By some estimates, 90% of African American principals lost their jobs (Toppo, 2004). In Texas, 5,000 uncertified Caucasian teachers were employed, while certified African American teachers were dismissed (Toppo, 2004). School boards based employment practices on the assumption that Caucasian parents would not want African Americans teachers educating their children (Toppo, 2004). This is an example of the type of practice which led to the CRT (Delgado &amp; Stefanic, 2000). The integration of American public schools was achieved by closing many of the schools that served African American students (Turner, 2004). Integration occurred slowly in some areas and it was often delayed by the actions of local school boards (Willie &amp; Willie, 2005). In some areas of the south, this was the pattern of action for many years.
  • Rural schools tend to be located in areas with low property values and they are likely to have fewer industries. Rural schools tend to be located in areas with low property values and they are likely to have fewer industries. Federal grants awarded on student population also impact rural schools (NEA, 2004). Read…….. Twenty-seven percent (12.5) students attend rural public schools (Johnson &amp; Strange, 2007) .
  • Rural school boards are often the pulse of the school district. These officials may be skeptical of applicants who have no ties to the community or of those who do not look like their conception of a school educator, or appear to be knowledgeable (Institute for Educational Leadership, 2005). Administrators stand as visible representation of a school district. As such, school boards want to hire individuals who project an image that is in keeping with the standards of the community (Kowalski, 2003). School board members are very likely to have relatives, church members etc. who expect to have top billing. Salary is a great deterrent in the recruitment of qualified teachers for small rural schools. The ave. salary range for a principal in Texas 65,000-71,000 . In the Houston area an ave. salary may range from 65,000 up past 75,000. A rural principal in nearby school with similar experience may expect to receive a salary ranging from $57, 000 to $62,000 (TEA, 2008). the feeling of social, cultural and professional isolation are often cited as negatives when looking at rural life. Newly hired teachers cited the following: geographic isolation, weather, distance from larger communities, distance from family and inadequate shopping as a reason for leaving a rural area teaching position As a recruiter for her rural district, the researcher was told that the lack of social networking was also a factor to some African Americans deciding against teaching in a rural area.
  • Rural educators may work as teachers in their school districts for many years before an administrative opportunity becomes available. Potential administrators must stay abreast of student needs, staff, and community concerns while working toward building positive relationships with all stakeholders (Townsell &amp; Kritsonis, 2006). Planning and patience with the system appear to be at the crux of the challenge. Occasionally, events may unfold without a plan. For example, an assistant principal’s job may open and the only individual available and interested in the position may be a local person who is willing to become certified. In that event the willing person may be able to capitalize on what may be the opportunity of a lifetime for them. This is especially so if the person wants to work as an administrator but has no plans to relocate for a similar position. The use of personal insight and knowledge can often afford an individual the opportunity to make advancements in settings that may seem unlikely. The understanding of self and of people can lead a person to make decisions, which are either beneficial or detrimental (Townsell &amp; Kritsonis, 2006). The rural school administrator’s role often requires that persons become involved in every aspect of a school’s functions. The researcher found that rural administrators must wear many hats (Benson, 2006).
  • The literature revealed that most administrators completed their undergraduate degrees at HBCUs and graduate degrees from Colleges or Universities predominately attended by Caucasian students (Echols, 2007). Academic and work experiences are career entry ways! Studies indicate that African Americans may acquire leadership skills differently than other groups (Kezar, 2000).
  • Internal barriers include the influence of society, and personal desire and beliefs, and self esteem. External barriers relate to role stereotyping, sexual discrimination, preparation for an administrator role, and responsibilities to family (Shakeshaft cited in Kowalski, 2003).
  • Major themes emerging from the literature include: Powerful Personal Motivation- The respondents said that their positive self-images helped them to draw on inner strength to overcome obstacles and tackle challenges. Multi-Modal Communicators- As such these individuals were able to network using various modes of communication and know how and to adapt and navigate in various This ability to shift dialect from one situation to another is “code switching.” Thirst for Knowledge- The respondents relayed a wealth of experiences and a strong desire to achieve in many areas. Mentoring Relationships. Mentors helped some of the respondents gain self-confidence. Support from family members Understanding school politics related to obtaining the position Breaking New Ground- The first person of their gender or race to accept the top position in their respective districts. Size- In smaller districts administrators perform a variety of tasks that are not necessarily associated with an administrative position. Position Expertise- The smaller number of staff members made the need to know about all areas important to an individual in a rural position. For example, some administrators may teach a class or drive a school bus. Outsider versus insider- The respondents felt that they had to prove themselves to obtain their positions. (Adell qualitative study (2004) about the contextual leadership of African Americans females and Benson’s qualitative study (2006) of rural Missouri school superintendents)
  • For this qualitative descriptive study, data will be collected in the form of structured personal interviews. Fraenkel and Wallen (2006) define qualitative research as that in which the researcher makes an attempt to study phenomena, which naturally occur in all their complexity. The study will focus on six African American administrators in rural school districts. At the conclusion of the interviews, the researcher will code the material for emergent themes. The review of literature will be used as a basis for preliminary theme identification. Specifically, the themes will result from the four research questions.
  • The target population for this case study will be African American administrators who have worked in rural Texas public schools. Potential participants will be identified through snowballing sampling. The directors of the 20 Educational Service Centers serving the state of Texas and the five officers of the Texas Alliance of Black School Educators (TABSE) will be solicited by U.S. mail to nominate African American administrators (see appendix A). Both groups will be sent a list of the 224 Texas school districts that were identified rural by The Texas Rural System Initiative (TRSI) as rural schools (2007). This will be done to insure that the schools of the nominees fit the definition of rural schools. Nominated administrators will be informed of their nomination by telephone or e-mail. Those agreeing to participate in the study will be mailed a first class letter, which will solicit their written consent. The researcher will place those consent forms in a hat after a period of one month, after the mailing. The names of six participants will be drawn for the purpose of the study. If at least six names have not been submitted during the waiting period, the ESC directors and the TABSE officers will be contacted by telephone until such a time that a number of names have been submitted and consent for participation has been granted. Those individuals will be contacted by telephone and their interviews will be scheduled.
  • Seven interview questions will be used to answer the four research questions. The researcher has obtained permission to utilize research questions that were used in Small Missouri public school female superintendent career stories: An exploration of guiding compasses (Benson, 2006). The researcher has modified Benson’s original questions to fit her study concerning rural African American administrators. The words superintendent and superintendency will be replaced with the words administrator and administrative position. The word race was added to question five in order to gain information about barriers that may be associated with being an African American. Question five will read, in seeking an Administrative position, do you think there were or are gender-oriented or race specific career pathways or guiding compasses? The word female will be replaced with the words rural African American administrator. The modified study questions will be piloted to establish their clarity. The questions will be piloted on a rural African American administrator who will not be a part of the study. The feedback from this individual will help the researcher clarify the questions and practice the administration of the questionnaire (see Appendix D).
  • The data will be collected through naturalistic inquiry using the personal interview technique. This technique will allow the researcher to obtain firsthand information from the respondent. The researcher will use the telephone contact information from the participant information sheet to make contact and schedule personal interviews. The structured interviews will be held at the convenience of the participants in a location that is safe and agreeable to both parties. A period of two hours is planned for each meeting. This will allow time for formalities, some rapport to be established, the execution of the interview questions, and a time for the viewing of any related materials, such as photographs, newspaper, and articles. One month will be scheduled in which to collect the data. The researcher will keep a field journal throughout the interview process to aid in the description of the atmosphere and to capture any dynamics that may be impact the interviews. Journaling will allow the researcher to create thick, rich descriptions of the participant’s experiences. For the purpose of conformability, each interviewee will be given the opportunity to read interview questions and their recorded responses to insure that the interviewer has made an accurate transcription of what the individual said. This preview copy will be mailed within a one-week period after each interview.
  • Rhodena Townsell, PhD Proposal Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair

    1. 1. RURAL AFRICAN AMERICAN ADMINISTRATOR CAREER TRAJECTORIES A Dissertation Proposal by Rhodena Townsell William Allan Kritsonis, PhD – Dissertation Chair Presented to Whitlowe Radcliffe Green College of Education  Ph.D. Program in Educational Leadership Prairie View A&M In partial requirement of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY June 2008
    2. 2. Chapter I Introduction <ul><li>African Americans administrators are actively recruited </li></ul><ul><li>and groomed to fill leadership positions in some urban </li></ul><ul><li>and inner city schools (McCray & Beachum, 2004; </li></ul><ul><li>Buxton, 2007; Gewertz, 2006; Scott, 1980). </li></ul><ul><li>Studies reveal that some African American </li></ul><ul><li>administrators prefer to work with the students in those </li></ul><ul><li>schools (Bates, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>However, that is not true for all African American </li></ul><ul><li>administrators (Laub, 2007). </li></ul>
    3. 3. Chapter I Statement of the Problem <ul><li>Literature related to educational </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership does not adequately reflect </li></ul><ul><li>the work of rural African American </li></ul><ul><li>administrators. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Chapter I Purpose of the Study <ul><ul><li>The purpose of this study will be to describe factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that influence the career trajectories of rural African </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American administrators. These administrators are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>role models to many individuals (Nganga & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kambutu, 2005). Literature suggests that aspiring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>school leaders may gain insight from the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experiences of others that will result in a better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understanding of the diverse career pathways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>toward successful school leadership (Crenshaw, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2004). </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Research Questions <ul><li>What academic and work experiences influence the career pathways taken by rural African American administrators? </li></ul><ul><li>What encouragements found in the work place and in the surrounding community influence the career pathways of rural African American administrators? </li></ul><ul><li>What barriers found in the workplace and in the surrounding community influence the career pathways of rural African American administrators? </li></ul><ul><li>What characteristics of rural African American administrators appear to influence their career pathways? </li></ul>
    6. 6. Conceptual Framework <ul><li>The conceptual framework for this research </li></ul><ul><li>study will be based The Career </li></ul><ul><li>Choice Model of Betz and Fitzgerald (Manuel & </li></ul><ul><li>Slate, 2003), portions of Thedore Kowalski’s </li></ul><ul><li>research on minority administrators (2003), and </li></ul><ul><li>Premises from Critical Race Theory (Delgado & </li></ul><ul><li>Stefanic,2000). </li></ul>
    7. 7. Conceptual Framework <ul><li>The Career Choice Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experiences and Encouragements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theodore Kowalski – Minority Administrators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barriers and Characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical Race Theory (CRT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Racism in America is normal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stories, words and silence construct beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A. A. Success is cultivated and tolerated for a price </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Conceptual Framework <ul><li>Traditional models in leadership are developed by using mostly Caucasian males and should not be generalized for other groups of individuals (Kezar & Moriarty, 2000). </li></ul><ul><li>Other individuals experience the social world in their own unique way (Valverde & Brown cited in Kowalski, 2003). </li></ul>
    9. 9. Significance of the Study <ul><li>Data gathered in this study will add information to the body of knowledge in educational leadership </li></ul><ul><li>The data may be informative to teachers who desire to become rural administrators </li></ul><ul><li>The conceptual framework of this study may be used to study similar populations </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Before Brown v. the Board of Education (1954) 82,000 African American teachers were employed to teach approximately eight million African American students (Toppo, 2004) </li></ul>African Americans and Public Schools
    11. 11. African Americans and Public Schools <ul><li>After Brown v. the Board of Education approximately 38,000 African American teachers and administrators in many Southeastern states lost their jobs (Echols, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>As many as 90% of African American principals were dismissed (Toppo, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 5000 uncertified Caucasian teachers were hired in Texas (Toppo, 2004). </li></ul>
    12. 12. Rural School Challenges <ul><li>High poverty rate (The Rural School and Community Trust Organization, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate building features (NEA, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Rural schools receive fewer federal, state, and local funds than other schools (The Rural School and Community Trust Organization, 2007) </li></ul>
    13. 13. Rural School Challenges <ul><li>School boards </li></ul><ul><li>Lower Salaries </li></ul><ul><li>Social, Cultural and Professional Isolation </li></ul>
    14. 14. Rural School Challenges <ul><li>Rural educators may have to work as teachers in their school districts for many years before an administrative opportunity becomes available (Townsell & Kritsonis, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Rural administrators may have to wear “many hats” (Benson, 2006). </li></ul>
    15. 15. Experiences (Academic and Work) <ul><li>Most held undergraduate degrees at HBCUs and graduate degrees from Colleges or Universities predominately attended by Caucasian students (Echols, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Childhood Memories (Turner, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Department Chairs (Kezar & Moriarty , 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Default, tenure, or mentor suggestion (Turner, 2004) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Encouragements <ul><li>Family Members (Bush, et al, 2005; Turner, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Mentors (Manuel & Slate, 2003; Turner, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Themselves (Manuel and Slate, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Colleagues (Manuel and Slate, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>God (Echols, 2007; Turner, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Just a Matter of Luck” (Bush, et al, 2005). </li></ul>
    17. 17. Barriers <ul><li>School Board Agendas (Bates, 2007; Laub, 2007 Kowalski, 2003; Ortiz, 2000; Willie & Willie, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Politics (Adell, 2004; Kerka, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Beliefs of Society (Delgado & Stefanic, 2000; Kerka, 1998; Kowalski, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination (Bush, et al, 2005; Delgado & Stefanic, 2000; Echols, 2007; Turner, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Mentoring and Role Models (Kerka, 1998; Turner, 2004 ) </li></ul>
    18. 18. Characteristics (Bush, et al, 2005) <ul><li>Resilience </li></ul><ul><li>Personal determination, courage, confidence, and hard work (Kowalski, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to understand and respect other cultures and to build positive relationships </li></ul><ul><li>The professionalism to maintain composure and keep control in adverse situations. </li></ul>
    19. 19. Themes from the Literature (Adell, 2004; Benson, 2006) <ul><li>Personal Motivation (Adell & Benson) </li></ul><ul><li>Multimodal Communication (Adell) </li></ul><ul><li>Thirst for Knowledge (Adell) </li></ul><ul><li>Mentoring Relationships (Adell & Benson) </li></ul><ul><li>Support (Adell & Benson) </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Politics (Adell) </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking New Ground (Benson) </li></ul><ul><li>Size (Benson) </li></ul><ul><li>Areas of Expertise (Benson) </li></ul><ul><li>Outsider versus Insider </li></ul><ul><li>Job Preparation (Benson) </li></ul>
    20. 20. Research Design <ul><li>This will be a qualitative descriptive study </li></ul><ul><li>Data will be collected in the form of structured personal interviews from rural African American administrators </li></ul><ul><li>The interview scripts will be coded for the emerging and contrasting themes </li></ul><ul><li>The review of literature will be used as a basis for preliminary theme identification </li></ul>
    21. 21. Population & Sample <ul><li>The target population for this study will be African </li></ul><ul><li>American administrators working at Texas public </li></ul><ul><li>schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Why Texas? More children attend rural schools in Texas than in any other state (The Rural School and Community Trust Organization, 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Snowball Sampling will be utilized to obtain the participation of six African American administrators. These administrators will be nominated by the officials of the 20 Texas Education Service Centers. and the officers of the Texas Alliance of Black School Educators (TABSE) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Instrumentation and Pilot Study <ul><li>Permission was obtained from Dr. Dorothy Benson to </li></ul><ul><li>use the questionnaire from her dissertation entitled, </li></ul><ul><li>Small Missouri Public School Female Superintendent </li></ul><ul><li>Career Stories: An Exploration of Guiding Compasses </li></ul><ul><li>(2006). </li></ul><ul><li>A pilot study will be performed to determine if </li></ul><ul><li>the modifications made to the questionnaire are </li></ul><ul><li>appropriate for this study. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Data Collection <ul><li>Collection Format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field Journal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants will be given the opportunity to review their responses to the interview questions </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Data Analysis <ul><li>Research Question One </li></ul><ul><li>What academic and work experiences influence the career </li></ul><ul><li>pathways taken by rural African American administrators? </li></ul><ul><li>Interview Questions 1-2: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Would you tell me about your educational background? </li></ul><ul><li>Literature Themes- 1.1 Personal motivation, 1.2 Thirst for </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge, 1.3 Ground Breaking, 1.4 Job Preparation, and 1.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Size of School </li></ul><ul><li>2. How long have you been in the education field? How long as an administrator? Literature Themes- 2.1 Areas of Expertise and 2.2 Multimodal Communicators </li></ul>
    25. 25. Data Analysis <ul><li>Research Question Two </li></ul><ul><li>What encouragements found in the workplace and in </li></ul><ul><li>the surrounding community influence the career paths </li></ul><ul><li>of rural African American administrators? </li></ul><ul><li>Interview Questions 3-4: </li></ul><ul><li>3. What motivated you to want to become an administrator? Literature Theme- 3.1 Personal motivation </li></ul><ul><li>4. What pathways or guiding compasses did you take to obtain your position? Literature Themes- 4.1 Sponsorship and Support </li></ul>
    26. 26. Data Analysis <ul><li>Research Question Three </li></ul><ul><li>What barriers found in the workplace and in the </li></ul><ul><li>surrounding community influence the career paths of </li></ul><ul><li>rural African American administrators? </li></ul><ul><li>Interview Question 5: </li></ul><ul><li>5. In seeking an administrative position, do you think there were or are race specific career pathways or guiding compasses? Literature Themes- 5.1 Understanding Politics and 5.2 Outsider Versus Insider </li></ul>
    27. 27. Data Analysis <ul><li>Research Question Four </li></ul><ul><li>What characteristics of rural African American </li></ul><ul><li>administrators appear to influence their career </li></ul><ul><li>Pathways? </li></ul><ul><li>Interview Question 6-7: </li></ul><ul><li>6. Do you have any recommendations for aspiring rural African American administrators about the career pathways or guiding compasses they need to take to obtain an administrative position in a rural Texas public school? </li></ul><ul><li>7. Is there any other information that you would like to add? </li></ul>
    28. 28. Summary <ul><ul><li>The purpose of this study will be to describe the career </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>trajectories of rural African American administrators. Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>describing the influences that affect their career pathways will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be collected, analyzed and coded for recurring themes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The results of the study will add information to the body of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge in educational leadership about a population of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individuals that has not received enough attention in the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>literature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This study may benefit African Americans enrolled in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leadership training programs to better prepare for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>administrative positions in rural area schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The conceptual framework may be used to study similar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>populations. </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. My Encouragement for Your Questions <ul><li>“ I’m wide awake and full of fun, scared to </li></ul><ul><li>death but I won’t run! (Grandpa Ethridge </li></ul><ul><li>Townsell)” </li></ul>
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