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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis earned his BA in 1969 from Central Washington University, Ellensburg, Washington. In 1971, he earned his M.Ed. from Seattle Pacific University. In 1976, he earned his PhD from the University of Iowa. In 1981, he was a Visiting Scholar at Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, and in 1987 was a Visiting Scholar at Stanford University, Palo Alto, California.

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- 1. Research (Practical Applications) William Allan Kritsonis, PhDPublished by The Alexis/Austin Group 42563 Musilek Place Temecula, California 92592 Distributed by National FORUM JournalsCopyright © 2011 by William Allan KritsonisExcept as permitted under the United States Copyright Act Of 1976, no part of thisprofessional publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by anymeans, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the proper writtenpermission of Dr. William Kritsonis. No unauthorized reproduction of the text ispermitted.ISBN: 0-9770012-5-2Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataPrice (Includes Shipping and Handling)$49.00 (United States)$59.00 (Canada)$79.00 (All others)To order, make payment to National FORUM Journals and send to: National FORUM Journals 17603 Bending Post Drive Houston, Texas 77095 www.nationalforum.comPublished in the United States of America 1
- 2. Research (Practical Applications) By William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Professor PhD Program in Educational Leadership Prairie View A&M UniversityMember of the Texas A&M University System Prairie View, Texas 77446 Distinguished Alumnus (2004) Central Washington University College of Education and Professional Studies Ellensburg, Washington Invited Guest Lecturer (2005) Oxford Round Table University of Oxford Oxford, England Doctor of Humane Letters (2008) School of Graduate Studies Southern Christian University Hall of Honor (2008) William H. Parker Leadership Academy Prairie View A&M University The Texas A&M University System 2
- 3. Dedication This book is dedicated to any person that has taken a class from me over the years. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The purpose of this attempt is to provide content and knowledge in the area of research with students at both the master’s and doctoral levels. A list of acknowledgements and credits is provided in the Partial Listing of Selected References and Acknowledgements at the end of this text. Any omissions are not intentional.CONTENTS 3
- 4. PagePART I: Practical Applications of Research and Basic Statistics ..........................6Chapter 1: Development of Research .................................................................7Chapter 2: Historical Research .........................................................................14Chapter 3: Descriptive Research ......................................................................18Chapter 4: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research ............................22Chapter 5: Qualitative Research .......................................................................30Chapter 6: Methods and Tools of Research ......................................................33Chapter 7: Descriptive Statistics and Normal Distribution ...............................39Chapter 8: Inferential Data Analysis ................................................................55Chapter 9: Parts of the Research Proposal .......................................................61Chapter 10: Parts of a Field Study ....................................................................67Chapter 11: General Statistics Information ......................................................73Chapter 12: Types of Statistical Data ...............................................................77 Page 4
- 5. Chapter 13: Descriptive Statistics ....................................................................81Chapter 14: Types of Distributions ..................................................................88Chapter 15: Formulas .......................................................................................90Chapter 16: Understanding and Using Statistics. The Basics ..........................92Chapter 17: Getting Started With Research: Avoiding the Pitfalls ...................96Chapter 18: Ethics and Research ......................................................................99Chapter 19: Ethics in Research on Human Subjects and the role of theInstitutional Review Board - Frequently Asked Questions ............................101Chapter 20: Working with the IRB Suggested Frameof Mind for Researchers .................................................................................104Chapter 21: Research, Writing & Publication ...............................................106PART II: Fundamental Terms for Research and Basic Statistics.............110Fundamental Terms in Educational Research and Basic Statistics .................111PART III: Partial Listing of Selected Referencesand Acknowledgements ...............................................................................144Partial Listing of Selected References and Acknowledgements .....................145PART IV: About the Author .......................................................................154 5
- 6. PART I:Practical Applications ofResearch and BasicStatistics 6
- 7. Chapter 1 – William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Development of Research1. Key Points a. Observations b. Experience c. Intuition d. Hand me down e. Revelation f. Definition or Decree g. Philosophy or Logic h. Instinct2. Centuries ago, medicine men, religious authorities, and elders were knowledge sources? (No one questioned them.)3. With time, people began to observe orderliness and cause and effect relationships in the universe. Events were recorded and analyzed.4. Some things could be predicted. Events could be predicted in relation to the time of year and the seasons.5. This brought on a conflict. a. Religious authority versus curious thinkers b. Authority versus empirical evidence c. Elders versus personal experience6. People eventually began to think systematically. A few great thinkers led the way.7. Aristotle (Ancient Greece) a. First approach to reasoning. 7
- 8. b. Deductive Method - moving from general assumptions to specific Syllogism 1) Major Premise: All men are mortal. 2) Minor Premise: Socrates is a man. 3) Conclusion: Socrates is a mortal.8. Centuries later-Francis Bacon a. Direct observation of phenomena b. Arriving at conclusions or generalizations through evidence of many individual observations led to inductive reasoning.9. Combining the deductive and inductive methods of reasoning results in the emerging of the scientific method or scientific approach.10. In 1930, John Dewey detailed the scientific method or scientific approach as follows: a. Identify and define a problem b. Formulate a hypothesis c. Collect, organize, and analyze data d. Formulate conclusions e. Verify or reject hypothesis, modify hypothesis There are many ways to specifically approach the scientific method and there are numerous generalizations of scientific approaches. The deductive approach is hypothesizing and anticipating the consequences of events. 8
- 9. 11. Researchers go back and forth--inductive-deductive-inductive-deductive. An example would be to hypothesize-observe and collect data-reject hypothesis-reformulate new hypothesis-observe and collect more data- partially accept hypothesis-then collect more data.12. Science 1) Definition: An approach to the gathering of knowledge, rather than a field of study. 2) Two Functions of Science i. Develop theory ii. Test hypotheses deduced from theory13. The Way a Scientist Works a. Empirical Approach - collect data b. Rational Approach - logical deductive reasoning14. Researcher attempts to develop theories and predict events in hopes of possibly controlling events. a. Piaget’s Theories - Cognitive development b. Behavior of gases - Air-conditioning, refrigeration c. Atomic Theory - Nuclear power d. Celestial Theory - Space travel, NASA, Satellites, and other technical advances.15. Two Types of Hypotheses a. Research Hypothesis (Alternative Hypothesis) (Symbol=Ha) 1) Affirmative statement that predicts a single outcome 2) Examples: i. Teaching Method A is better than Teaching Method B. ii. Cigarette smoking causes heart disease. iii. Extra curricular activities improve academic performance. iv. Computer Assisted Instruction improves academic achievement. v. Homework improves academic achievement. 9
- 10. b. Null Hypothesis (Symbol=Ho) 1) This hypothesis is stated negatively so that the logic of statistical analysis can be applied. 2) The null hypothesis is saying the difference, if any, is due to chance. 3) Rejecting the null hypothesis with a probability statement would support the research hypothesis (Ha). 4) Examples: i. There is no difference in heart disease between smokers and nonsmokers. ii. There is no difference in academic achievement between Method A and Method B. iii. There is no difference in grades between CAI students and non-CAI students. iv. There is no difference in academic achievement due to participation in extra curricular activities.16. Sampling Definitions a. Population-----------------------parameter b. Sample---------------------------statistic c. Sample: a small proportion of a population selected for observation and analysis d. Statistic: a value from a sample used to infer the parameters of a population17. Types of Samples a. Simple Random Sample: every subject has an equal chance to be selected b. Systematic Sample: every nth number c. Stratified Random Sample: subdivide population and select sample proportionally-A random sample of each of the subgroups is done. d. Cluster Sample: most complex of all samples, used for very large groups; costly and take time. 10
- 11. 50 states---------------------Randomly choose 20 states. 20 states---------------------Randomly choose 80 counties. 80 counties------------------Randomly choose 50 school districts. 50 districts------------------Randomly choose 10 teachers from each of the 50 school districts. Total Sample 500 teachers e. Non-probability Sample: (Use subjects available) f. Purposive Sample: participants are chosen not by chance but intentionally to yield data for evaluation purposes18. Sample Size (Test for Beta, or use a table.) a. The larger the sample, the less error. b. The larger the sample, the better the sample represents the population. c. In utilizing a survey, be certain to have a large sample. d. 32 (in a sample) is the magic number statistically, but e. Try to obtain more (with randomness)19. Purposes of Educational Research a. Fundamental or Basic: The purpose of this laboratory-type of research is solely to gain new knowledge. This research is often referred to as the search for knowledge for knowledge’s sake. b. Applied: The purpose is to improve a product (software, textbook, etc.) or process (teaching, learning, etc.)- testing a theoretical concept in a real actual problem situation. Most educational research is applied research. With the passing of time, basic research usually spurns further applied research. New knowledge gained eventually becomes useful and lends to advances in knowledge, which then directs more applied research to take place. c. Action: The purpose and focus are on immediate application-not on development of theory. The focus is on the here and now in a local setting. 11
- 12. 20. Two ways to Classify Research a. Quantitative Research: (Measuring) 1) Data are analyzed in terms of numbers. 2) Educational, medical, and agricultural professions use this type of classification. b. Qualitative Research: (Judging) 1) People and events are described without numerical data. This research consists of a rich, literal description in a prose form. 2) Interviews of people, students, and other sources are used to collect information. Research is written in prose form.21. Assessment: Fact-finding activity that describes existing conditions22. Evaluation: Fact-finding with judgment added23. Types of Educational Research a. Historical 1) A description of what was. 2) Application of the scientific method to the use of historical data to answer historical questions or to test historical hypotheses. b. Descriptive 1) A description of what is. 2) Application of the scientific method to the acquisition and use of current data to describe current conditions c. Experimental: description of what will be where certain variables are carefully manipulated. d. Qualitative: uses non-quantitative methods to describe what is 1) Basically, data are interpreted without numerical analysis. 2) Interviews, videos, and other methods are used to gather information. 12
- 13. Suggested Activities 1. Divide into groups of 3-4. Discuss the following question: What is your definition of research, the steps you feel are needed to be taken to do research, and what types of research have you read or become familiar with in your profession and your educational experience? Share your group activity with the entire class. 2. Each group should answer the following: What two things would you like to see changed in your profession or questions answered? How could you use research to address that change? What types of research could you use to answer your questions? How would you set up the type of research needed to answer these questions? Share your group activity with the entire class. 3. Develop a research and a null hypothesis for each of the research ideas identified in the previous activity. Share your group activity with the entire class.WEBSITES:San Jose State University – http://www2.sjsu.edu/depts/itl/graphics/induc/ind-ded.html 13
- 14. Chapter 2 - William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Historical ResearchKey Points1. Is an attempt to arrive at conclusions concerning causes, effects or trends of past occurrences that may help explain past and present events and predict future events.2. Historical research describes what was.3. Historical research involves investigating, recording, analyzing and interpreting events of the past.4. Sources of Information a. Primary Sources 1) Records and reports of legislative bodies, records and/or memoirs of superintendents, school newspapers, curriculum guides, grade books, along with other sources. 2) Interviews with superintendents, school board members, principals, teachers, and students. 3) Relics, such as buildings, furniture, textbooks and examinations. b. Secondary Sources 1) Reports of a person who relates the testimony of an eyewitness. 2) Encyclopedia, textbooks and newspaper accounts 14
- 15. 5. Characteristics of Historical Research a. Guided by hypotheses or questions to be answered b. Systematic collection of data c. Objective evaluation of data d. Limited to available data e. Explanation—not just rehashing of the past—explains why it happened as it did f. May investigate individuals, ideas, movements, institutions, cultural circumstances, and movements g. Employs the scientific method6. Limitations/Problems with Historical Research a. Generalizations may not be feasible. 1) Too many uncontrollable factors. 2) Key individuals wield too much influence. 3) Situations won’t repeat themselves. b. Historical documents may not be reliable. 1) Were not written as objects of research 2) No objectivity 3) Often second—not firsthand information 4) Information is often incomplete. c. History is not verifiable by observation or experimentation. d. Significant variables cannot be manipulated. e. Lack of direct observation and control of variables f. Uniqueness cannot be replicated.7. Steps in Historical Research a. Define the problem b. Formulate the hypothesis or questions to be answered c. Collect data 1) Primary sources 2) Secondary sources 15
- 16. d. Analyze the data 1) External criticism—authenticity i. Was this person really present? ii. Is this a real document from that time period? 2) Internal criticism—accuracy i. Did the person give an unbiased account of what happened? ii. Is the document telling a true story or did the author have a “hidden agenda”? iii. Did anyone tamper with the documente. Synthesize data 1) Conclusions 2) Generalizations 3) Explanation or hypothesisf. Report findings and conclusions 16
- 17. SUGGESTED STUDENT ACTIVITIES: 1. In groups of 3-4 locate the answers to the following questions: MAJOR QUESTION: How does your university compare today with the institution which was 50 years ago? SUBQUESTIONS: A. What academic programs were offered sixty years ago that were related to education? B. What types of school facilities were available then? C. What was the type of curriculum offered to students? D. How large was the student body? E. What was the ethnic make-up of the student body? F. What role did the school play in the community, state and nation? G. How many professors/instructors were employed?Compare and contrast the data from 50 years ago with today. 17
- 18. Chapter 3 – William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Descriptive ResearchKeyPoints1. Characteristics of Descriptive Research a. Nonexperimental: deals with natural, not contrived relationships b. Variables are not manipulated. c. Ex post facto—a thing done afterward d. Involves disciplined inquiry (scientific method) e. Uses logical methods of inductive-deductive reasoning to arrive at generalizations f. Employs valid statistical procedures in collecting and tabulating data g. Employs valid statistical procedures in reporting results h. Adds to the body of knowledge2. Three Types of Descriptive Research a. Descriptive Research 1) This type of research is purely descriptive. 2) There is no hypothesis. 3) Researcher is just collecting data. 4) Example: 65% of principals are male; 35% are female. The average age of principals is 43; the average age of teachers is 38. 18
- 19. b. Correlational Research 1) In this research, the researcher is measuring the relationship between two or more variables. 2) The relationship between the variables may be strong, weak, or there could be no relationship. 3) Correlational studies can be used to predict. Example: ITBS scores and CAT scores have a correlation Coefficient of .8.c. Causal-Comparative Research 1) This type of research is interested in suggesting causation for the findings. It is aimed at discovering potential causes for a pattern by comparing a treatment group against a non-treatment group. 2) One should not say that a variable was the cause of an action, unless all other variables were controlled. Just identify the limitations of the study. 3) There is no experimental manipulative. 4) Example: Collective bargaining apparently had some effect on teacher job satisfaction since satisfaction levels were higher after collective bargaining than they were prior to collective bargaining. 19
- 20. SUGGESTED STUDENT ACTIVITIES: 1. Divide into groups of four to five students. Develop a chart listing the different types of descriptive research. Compare and contrast each type of research. Provide at least three examples of each type.TYPE OF SIMILARITIES DIFFERENCES EXAMPLESDESCRIPTIVE WITH OTHER WITH OTHERRESEARCH TYPES OF TYPES OF DESCRIPTIVE DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH RESEARCH1. Surveys Very similar to polls Use of a large a. restaurant in that you collect number of cases to questionnaire data according to a describe to a general b. general set of questions. population. You satisfaction survey can collect data on for products attitudes as well as purchased other practices, c. (add more to the occurrences, etc. list) Polls are usually much smaller and are the collection of attitudes.2.3.4.5.6.7.8. 20
- 21. 2. Describe how you can use both activity analysis and trend analysis to determine the types of teachers that will be needed in the next five years for both an urban and rural school district. Look at factors of the individual’s job as well as the growth trends/declines and population changes (increase in retirees opposed to school age children) for the area. Select either an elementary, middle school or high school you are familiar with and use both types of descriptive research methods to determine what types of staff patterns would be needed for your school. 21
- 22. Chapter 4 – William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Experimental and Quasi-Experimental ResearchKey Points1. Definition: determining what will happen under certain circumstances— a method of hypothesis testing—If this is done, what will happen? a. Immediate purpose: “prediction” in a local setting b. Ultimate purpose: “generalization” to a larger population2. Law of the Single Variable: If all variables are held constant except one, any changes in the outcome are due to changes in that one variable.3. Experimental Grouping a. Experimental Group vs. Control Group 1) Experimental Group: group exposed to variable under consideration 2) Treatment Group: same as experimental group 3) Control Group: group not exposed to variable under consideration b. Different Levels of the Same Variable: Subjects may also be grouped according to type of treatment, not just absent of treatment.4. Variables a. Definition: conditions or characteristics of the experiment that the experimenter manipulates, controls, or observes b. Independent Variable: variable manipulated by the researcher for grouping. 1) Treatment Variable: factor that can be controlled by the researcher 2) Organismic Variable: attribute of the subjects that cannot be controlled. 22
- 23. c. Dependent Variable: outcome; condition or characteristic that appears, disappears, or changes according to manipulation of the independent variable (Results). d. Confounding Variable: aspect of a study that can influence the dependent variable, which can be confused with the effects of the independent variable. 1) Intervening Variable: aspect of a study that may modify the effect of the independent variable upon the dependent variable. 2) Extraneous Variable: uncontrolled aspect of a study that is similar in effect to the independent variable and may render subjects’ grouping invalid.5. Experimental Validity a. Internal Validity: extent to which the independent variable, not extraneous variables, has a genuine effect on the dependent variable. b. External Validity: extent to which variable relationships established by the study can be generalized to other settings.6. Threats to Internal Validity a. Maturation: change in subject(s) over time b. History: events in the course of the study that may influence the dependent variable c. Testing: learning to take tests by taking tests d. Unstable Instrumentation: use of unreliable data gathering devices e. Statistical regression: regression to the mean: extremely low or high scores tend not to repeat themselves. f. Selection bias: nonequivalence of groups due to poor selection 23
- 24. g. Interaction of Selection and Maturation: When subjects can choose the group to which they will belong, the variable that directed their choices may have undue influence on the dependent variable. h. Experimental Morality: loss of subject(s). i. Experimenter Bias: If the researcher must evaluate a subject, prior knowledge of the subject may have undue influence on the researcher’s judgment.7. Threats to External Validity a. Interference of Prior Treatment: carryover of subjects’ knowledge or skill from a previous situation that may be mistaken for an effect of the independent variable. b. Artificiality of the Experimental Setting: condition in which the experimental setting is so controlled that it does not adequately imitate the real-life situation for generalizations to be made. c. Interaction Effect of Testing: condition in which a pre-test may sensitize subjects to concealed purposes of the study and serve as a stimulus to change. d. Sampling Deficiencies: error or inability in random selection. e. Lack of Treatment Verification: condition in which the treatment was not applied in the manner prescribed by the study. f. John Henry Effect: subjects work harder because they realize they are competing with others. g. Hawthorne Effect: subjects work harder because they are getting attention. This is due to researchers giving them extra attention. The experimental model comes from agricultural research.8. Controlling Threats to Experimental Validity a. Remove the Variable: variable is not considered in results. 24
- 25. b. Matching cases: selecting pairs with identical characteristics and assigning them to different groups c. Balancing Cases: assigning subjects to each group so that overall group means and variances will be equal d. Analysis of Covariance: statistical method that permits the experimenter to eliminate initial differences in the experimental groups e. Random Selection: assignment to experimental groups by pure chance; best way to make study valid f. It is difficult to eliminate all extraneous variables, therefore it is best to neutralize them. Remember, neutralize not eliminate!9. Experimental Design a. Definition: procedures of the study that enable valid conclusions by controlling the following: 1) Selection and assignment of subjects 2) Control of variables: independent and confounding 3) The gathering and treatment of data 4) Development of hypothesis 5) Statistical testing of hypotheses b. Purpose: elimination or neutralizing of threats to experimental validity10. Three Types of Experimental Designs a. Pre-Experimental Design: provides no way for equating groups that are used b. True-Experimental Design: uses random selection for equating groups that are used c. Quasi-Experimental Design: used when random selection is not available 25
- 26. 11. In studying experimental design, the following Campbell and Stanley symbols are used: a. R random assignment of subjects b X exposure of a group to a treatment . c. C exposure of a group to a control or placebo condition d O observation or test administered (data gathered) .12. What makes a good study? a. Having a control group and b. Using random selection13. Pre-experimental Designs a. The One-Shot Case Study Design 1) X O 2) No random selection and no control group b. The One-Group, Pretest, Posttest Design 1) O X O 2) No random selection, no control group, and interference of variables c. The Static-Group Comparison Design 1) X O C O 2) No random selection Pre-experimental design, the least adequate of designs, is characterized by the lack of a control group or a lack to provide for the equivalence of one. 26
- 27. 14.True Experimental Design a. The Posttest-Only, Equivalent-Groups Design 1) R X O R C O 2) Has random selection; has control group b. The Pretest-Posttest, Equivalent-Groups Design 1) R O X O gain (X) = O – O (pretests) R O C O gain (C) = O – O (posttests) 2) Has random selection; has control group c. The Solomon Four-Group Design 1) R O X O R O C O R X O R C O 2) Has random selection; has control group 3) Difficult to find enough subjects 27
- 28. 15.Quasi-Experimental Designs a. The Pretest-Posttest Nonequivalent-Groups Design 1) O X O O C O 2) No random selection 3) Pretest is used as covariate. b. The Time-Series Design 1) O O O O X O O O O 2) No random selection c. The Equivalent Time-Samples Design 1) O X O X O X O X O 2) No random selection d. The Equivalent Materials, pretest, Posttest Design 1) O X O O X O 2) No random selection 3) Can be conducted with just one group or two separate groups16. Factorial Designs: used when more than one independent variable is involved 28
- 29. SUGGESTED STUDENT ACTIVITY:1. Develop a Study (What problem do you want to address or solve?)2. Why would I do it?3. What do I already know or what has already been done on this problem?4. What is your hypotheses/Research Question? (Research and null)5. What would you do to conduct the research? (Steps, who to talk with, permission for research, what instruments to collect data?)6. Who are your participants?7. How will you collect the data?8. How will you interpret the data? 29
- 30. Chapter 5 – William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Qualitative ResearchKey Points1. Qualitative research is sometimes called naturalistic inquiry.2. The main reason that we have qualitative research is to explain phenomena.3. Qualitative research is done often as supplemental research.4. Three Data Collection Methods of Qualitative Research a. Interview: Teachers, secretary, janitors, and other individuals in the school. b. Observations: Observe what goes on in gyms, cafeteria, library, classrooms, and hallways. c. Analyze written documents and records: test scores, attendance records, discipline reports—suspension and expulsion ratio— When you analyze these, you often employ quantitative steps, such as more than half, 60% etc.5. Triangulation is the use of multiple data collection techniques. For example, it could include interviews, observations, and an analysis of documents or records. It could be any two or all three. One could interview three people from different backgrounds on the same topic.6. The advantage of using multiple data collection techniques is that the researcher gets a broader or more in-depth view of a school or a situation. Reality will reveal itself this way.7. Data are interpreted without using mathematical analysis.8. The study is attempting to address four concerns. 30
- 31. a. The study is concerned with things that a number cannot answer about a school, such as spirit, atmosphere, great extra-curricular activities, and educational quality. b. Real-world situations are studied—without manipulations. c. Specific questions are asked. d. It is a rich detailed description.9. The disadvantage is that the researcher may get too close to the people being interviewed. This can bias a study.10. It is important to have empathic neutrality—complete objectivity is impossible. Try to stay neutral and objective. Try to define any potential bias.11. Five Key Things the Researcher Should Do a. Pre-organize: Organize ahead of time the things that you need to do. b. Collect the data. c. Organize the data. d. Interpret the data. e. Write a report.12. In qualitative research, the researcher is bringing reality to a study. A qualitative study can supplement A quantitative study, which will present A better picture of reality and truth. 31
- 32. SUGGESTED STUDENT ACTIVITY:1. Divide into groups of four to five students. As a group identify an area of concern that you could develop a brief questionnaire to gather data. (Examples could be: a) amount of additional fees charged to students at registration; b) is recess beneficial to the academic development of children? c) views on a policy issue in your graduate program, etc.) Each member should write down five things they feel are important/their views on the topic. Compare and contrast the viewpoints among the group members. Are there patterns of concern or do you find a variety of views on the topic.2. Identify the steps needed to collect data on the topic discussed in activity #1. What can each group member do to ensure they do not let their own biases effect the collection of data? How could triangulation be used to collect data on your group’s topic of interest? 32
- 33. Chapter 6 – William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Methods and Tools of ResearchKey Points1. Qualities of a Good Test a. Validity: A test is valid if it measures what it purports to measure. b. Reliability: A test is reliable if it measures consistently over time. c. A test can be reliable but still not be valid. d. If a test is valid, it should be reliable and usually is reliable.2. Types of Validity a. Content: Questions should deal with content covered and the objective taught. b. Face: On the surface, it looks like a valid test or questionnaire. c. Criterion: Two Types 1) Predictive: It can predict success in a certain criteria. 2) Concurrent: It is closely related to other measures. d. Construct: Some other common measure is compared with the construct. 33
- 34. 3. Correlation Coefficient: The procedure quantifies the relationship of paired variables. Example: -1 0 .7.8.9 1 These numbers indicate a high correlation.4. Buros Mental Measurements Yearbook can be helpful when you want to compare Test A with Test B. It provides reviews of tests.5. Helpful Suggestions for Constructing Your Own Test or Questionnaire a. Secure a panel of experts to assist you in constructing your questions, such as professors of English and research. b. Pilot the test or questionnaire. Administer it to ten to fifteen people who will not be a part of your actual study. Score it and calculate the Cronbach Alpha Coefficient for each of the test items to determine reliability of the instrument. c. Some time later, repeat the process of administering the test/questionnaire to the same individuals, and again calculate the Cronbach Alpha Coefficient. d. The scores should be nearly the same. The correlation coefficient should be high (a Cronbach Alpha of .62 or higher is considered acceptable for social science research). e. It would also be beneficial for you to ask teachers to provide suggestions for improvement. f. It is to your advantage to use a professionally prepared questionnaire. Remember to get permission from the publisher. 34
- 35. 6. Types of Reliability of Test or Questionnaire/Opinionnaire a. Stability over time (test-retest): This is a very important aspect. b. Stability over item samples: Equivalent or Parallel forms. Example: If there are 50 questions on a test or questionnaire, answer only the odd numbered items. Score this part. Next, answer only the even numbered items, and score this part. Your score should be very close on each part. This is also true for different forms of a test. c. Stability of items (internal validity): All test questions should have commonality (similarly related). ⇒ Kuder-Richardson Test (KR 21): This is the average of all possible correlations (of split halves). d. Stability over scorers (inter-scorer): Scorers must be consistent in scoring criteria. They must not be biased. e. Stability over testers: Testers must be consistent in test administration. f. Standard error of measurement: To determine the standard error of measurement the scores will be put into a formula and calculated. g. No test is totally reliable or valid. h. If you have a valid test, it is probably reliable.7. Characteristics of a Good Questionnaire a. Covers a significant topic. b. Looks important to respondent—State significance of topic. c. Only seeks information that is not obtainable otherwise d. Short as possible, clear and easy to complete e. Attractive, neat, easy to duplicate. 35
- 36. f. Clear directions, define important terms g. Avoid asking two questions in one item: Keep questions short and concise. h. Ask objective questions. Do not ask leading questions. i. Questions should be presented from general to specific. j. Avoid annoying, embarrassing questions. k. If delicate questions are included, inform participants that all answers will be kept anonymous. Code questionnaires to keep them anonymous and to enable the researcher to identify which ones have been submitted and which ones have not. l. Easy to tabulate and analyze. m. Computer tabulate, if possible.8. Preparing the Questionnaire a. Randomly mix subtest questions. b. Give the questionnaire to friends to complete in order to obtain feedback. c. Pilot it in order to establish reliability. d. Get permission from principal and superintendent to conduct research. e. Include permission letter with the mailed questionnaire. f. Include the following in the mail out: 1) Cover letter 2) Permission letter 3) Questionnaire g. Inform participants that all information will be kept anonymous and keep it anonymous. h. Enclose a stamped, self-addressed return envelope. i. Code the questionnaire for follow-up. 36
- 37. j. Inform participants the questionnaire is coded. k. Scale to use. Note: If one must use a scale, the Likert scale is the most common and the most practical.9. General Information Regarding Questionnaires a. If you modify a questionnaire 25% or less, it is still valid. If you modify it more than 25%, it is not valid. b. To validate a questionnaire, get a group of professionals to review it. c. When an instrument is reliable, it gets the same results over a period of time. d. A questionnaire must be reliable and valid. e. To determine the reliability of a commercial test, the researcher should write to the publisher of the test and request verification of test validity. The publisher will provide this information to you. Buros Mental Measurement Yearbook is available in university libraries. This yearbook gives summaries of instruments. 37
- 38. SUGGESTED STUDENT ACTIVITY:1) Continue your activity from chapter 5. Develop a questionnaire (8 – 10 questions) on your group’s topic of interest. Include only open-ended questions on the questionnaire. (Other types of questions, other than open-ended, might provide quantitative data instead of qualitative.) Share this questionnaire with other groups in your class to determine if questions are clear and easy to understand and answer. (Decide if data will be collected through passing out a questionnaire or by a face-to-face interview. REMEMBER, FOR THE RESULTS TO BE RELIABLE, EACH QUESTIONNAIRE MUST BE ADMINISTERED WITH THE SAME METHOD!)2) Pass out your questionnaire or conduct a face-to-face interview to ask other individuals outside your class to respond to your questions. As a group, review the data you have collected. Look at the data gathered on each of your questions. Look for main themes and concerns or ideas. Interpret what the findings mean and how the results could be used to make changes, keep the status quo, etc. Report your findings back to your class. 38
- 39. Chapter 7 – William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Descriptive Statistics and Normal DistributionKey Points1. The reason for statistics is that there are numerical data in educational research. You will have to interpret, understand, and treat data.2. Two Ways to Classify Numerical Data: a. Non-parametric Data: Data that are not normally distributed 1) Nominal a) Names or classifies someone or something b) Examples i. Social security numbers ii. License plate numbers iii. Bank account numbers iv. Student identification numbers c. Not very useful in research 2) Ordinal a. Names, classifies, and ranks someone or something b. Examples i. Class rank ii. Sports rank b. Parametric Data: Data that assume normality 1) Interval a. Names, classifies, ranks, and has equal intervals between numbers b. Has no true zero point 2) Ratio 39
- 40. a. Names, classifies, ranks, has equal intervals, and has a true zero b. Examples i. Test scores ii. Height of students3. Descriptive Statistics: includes Measures of Central Tendencies and Measures of Variability (also referred to as Spread, Dispersion, or Scatter) a. Measures of Central Tendencies 1) The mean is the arithmetic average. i. The symbol for the mean is X . ∑X ii. b. =X N iii. The mean indicates the arithmetic midpoint; it is the best measure of centrality. iv. Example: 2 4 4.8 = X 5 5 24.0 6 20 7 40 ∑ X = 24 40 N = 5 X = 4.8 b. The median is the midpoint when the numbers are placed in an ascending or descending order. c. The mode is the number that occurs most often in a data set. 40
- 41. d. One purpose of the mean and median is to represent the “typical” score. d. When the distribution of scores is such that most scores are at one end and there are relatively few at the other end (skewed distribution), it is better to use the median because it is a better indicator of test scores. 1) In a positively skewed distribution, the mean is pulled to the right of the median. 2) In a negatively skewed distribution, the mean is pulled to the left of the median.4. Measures of Variability (may also be referred to as the Spread, Dispersion, or Scatter) a. Range: the highest number minus the lowest number b. Sum of Squares: sum of squared units of deviation from the mean 1) Symbol: SS ( 2) Formula: X − X )2 c. Variance: the average squared units of deviation from the mean 1) Symbol i. Sample: S 2 ii. Population: σ 2 2) Formulas: 2 − (∑ X )2 i. ∑X N N SS ii. N 41
- 42. iii. The variance is a value that describes the distance that scores are dispersed or spread from the mean. iv. This value is very useful in describing the characteristics of a distribution. d. Standard Deviation: average units of deviation from the mean 1) Symbol i. Sample: S ii. Population: σ 2) Formulas i. σ 2 2 − (∑ X )2 ii. ∑X N N5. Normal Distribution (also referred to as Z Distribution, Z Theory, Normal Curve, and Bell-Shaped Curve). a. Characteristics of a Normal Curve: 1) It is symmetrical. 2) The mean, median, and mode are all at the same point – right down the center. 3) The curve is the highest at the mean. 4) Most of the scores cluster or crowd around the mean and decrease as they move away from the mean. 5) The curve theoretically never touches the baseline. b. Some things in nature are close to being normally distributed, such as the height of men and women, I.Q. test scores, and shoe sizes. c. To get a normal distribution, sample size should be at least 32. 42
- 43. 6. Normal curve Percent of cases under portions of the normal curve 34.13% 34.13% 13.59% 13.59% 2.15% 2.15% .12% .12% (Standard Deviation) -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 68.26% Percentage of frequencies in a 95.44% normal distribution 99.74% 99.98% Very few scores will extend above or fall below three standard deviations from the mean. 43
- 44. 7. Normal Distribution Percentiles Percent of cases under portions of the normal curve 34.13% 34.13% 13.59% 13.59% 2.15% 2.15% .12% .12% (Standard Deviation) -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 .1% 2.3% 15.9% 50% 84.1% 97.7% 99.9% (Percentiles) Very few scores will extend above or fall below three standard deviations from the mean.8. Two Ways of Computing Variance and Standard Deviation 44
- 45. a. Conceptual Way: (raw ( SS ) (σ ) 2 (σ ) score) X (X − X ) ( X − X )2 SS N σ2 2 6 -4 16 8 4 6 -2 4 5 40 Square of 8 = 2.8 6 6 0 0 40 8 6 +2 4 10 6 +4 16∑ X =30 0 40 ( (Sum of Squares) ( (Variance) (Standard deviation) Measures of Measures of Central Tendencies Variability X =6 SS = 40 Md = 6 σ2 =8 σ = 2.8b. Computational Way C 45
- 46. 2 (∑ X )2 2 (∑ X )2 ∑X − ∑X −X X2 N N N N 220 − ( 30) 2 ( 30) 2 2 4 220 − 5 5 5 5 4 16 6 36 8 64 10 100∑ X = 30 220 900 900 220 − 220 −X =6 5 5 5 5 65 30 220 − 180 220 − 180N =5 5 5 40 40 =8 5 5 8 = 2.8 46
- 47. 9. Correlation a. Correlation is the linear relationship between two or more variables. b. The degree of linear relationship is measured by correlation coefficient. 1) The symbol is “r” for Pearson’s r. (Karl Pearson) 2) Types of correlation i. Positive correlation a) A perfect positive correlation is +1, which is rarely if ever encountered. b) Correlations of .7, .8, and .9 indicate a high positive correlation. c) Examples of positive correlation: As one increases, the other has a tendency to increase. ⇒ high IQ and high GPA ⇒ height and shoe size Example of a positive correlation – As scores in X go up, scores in Y go up Time spent Studying Grades on Test X Y John 1 2 Bob 2 4 Mark 3 6 Bill 4 8 Jeff 5 10 47
- 48. b. Negative correlation 1) A perfect negative correlation is -1, which is rarely if ever encountered. 2) Examples of negative correlation: As one increases, the other has a tendency to decrease. ⇒ Total oil production and price per barrel ⇒ More graduate courses taken in college and free time Example of a negative correlation – As scores in X go up, scores in Y go down. Time spent Studying Grades on Test X Y John 1 5 Bob 2 4 Mark 3 3 Bill 4 2 Jeff 5 1 3) iii. A negative correlation does not necessarily mean that a bad situation exists. For example, a person who increases exercise would likely lose weight. c. No correlation 1) A perfect lack of correlation is zero; however, rarely would it fall exactly on zero, such as in case of 1, .2, or .3 2) Examples of no correlation ⇒ Height and IQ ⇒ Total rice production and the price of gold10. Three ways to Interpret Coefficient of Correlation (Pearson’s r) 48
- 49. a. .90 .80 .70 Rule (high) (strong) (moderate) 1) .90 indicates a very strong relationship. 2) .80 indicates a strong relationship. 3) .70 indicates a moderate relationship. 4) .60 indicates a fair relationship. 5) Below .5 indicates that it may be due to chance. 6) There is a stronger indication that no relationship exists as the number gets closer to zero, such as .2 and .3.b. r2 = Coefficient of Determination: When the percent of X is known, one could determine a percent of what Y would be.An estimate of common variance between variables can be determined bysquaring the correlation coefficient. 1) Formulas (∑ X ) (∑Y ) ∑ XY − r= N ∑ X 2 − (∑ X ) ∑Y 2 − (∑Y ) 2 2 N N ↑ ↑ Sum of Squares Sum of Squares of X of Y (∑ X ) (∑Y ) ∑ XY − N r= ( SS X ) ( SSY ) 49
- 50. 2) Example X X2 Y Y2 XYJohn 1 1 2 4 2Bob 2 4 2 4 4Bill 3 9 3 9 9 Joe 4 16 4 16 16Sam 5 25 5 25 25 ∑ 15 55 16 58 56 56 − (15) (16)r= 5 (10) ( 6.8)SS X = ∑ X 2 − (∑ X )2 = 55 − 15 2 = 55 − 225 = 55 − 45 = 10 N 5 5SSY = ∑ Y 2 − (∑Y ) 2 = 58 − 16 2 = 58 − 256 = 58 − 51.2 = 6.8 N 5 5 56 − 48 68 8 8.2 Pearson’s r = .97 (very high correlation) 50
- 51. X and Y have a lot in common. r 2 = .94 (Given X, one could tell 94% of the time what Y would be. 3) Coefficient of Determination: Given X, one could determine 94% of the time what Y would be. 4) Since correlation is concerned with prediction, it is more difficult to predict the correlation as the correlation goes down. c. t test: The test of the significance of the difference between two means: 1) Think of a t-test as a correlation turned inside out. 2) A t-test indicates the difference between numbers, whereas a correlation indicates the similarities between numbers.11. Measures of relative position: standard scores a. z score 1) When comparing scores in distributions where total points may differ, a z score permits a realistic comparison of scores and may allow equal weighting of the scores. 2) Formula X−X z= σ X = raw score X = mean σ = standard deviation 51
- 52. 12. Normal Distribution Problems Directions: Treat each of the following as if distribution is normal. What percent of scores lies between the two z scores for each of the following pairs? (1) 3 and -3 ______ (5) 1 and -1 ______ (9) -.5 and 1.2 ______ (2) 0 and 1 ______ (6) 0 and .5 ______ (10) 1.3 and 2.4 ______ (3) 0 and 6 ______ (7) 1 and -2 ______ (11) 1.5 and -1.5 ______ (4) 2 and -2 ______ (8) 0 and -6 ______ (12) 0 and 2 ______ Directions: Treat each of the following as if distribution is normal. Identify the z score for each of the following percentiles. (13) 50th percentile ______ (19) 99th percentile ______ (14) 60th percentile ______ (20) 40th percentile ______ (15) 65th percentile ______ (21) 30th percentile ______ (16) 70th percentile ______ (22) 16th percentile ______ (17) 90th percentile ______ (23) 5th percentile ______ (18) 95th percentile ______ (24) 75th percentile ______ 52
- 53. Directions: Treat each of the following as if distribution is normal.Population mean is 32. Population standard deviation is 3.Identify the z score for each of the following raw scores. (25) 29 _____ (28) 35 ______ (26) 38 _____ (29) 26 ______ (27) 28 _____ (30) 33 ______Directions: Treat each of the following as if distribution is normal. Whatpercent of scores lie between each of the following pairs of raw scores?(population mean = 32 population standard deviation = 3) (31) 32 and 35 ______ (36) 23 and 41 ______ (32) 29 and 26 ______ (37) 32 and 30 ______ (33) 38 and 41 ______ (38) 26 and 23 ______ (34) 32 and 33 ______ (39) 23 and 20 ______ (35) 35 and 38 ______ (40) 32 and 34 ______ 53
- 54. SUGGESTED STUDENT ACTIVITIES:Divide into groups of two to three students. USE YOUR CALCULATORS!Use the following set of score to complete the following exercises:63, 79, 88, 88, 87, 89, 89, 90, 90, 90, 93, 94, 95, 95, 98, 99 1. Compute the mean of the set of scores listed above. 2. Determine the median of this set of scores. 3. Does the mean differ from the median? Why or why not? 4. Find the range of this set of scores. 5. What is the mode of this set of scores? 6. Compute the variance of this set of scores. 7. Compute the standard deviation. 8. Using the mean and the standard deviation, plot these test scores to see where they fall in a distribution around the mean. 9. Compare and contrast positive and negative correlation. 54
- 55. Chapter 8 – William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Inferential Data AnalysisKey Points1. Central Limit Theorem a. The characteristics of sample means are detailed by this theorem. b. Characteristics of sample means 1) Sample means are normally distributed. 2) The mean of sample means will be the mean of the population. 3) The sample means will have a mean (population mean) and a standard deviation.2. Null Hypothesis a. A null hypothesis states that if there is a difference, it is due to chance. b. By rejecting a null hypothesis, the researcher is providing a stronger test of logic. c. Additionally, by rejecting the null hypothesis, the researcher is concluding there is a significant difference between the two means, and this difference is not due solely to chance. d. The .05 alpha level is often used as a standard for rejecting the null hypothesis, which means that 95 times out of 100 the results are not due to chance. e. The .01 alpha level is a more rigorous test. It means that 99 times out of 100, the results are not due to chance. 55
- 56. 3. z test: One-tailed Test a. One-tailed Test at the .05 alpha level. b. A researcher thinks the scores of the sample will be superior to established scores. Acceptance Area 95% Rejection Area 5% X +1.65 (z score) 95% Acceptance Area 56
- 57. 4. z test: Two-tailed Test at .05 alpha level a. Two-tailed test at the .05 alpha level. b. A researcher thinks the scores of the sample will be different from the established scores. Acceptance Area Acceptance Area 47.5% 47.5% Rejection Area Rejection Area 2.5% 2.5% -1.96 X +1.96 95% Acceptance Area5. Critical value for z (rejection of null) Test .05 alpha level .01 alpha levelOne-tailed test 1.65 2.33Two-tailed test 1.96 2.58 57
- 58. 6. Degrees of Freedom a. Definition: Conceptually, always N-1. b. As the number of degrees of freedom increases, the strength of the prediction increases.7. Four Main Types of Tests Used in Educational Research a. Independent t Test (very useful test) 1) Characteristics 2) No population mean 3) No σ 4) Compares the means of two different independent groups 5) Example 6) Group X has been taught with Method A; compute the mean. 7) Group Y has been taught with Method B; compute the mean. 8) The researcher wants to determine if one method is better than the other method. 9) Formula for Independent t Test X −Y = ∑ X − 2 (∑ X )2 + Y 2 − (∑Y )2 ∑ Independent t N N n ( n − 1) X −Y SS X + SSY N ( N − 1) (Degrees of Freedom) 58
- 59. 4. Used in medical, agricultural, and educational research b. Correlated t Test (paired) (very useful test) 1) Characteristics i. Pre and post tests (pairs) ii. Only involves one group iii. c. D = X −Y 2) Formula X −Y = 2 − ( ∑ D) 2 Correlated t ∑D N N −1 N3. Example a. Pretest each group then compute the mean. b. Teach group using a special method. (The treatment) c. Post test the group and then compute the mean. d. The researcher wants to determine if there is a significant difference between the pre- and post mean. If there is a significant difference, then the special teaching method id helpful. (Null hypothesis is rejected.) 59
- 60. c. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) 1) The Independent t Test is a subset of ANOVA. 2) Characteristics i. Involves three or more groups. ii. All groups are treated differently. 3) Also referred to as the F Test, which was named after the man who invented the test. 4) Formulad. Pearson’s r (correlation) 1) Characteristics i. Measures the degree of relation between two variables. ii. Determines the degree of linear relationship between two variables. 2) Formula (∑ X ) (∑Y ) ∑ XY − N ∑ X − 2 (∑ X )2 Y 2 − (∑Y )2 ∑ N N 60
- 61. Chapter 9 – William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Parts of the Research ProposalNote: The research proposal is a framework for any research study. Aproposal should also clearly and succinctly reveal your intended plan. Inmost instances, university policy and specifications for the length of researchproposals are adopted; however, it is quality not quantity that is importantwhen writing a prospectus for research.1. Title Page a. Use enough descriptive words to catalog it by ERIC and Resources in Education. b. Example: The Effects of Collective Negotiations on Teacher Job Satisfaction in the Temecula School District in southern California.2. Introduction to the Study a. This part should be relatively short and capture the reader’s attention. b. It describes what the study will cover and should be written in a manner that will make the reader interested in the topic. c. A brief background of where the study will be conducted may be included. d. The operative word for this section is “brief”. Keep in mind, this is a proposal not the completed study.3. Review of Literature a. This component reviews pertinent literature and information relevant to your topic. b. Previous research should be included. 61
- 62. c. Five to 10 citations are satisfactory for the proposal. d. Citations should be relevant and recent.4. Statement of the Problem a. This part logically establishes the different underlying intellectual motives for conducting the research on this specific topic. b. Opposing conclusions are a good way to set up the statement of the problem. c. Example: There appears to be opposing conclusions in the research concerning collective bargaining and its effect upon the plight of the teacher. Smith (2005) found that the bargaining had not benefited teachers. Jones (2005) noted that bargaining had greatly enhanced teacher morale.5. Purpose of the Study a. This section succinctly describes what the researcher intends to find. b. Example: The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which the collective bargaining process has influenced teacher job satisfaction levels.6. Research Questions a. In this part, you will break down the Purpose of the Study into several pertinent research questions. b. It is important for the following parts to fall logically in line: 1) Statement of the Problem 2) Purpose of the Study 3) Research Questions c. Examples: What was the level of teacher job satisfaction before bargaining rights? What was the level of teacher job satisfaction after bargaining rights? 62
- 63. 7. Hypotheses a. The research questions are put in statistical terms in this section. b. Example: There is no significant difference in teacher job satisfaction following the acquisition of bargaining rights.8. Definitions a. In this part, define terms specific to your study that may not be familiar to the outside reader. b. Specifically define general terms the researcher assumes all individuals would know but might be different in different school districts in a state, region or nation. c. Example: TAE-The school district affiliate of the National Educational Association—Sixty-nine percent of all Temecula School District teachers are members of this organization.9. Assumptions a. Any assumed aspect the researcher may take should be duly stated. b. Example: The instrument used in this study will accurately measure the job satisfaction levels of teachers.10.Limitations a. Any boundary or limitation of the study must be stated. b. Example: The study will measure levels of teacher job satisfaction in only one school district. Teachers surveyed may vary in years of experience.11. Methodology a. This section includes the following four parts: 63
- 64. 1) Subjects i. Describe subjects or sample (who and where). ii. The population may be described in this part. 2) Instrument i. Give details about the test or instrument and specific materials. ii. Validity and reliability may be discussed. 3) Procedures i. Describe a step-by-step process of the researcher’s plan of action. ii. The timeline and permission to conduct the study may be included. 4) Data Analysis i. Describe how the data will be analyzed. ii. The following information should be included: iii. The type of statistical test that will be used, whether or not means will be compared, and whether or not charts or graphs will be included.12.Significance of the Study a. State why this study is worthy of the time and effort that will go into it. b. Substantiate the reasoning behind conducting a study of this type in this district, state or region. c. Example: Data derived from this study will serve as a guide to school districts in similar settings that are also considering the collective bargaining process.13. References 64
- 65. a. References should be relevant, recent, and cited in the American Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language Association (MLA), or any other required format.b. A sufficient amount of references should be used. The number of references will vary depending on the topic and resourcesavailable. 65
- 66. SUGGESTED STUDENT ACTIVITIES: 1. Divide into groups of four to five students. Every group member should contribute at least one area of concern that they would like to solve in their role as educators. Identify one area of concern that is important to the entire group. This will become the purpose of your study. Write three to five research questions (what you want to know about the area of concern). 2. Develop three to five hypotheses for your group study. 3. Define terms that may not be familiar to the outside reader that would be related to your study. 4. Identify the methodology that would be used for your study. (Subjects, instrument to be used to collect the data, procedures to be used to collect the data, include a timeline of when this would be done, and the type of statistical test you would use to analyze the data you will collect.) 66
- 67. Chapter 10 – William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Parts of a Field StudyNote: Parts of the Field Study have been discussed in the section entitled “Parts of a Research Proposal,” therefore only their titles will be listed in this section. Additional parts and those parts that need to be expanded will be listed and discussed in this section.1. Title2. Abstract a. This is a summary of the complete study. b. It is usually around a page in length.3. Table of Contents a. List the chapters of the study. b. List only the page number on which each chapter begins.4. Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study a. This chapter includes the following parts: 1) Introduction to the Study 2) Statement of the Problem 3) Purpose of the Study 4) Research Questions and/or Hypotheses 5) Definitions 6) Assumptions 7) Limitations 8) Significance of the Study b. This chapter is basically the proposal minus the Review of the Literature and the Methodology. 67
- 68. 5. Chapter 2: Review of the Literature a. Expand the review of the literature. b. Ten to twenty citations are sufficient. c. Remember to keep the citations recent and relevant.6. Chapter 3: Methods and Procedures a. This is basically the part in the proposal that was labeled Methodology. It will be expanded. b. Describe in detail what was done in the study. c. Some information in this section may have to be changed because the information here will state what was actually done, not what the researcher planned to do as was stated in the proposal.7. Chapter 4: Analysis of Data or Results of Study a. Describe in prose and in chart or graph form the numerical results of the study. b. Do not explain, summarize, or conclude in this chapter. c. Tell and show only the results. Do not attempt to explain the results.8. Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations a. Summarize the results of the study. b. An explanation may be given as to why the results turned out as they did. c. Try to consider all factors and variables that could have influenced the dependent variable. d. Recommendations for further study in regard to this topic should be included. e. Further study could likely be conducted on this issue at another school or in a slightly different manner.9. References 68
- 69. 10. Appendices a. Make a list of the location of specific tables, charts, or graphs. b. Remember to include the chapter and page number. A CHECKLIST OF ITEMS FOR TRADITIONAL FIVE CHAPTER DISSERTATIONS & THESESThe following is a checklist of items which are typically included in a graduate research project,thesis, or dissertation. Not all of the suggested categories are necessary or appropriate for allstudies, and the order of items within chapters may vary somewhat. These items are intended toserve as a guide:CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION________ Introduction________ Background of the problem (e.g., educational trends related to the problem, unresolved issues, social concerns)________ Statement of the problem (basic difficulty - area of concern, felt need)________ Research Questions to be answered or investigated________ Hypothesis or Hypotheses statements if needed or specified by advisor.________ Purpose of the study (goal oriented) -emphasizing practical outcomes or products________ Importance of the study - may overlap with the statement of problem situation________ Assumptions (postulates)________ Delimitations of the study (narrowing of focus)________ Limitations of the study________ Definition of terms (largely conceptual here; operational definitions may follow in Methodology Chapter)________ Organization of the Study....Outline of the remainder of the thesis or proposal in narrative form.CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE________ Organization of the present chapter - overview________ Historical background (if necessary)________ USE KEY WORDS in each Research Question and follow with the literary review that addresses each question.Purposes to be Served by Review of Research Literature________ Acquaint reader with existing studies relative to what has been found, who has done work, when and where latest research studies were completed, and what approaches involving research methodology, instrumentation, and statistical analyses: were followed (literature review of methodology sometimes saved for chapter on methodology)________ Establish possible need for study and likelihood for obtaining meaningful, relevant, and significant results________ Furnish from delineation of various theoretical positions, a conceptual framework affording bases for generation of hypotheses and statement of their rationale (when appropriate)________ Organize this chapter in the same order as the research questions are stated in chapter I. Be very careful to fully align the review of literature with the research questions. Note : In some highly theoretical studies the chapter "Review of Literature" may need to precede "The Problem" chapter so that the theoretical framework is established for a succinct statement of the research problem and hypotheses. In such a case, an advance organizer in the form of a brief general statement of the purpose of the entire investigation should come right at the beginning of the "Review of Literature" chapter. 69
- 70. Sources for Literature Review________ General integrative reviews cited that relate to the problem situation or research problem such as those found in Review of Educational Research, Encyclopedia of Educational Research, or Psychological Bulletin.________ Specific books, monographs, bulletins, reports, and research articles --- preference shown in most instances for literature of the last ten year.________ Unpublished materials (e.g.. dissertations. theses, papers presented at recent professional meetings not yet in published form, but possibly available through another source.________ Selection and arrangement of literature review often in terms of questions to be considered, hypotheses set forth, or objectives or specific purposes delineated in problem chapter ________ Summary of literature reviewed ( very brief)CHAPTER III: METHODOLOGY or the recipe/how to chapter________ Overview or at least an introduction________ Restate the research questions________ Hypotheses stated in NULL FORM.________ Description of research methodology or approach (e.g., experimental, quasi-experimental, correlational, causal-comparitive, or survey)________ Research design Spell out independent, dependent variables________ Subjects of the Study (Clearly describe the sample and population.)________ Instrumentation (tests, measures, observations, scales, and questionnaires)________ Pilot studies (as they apply to the research design, development of instruments, data collection techniques, and characteristics of the sample)________ Validity--provide specifics on how you will establish validity or provide validity data specific to your instrument from other studies with similar populations________ Reliability--provide specifics on how you will establish reliability or provide data specific to your instrument from other studies with similar populations________ Procedures (Field, classroom or laboratory e.g., instructions to subjects and so forth)________ Data collection and recording________ Data analysis (statistical analysis or qualitative analysis explained in detail)________ SummaryCHAPTER IV : ANALYSIS OF DATA________ Findings are presented in tables or charts when appropriate________ Findings are reported with respect to furnishing evidence for each question asked (ORGANIZED IN THE SAME ORDER AS HEADINGS IN CHAPTER I & III) or each hypothesis posed.________ Appropriate headings are established to correspond to each main question or hypothesis considered________ Other factual information kept separate from interpretation, inference, and evaluation (one section for findings and one section for interpretation or discussion) Note: In certain historical, case-study and other types of investigations, factual and interpretive material may need to be interwoven to sustain interest level, although the text should clearly reveal what is fact and what is interpretation.________ Separate section often entitled "Discussion", "Interpretation", or "Evaluation" ties together findings in relation to theory, review of literature, or rationale________ Summary of chapterCHAPTER V : SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS________ Brief summary of the study and findings portion of Chapter IV________ Conclusions (Often restatement of the research questions key topics or variables and final conclusions analyzing the answers) 70
- 71. ________ Recommendations (practical suggestions for implementation of findings)________ Recommendation for further study ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE OF THE DOCUMENT1. Copyright Page2. Title Page3. Signature Page4. Abstract5. Dedication Page6. Acknowledgments7. Table of Contents8. List of Tables9. List of Figures10. Body text, divided into chapters designated by upper case Roman numerals11. References in the specified style manual format12. Appendices and supporting documents13. Human Subjects Review Approval document14. Author’s VitaTABLES/FIGURES1. Tables and/or figures should appear no more than one page from where they are first referenced2. Tables and/or figures may be placed in the appendices and referenced in the body text3. Tables and/or figures are identified by chapter and number. ( Example: Table 4.1 would be first table to appear in chapter 4)MARGIN SETTINGS:1. 1 ½’ Left margin and 1” inch top, bottom and right margin or other university set specificationsSPACING1. Double spaced throughout the document2. Indent each paragraph first line .05”PAPER1. 100 percent cotton, 20-pound bondFONT AND SIZE1. Arial, Bookman, Times New Roman or similar font recommended2. Size: Standard 12 fontPAGINATION1. Every Page should be assigned a number2. Preliminary pages, small Arabic numbers (i, ii, iii, iv …etc) in the center at bottom of each numbered page3. Abstract receives the first numbering at the bottom and in the center4. First page of each chapter should be in the center at the bottom of the page in the footer5. All other pages should have numbers in the upper right hand side of the page 71
- 72. Dissertation Web Resources:http://wwwnationalforum.com This site provides numerous articles dealing with a widevariety of topics.http://www.dissertation.com This site has a number of great tips, feature articles and amonthly newsletter related to the dissertation process.http://www.jsmusic.org.uk/students/dissertations/dissertations_checklist.html Thissite contains a valuable checklist for help with organizing and completing the document.http://www.gradresources.org/worksheets/gantt.htm This site contain a neat chartwith each component and a timeline to help guide you through the steps to completion.http://www.lib.duke.edu/libguide/plagiarism.htm This site defines and explainsplagiarism in detail along with the consequences for the act.http://www.lib.duke.edu/libguide/home.htm Duke university provides a great resourcefor selecting the topic and researching library resources on this quality website.http://frontpage.wiu.edu/~rlm119/writinglinks.html Dr. Marshall’s writing sitecontains a good set of links to assist with grammar, punctuation, style and other writingissues.http://frontpage.wiu.edu/~rlm119/apalinks.html Dr. Marshall’s APA site has a numberof good links to assist with APA in-text and reference list formatting.http://www.citationmachine.net Citation machine is a good tool to utilize in the questfor proper APA or MLA references.http://frontpage.wiu.edu/~rlm119/templates.html Dr. Marshall’s template site shouldsave you some time in formatting table of contents and other essential pages of thedocument.http://www.academicladder.com/dissertation/dissertation-coaching-help.htmAcademic ladder provides a free bi-weekly tips subscription to help conquer some of theproblems and issues that arise in writing the dissertation or thesis. 72
- 73. Chapter 11 – William Allan Kritsonis, PhD General Statistics InformationKey Points1. Definitions of Statistics a. Statistics involves manipulations of numbers and conclusions based on these numbers. b. Statistics means to state numbers. c. Statistics is the study of numerical variation. d. Statistics is making decisions with incomplete data (without having all the numbers). e. Statistics is a numerical characteristic of a sample.2. Examples a. Agricultural statistics (acres, grain, water, and fertilizer) b. Medical statistics (types of drugs, amounts, and patients)3. Two Types of Statistics a. Descriptive Statistics 1) Summarizing or describing test scores (data) with numbers 2) Includes the mean, median, mode (Measures of Central Tendencies) 73
- 74. b. Inferential Statistics 1) Definitions i. A method of reaching conclusions about unmeasurable populations using sample evidence and probability ii. A method of taking chance factors into account when using samples to reach conclusions about populations 2) Most research is done with a sample. 3) When a sample is selected, there is a certain level of uncertainty. (A probability table is needed.) 4) Example 5 million 5th grade students (population) Teach using Method A 100 students Teach using Method B randomly selected (sample of above set) Mean (average) for students taught using Method A = 48 Mean (average) for students taught using Method B = 52 (Students were taught differently.)4. Population a. Definition: Consists of all members (scores) of a specific group b. The researcher selects his or her population. The following are examples: 1) All fifth graders in the United States 2) All fifth graders in Texas 3) All fifth graders in Waller County 74
- 75. 5. Sample a. Definition: A subset of a population b. Example 1) Of five million fifth grade students (population), 100 students were randomly selected (sample). 60 male 40 female 2) students students [Each is a sub sample of the above 1]6. Parameter a. Definitions 1) A numerical characteristic of a population 2) A statistic of a population 3) A measurement of a population b. A constant7. Statistic a. Definitions 1) A numerical characteristic of a sample 2) A measurement of a sample b. A variable8. Experimental Design or Research Design a. Definition: Concerned with all the things that influence the numbers b. The way the researchers did their experiment may have influenced the outcome. c. Remember the definition of statistics – the manipulation of numbers and the conclusion based on these numbers. 75
- 76. 9. Variable a. Definition: Something that exists in more than one amount or form b. Examples 1) Height 2) Gender 3) Weight 4) Test scores i. I. Q. ii. IOWA iii. LEAP iv. ACT10. Types of Variables a. Independent variable: The treatment (selected by the researcher) (IV) b. Dependent variable: The observed results (in education, test scores) (DV) c. Extraneous variable: A variable other than the treatment (IV) that might affect the results (DV) d. Remember: IV (treatment) may or may not affect DV (results). e. Examples of treatment 1) Different book 2) Different teaching method 3) Male/female teachers 4) Experience of teachers 5) Time of day 76
- 77. Chapter 12 – William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Types of Statistical DataKey Points1. Nonparametric Data: Data not normally distributed (Non-normal) – Discrete data - a. Nominal Data (Refers to things) 1) Just names something or someone 2) Examples i. Social security numbers ii. Phone numbers iii. I. D. number iv. Credit card number v. Home address vi. Bank account number 3. Nominal data are not very useful in research. Averages can’t be computed with this type of data. b. Ordinal Data (Refers to frequency) 1) Names and ranks (ranked data) 2) Numbers tell you relative positions or orders 3) Examples i. Class rank (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) ii. Rank by height iii. Sports rank iv. Rank in a contest 77

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