A Study of the Factors Related to  the Academic Achievement of 8th Grade  Limited Proficient Students  In A Major Urban Sc...
Proposal Format <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Background of the Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the Study </...
Introduction <ul><li>NCLB legislation requires all students enrolled in public schools be proficient in Math and Reading b...
Introduction <ul><li>In Texas there is a increase of more than 55% of Hispanics making up the overall population of middle...
Background of Problem <ul><li>Administrators and teachers face new challenges as changing demographics have Texas educator...
Background of the Problem <ul><li>Published studies and state reports in Texas discuss the implications of the increasing ...
Statement of the Problem <ul><li>As a result of the dropout rate of Hispanics, many Texans are not fully able to participa...
Purpose of the Study <ul><li>The study has a threefold purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>First, its seeks to determine school fac...
Purpose of the Study (cont.) <ul><li>Finally, it seeks to identify how these identifiable factors are perceived by Hispani...
Research Questions <ul><li>Is there a significant relationship between the students’ academic achievement and their percep...
Research Questions (cont.) <ul><li>Is there a significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement and their per...
Research Questions (cont.) <ul><li>6.   What is the relationship of the students’ academic achievement and the combined re...
Research Questions (cont.) <ul><ul><li>7.   What relationships exist between the students’ personal background and demogra...
Null Hypothesis <ul><li>H01: There is no statistically significant relationship between the students’ academic achievement...
Null Hypothesis <ul><li>H 03 :  There is no statistically significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement a...
Null Hypothesis <ul><li>H 06 : There is no statistically significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement an...
Null Hypothesis <ul><li>H 07:  There are no statistically significant relationships between the students’ personal backgro...
Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>School Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers have identified the following characte...
Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>Classroom Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget’s theory of a constructivist framewo...
Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>Quality of LEP Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>LEP instruction improves the education...
Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>Motivation To Achieve  </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation plays a fundamental role in a s...
Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>Individual Social Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to socialize is a natural step t...
Academic Achievement of 8th Grade Hispanic LEP Students  Based on School and Individual Factors
Significance of the Study <ul><li>Develop an awareness of the perceptions of factors that will positively or negatively af...
Assumptions <ul><li>Data gathered from the participants will be factual. </li></ul><ul><li>LEP students participating will...
Limitations of the Study <ul><li>Research will reflect one urban school district in Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>Data collecte...
Chapter II Review of Literature
School Factors <ul><li>School Climate  </li></ul><ul><li>-Characteristics of schools can affect and help define the climat...
School Factors <ul><li>Classroom Environment </li></ul><ul><li>- Piaget’s theory of a constructivist framework will be use...
School Factors <ul><li>Quality of LEP Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>-LEP instruction improves the education of LEP childre...
Individual Factors <ul><li>Motivation to Achieve </li></ul><ul><li>-Intrinsic motivation takes into account expectancy of ...
Individual Factors <ul><li>Social Goals </li></ul><ul><li>- Learning to socialize is a natural step towards social develop...
Chapter III Methodology
Research Design <ul><li>Research Method </li></ul><ul><li>Both qualitative and quantitative approaches will be used in thi...
Research Design <ul><li>Quantitative: </li></ul><ul><li>To measure the relationship between student academic achievement a...
Research Design <ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>Two-part essay responses will be collected from participants. </li><...
Subjects of the Study  <ul><li>Quantitative Sample/Qualitative Sample: </li></ul><ul><li>Student information will be obtai...
Instrumentation <ul><li>The questionnaire on the Academic Achievement of 8th grade Hispanic LEP students consists of 52 it...
Instrumentation <ul><li>The two-part essay question consists of a hypothetical question that describes a student’s friend ...
Instrumentation <ul><li>Quantitative Data: </li></ul><ul><li>Student Survey utilizing a 5 point Likert scale-Part I </li><...
Validity and Reliability <ul><li>The research results will be dependent upon the researcher’s accuracy to depict the meani...
Data Collection <ul><li>Surveys will be given to participants.  Information and due dates will also be included. </li></ul...
Data Analysis <ul><li>Quantitative Data: </li></ul><ul><li>Pearson correlations will be used to calculate the research que...
References <ul><li>Brophy, J. (1985).  Teacher's expectations, motives, and goals for working with problem students , in A...
References <ul><li>Delpit, L. (1995).  Other people’s children: Cultural conflict in the classroom . New York: New Press. ...
References <ul><li>Edmunds, R. (1979). Effective schools for the urban poor. Educational Leadership, 36, 15-23. </li></ul>...
References <ul><li>Freeman, Y., & Freedman, D. (1998). ESL/EFL teaching principles for success. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann....
References <ul><li>Galloway, Dan  &  Gallenberger , Cathy .  A Positive School Environment Is the Setting for Success High...
References <ul><li>Reed, Deborah, et. al. 2005.  Educational Progress Across Immigrant Generations in California . San Fra...
Quote <ul><li>“ One person seeking glory doesn’t accomplish much.  Success is the result of people pulling together to mee...
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Rebecca Duong, PhD Proposal Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Rebecca Duong, PVAMU, Member of the Texas A&M University System

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Rebecca Duong, PhD Proposal Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair

  1. 1. A Study of the Factors Related to the Academic Achievement of 8th Grade Limited Proficient Students In A Major Urban School District A Dissertation Proposal Presented by Rebecca Duong Dissertation Committee William Allan Kritsonis, PhD., Chair David Herrington, PhD., Member Donald R. Collins, PhD., Member Dr. Solomon Osho, Ph.D., Member November 19, 2008
  2. 2. Proposal Format <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Background of the Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the Study </li></ul><ul><li>Research Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Review of Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Research Design </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>NCLB legislation requires all students enrolled in public schools be proficient in Math and Reading by 2014 . </li></ul><ul><li>In Texas, TAKS proficiency standards must be met by all groups including Hispanic LEP students, how will schools be ready? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>In Texas there is a increase of more than 55% of Hispanics making up the overall population of middle school public school enrollment in 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>(National Center for Education Statistics. 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>Research stresses the importance of recognizing LEP students in middle school come with unique strengths, challenges, and needs. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Background of Problem <ul><li>Administrators and teachers face new challenges as changing demographics have Texas educators and leaders finding new ways to implement federal and state policies concerning LEP (Limited English Proficient) education (Gulla, 2003). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Background of the Problem <ul><li>Published studies and state reports in Texas discuss the implications of the increasing rate of illiteracy in the Hispanic community due to dropout rates in middle and high school. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Rumberger and Lamb (2003), “Understanding why students drop out of school is a difficult if not an impossible task because, as with other forms of educational achievement, it is influenced by an array of individual and institutional factors” (p. 147), factors which are school and individual related. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Statement of the Problem <ul><li>As a result of the dropout rate of Hispanics, many Texans are not fully able to participate in the emerging new economy because of limited literacy skills, limited English-speaking skills and a general need for other basic skills (Haynes, 1998; Jones, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need to determine if 8 th LEP Hispanic student’s perceptions of school factors and/or individual factors may affect their academic achievement. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Purpose of the Study <ul><li>The study has a threefold purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>First, its seeks to determine school factors that effect the academic achievement of 8 th grade Hispanic LEP students. </li></ul><ul><li>Second, it seeks to determine individual factors that effect the academic achievement of 8 th grade Hispanic LEP students. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Purpose of the Study (cont.) <ul><li>Finally, it seeks to identify how these identifiable factors are perceived by Hispanic limited English proficient 8 th grade middle school students as positively influencing their academic achievement. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Research Questions <ul><li>Is there a significant relationship between the students’ academic achievement and their perceptions of the importance of a positive school climate ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a significant relationship between the students’ academic achievement and their perceptions of the importance of a positive classroom environment ? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Research Questions (cont.) <ul><li>Is there a significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement and their perceptions of the importance of LEP instruction ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement and the students’ motivation to achieve ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement and the students’ social goals ? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Research Questions (cont.) <ul><li>6. What is the relationship of the students’ academic achievement and the combined responses to their perceptions of the importance of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>school climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>classroom environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quality of LEP instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motivation to achieve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individual social goals </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Research Questions (cont.) <ul><ul><li>7. What relationships exist between the students’ personal background and demographic characteristics and their perceptions of the importance of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>school climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>classroom environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quality LEP instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motivation to achieve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individual social goals </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Null Hypothesis <ul><li>H01: There is no statistically significant relationship between the students’ academic achievement and their perceptions of the importance of a positive school climate as measured by the Academic Achievement Survey . </li></ul><ul><li>H02: There is no statistically significant relationship between of the students’ academic achievement and their perceptions of the importance of a positive classroom environment as measured by the Academic Achievement Survey . </li></ul>
  15. 15. Null Hypothesis <ul><li>H 03 : There is no statistically significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement and their perceptions of the importance of LEP instruction as measured by the Academic Achievement Survey . </li></ul><ul><li>H 04 : There is no statistically significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement and the students’ motivation to achieve as measured by the Academic Achievement Survey . </li></ul><ul><li>H 05 : There is no statistically significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement and the students’ social goals as measured by the Academic Achievement Survey . </li></ul>
  16. 16. Null Hypothesis <ul><li>H 06 : There is no statistically significant relationship of the students’ academic achievement and the combined responses to their perceptions of the importance of: </li></ul><ul><li>school climate </li></ul><ul><li>classroom environment </li></ul><ul><li>quality of LEP instruction </li></ul><ul><li>motivation to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>individual social goals </li></ul>
  17. 17. Null Hypothesis <ul><li>H 07: There are no statistically significant relationships between the students’ personal background and demographic characteristics and their perceptions of the importance of: </li></ul><ul><li>school climate </li></ul><ul><li>classroom environment </li></ul><ul><li>quality of LEP instruction </li></ul><ul><li>motivation to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>individual social goals </li></ul>
  18. 18. Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>School Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers have identified the following characteristics that influence school climate: </li></ul><ul><li>Safe and orderly environment (Murphy, 1989; Jones, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for student participation and leadership (Rumberger et al., 2000; Wynne, 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>High expectations for students (Edmunds, 1979; Rumberger et al., 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Student-staff cohesion and support of differences (Wynne, 1980; Martinez, 2001) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>Classroom Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget’s theory of a constructivist framework will be used in this investigation to describe a positive classroom environment </li></ul><ul><li>(Fogarty, 1999; McMullen, 2004). </li></ul>
  20. 20. Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>Quality of LEP Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>LEP instruction improves the education of LEP children, by assisting them to learn English and meet challenging state academic content and student academic achievement standards </li></ul><ul><li>(Cummins, 1980; 1981; 1996; Jones, 2005). </li></ul>
  21. 21. Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>Motivation To Achieve </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation plays a fundamental role in a students’ achievement ability </li></ul><ul><li>(Brophy, 1985; Dörnyei, 1994; Holden, 2001). </li></ul>
  22. 22. Theoretical Frame of Reference <ul><li>Individual Social Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to socialize is a natural step towards social development also an important factor for assimilation into society </li></ul><ul><li>(Deci & Ryan, 1985:116; Matthews, 2003). </li></ul>
  23. 23. Academic Achievement of 8th Grade Hispanic LEP Students Based on School and Individual Factors
  24. 24. Significance of the Study <ul><li>Develop an awareness of the perceptions of factors that will positively or negatively affect the academic achievement of middle school 8 th grade Hispanic LEP students. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine which school and individual factors are positive impacts on 8 th grade Hispanic LEP students’ academic achievement while impacting future policy decisions related to services to LEP students in middle school. </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately influence program decisions to maximize the learning outcomes of 8 th grade Hispanic LEP students. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Assumptions <ul><li>Data gathered from the participants will be factual. </li></ul><ul><li>LEP students participating will be classified as 8 th grade LEP students in school currently enrolled. </li></ul><ul><li>LEP students who participate in the personal essays and questions will be truthful and objective in their responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Responses in the study will be accurately recorded and appropriately coded. </li></ul><ul><li>Results of this study will help school leaders to more effectively implement federal and state policies concerning LEP (Limited English Proficient) education. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Limitations of the Study <ul><li>Research will reflect one urban school district in Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>Data collected will be obtained from five middle schools within the selected urban school district. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Chapter II Review of Literature
  28. 28. School Factors <ul><li>School Climate </li></ul><ul><li>-Characteristics of schools can affect and help define the climate of the school. </li></ul><ul><li>-Researchers have identified the following characteristics that influence school climate: </li></ul><ul><li>*Safe and orderly environment </li></ul><ul><li> (Murphy, 1985; Knippel, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>*Opportunities for student participation and leadership (Rutter et al., 1979; Wynne, 1980; Matthews, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>*High expectations for students </li></ul><ul><li>(Edmunds, 1979; Rutter et al., 1979, Sykes, 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>*Student-staff cohesion and support of differences (Wynne ,1980; Matthews, 2006) </li></ul>
  29. 29. School Factors <ul><li>Classroom Environment </li></ul><ul><li>- Piaget’s theory of a constructivist framework will be used in this investigation to describe a positive classroom environment. </li></ul><ul><li>-A constructivist framework encompass around a curriculum design consisting of discovery learning (Fogarty, 1999; Ewing, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>-In a constructivist classroom, learning is not simply taking in new information as it exists eternally, it is the natural, continuous construction and reconstruction of new, richer, and more complex and connected meanings by the learner (Poplin, 1988; Jones, 2003). </li></ul>
  30. 30. School Factors <ul><li>Quality of LEP Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>-LEP instruction improves the education of LEP children in assisting them to learn English and meet challenging state academic content and student academic achievement standards (Cummins, 1980; 1981; 1996; Rocha, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>-This research will track Reading TAKS scores of participating 8th grade LEP Hispanic students who are enrolled in ESL classrooms after their 3rd year of enrollment in public school. </li></ul><ul><li>-Quality LEP instruction involves the development and implementation of language educational instructional programs and academic content instruction in a middle school setting. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Individual Factors <ul><li>Motivation to Achieve </li></ul><ul><li>-Intrinsic motivation takes into account expectancy of the outcome as well as the incentive value of success (Connell, 1984; Ewing, 2001). For example, when the student feels responsibility and control over the learning situation; the student will do what is necessary to be academically successful. </li></ul><ul><li>-Student take ownership in their learning. Learning in the classroom becomes goal structure and provides group cohesiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, students who need extra help are supported by the more proficient students who assist their classmates, building motivational self determination and learning autonomy (Brophy, 1985; Dörnyei, 1994;Holden, 2004). </li></ul>
  32. 32. Individual Factors <ul><li>Social Goals </li></ul><ul><li>- Learning to socialize is a natural step towards social development and also an important factor for assimilation into society (Deci & Ryan, 1985:116; Griddings, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>-According to Gusman (1996), &quot;Everything in the classroom revolves around relationships and nothing else.&quot; When students build relationships with each other, his or her influence on each other becomes evident. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, norms, beliefs, and attitudes of the group within the school community can range from the type of clothing the group wears, the type of music they listen to, and eventually their attitude towards academic success (Gusman, 1996). </li></ul>
  33. 33. Chapter III Methodology
  34. 34. Research Design <ul><li>Research Method </li></ul><ul><li>Both qualitative and quantitative approaches will be used in this investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Components of the study (survey and two-part essay response) will be designed to identify whether school and individual factors will influence 8 th grade Hispanic LEP student’s academic achievement. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Research Design <ul><li>Quantitative: </li></ul><ul><li>To measure the relationship between student academic achievement and the three school factors selected for this study: school climate, classroom environment, and language instruction-Pearson correlation for school climate and Reading TAKS scores will be utilized. </li></ul><ul><li>To measure the relationship between student academic achievement and individual factors selected for this study: motivation to achieve and personal social goals-Pearson correlation for individual factors and Reading TAKS scores will be utilized. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Research Design <ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>Two-part essay responses will be collected from participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent themes will be used to identify common factors that 8 th grade Hispanic LEP students’ perceive as affecting his/her academic achievement. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Subjects of the Study <ul><li>Quantitative Sample/Qualitative Sample: </li></ul><ul><li>Student information will be obtained for 150 8th grade LEP Hispanic students within a major urban school district. </li></ul><ul><li>Five middle school buildings with varying academic achievement levels of 8 th grade LEP Hispanic students will participate in the study. </li></ul><ul><li>Data will be gathered from 8 th grade LEP Hispanic students in mainstream classrooms who have been in enrolled in public school for more than three years. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Instrumentation <ul><li>The questionnaire on the Academic Achievement of 8th grade Hispanic LEP students consists of 52 items divided into four major sections. Part I “General Information,” consists of items assessing the participant’s student identification number, gender, age, parental level of education, and socioeconomic status (eligibility for free or reduced lunch). </li></ul><ul><li>Part II of the questionnaire, “Your School and Classes,” consists of questions #6-31 measuring the participant’s perceptions of the importance of school climate, classroom environment, and language instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Part III of the questionnaire, “You and Your Friends,” consist of questions #32-51 measuring the participant’s perception of their motivation for attending school and their social motivation. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Instrumentation <ul><li>The two-part essay question consists of a hypothetical question that describes a student’s friend who did not speak English and was coming to the United States to study in the same school as his or her friend. The first part of the question asks the respondent to tell his or her friend about: a) their school, b) what he or she had to do to be academically successful, c) and describe the quality of classroom instruction. The second part of the question asked the respondent to describe to their friend: a) why the respondent like or dislike the school, b) how their friends in school are. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Instrumentation <ul><li>Quantitative Data: </li></ul><ul><li>Student Survey utilizing a 5 point Likert scale-Part I </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative Data: </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic data </li></ul><ul><li>Open-ended essay questions for students to answer-Part II </li></ul>
  41. 41. Validity and Reliability <ul><li>The research results will be dependent upon the researcher’s accuracy to depict the meaning of the participant’s questionnaire responses. </li></ul><ul><li>The results which emerge from data analysis will be tested for plausibility and conformability. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants’ questionnaires and results will be privately examined by the researcher in order to secure credibility, transferability, and dependability of the procedures and findings. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Data Collection <ul><li>Surveys will be given to participants. Information and due dates will also be included. </li></ul><ul><li>Responses will be coded to assure identity protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Data from the survey will be placed in tables and graphs. </li></ul><ul><li>Data from the district and respondents will be secured for seven years. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Data Analysis <ul><li>Quantitative Data: </li></ul><ul><li>Pearson correlations will be used to calculate the research questions in the study. </li></ul><ul><li>Correlations will be evaluated with two-tailed tests with the .05 level of significance. </li></ul><ul><li>Scale scores will be calculated from the respondent’s questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Scale score of respondent’s survey as well as 2008-2009 Reading TAKS scores of each participant will be described as interval scale variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Results of study will be reported using descriptive statistics, including frequencies and percentages. </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative Data: </li></ul><ul><li>Two-part essay response </li></ul><ul><li>Essay responses transcribed </li></ul><ul><li>Data analysis include coding, generating categories, and written summaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent themes </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-check findings with Quantitative data. </li></ul>
  44. 44. References <ul><li>Brophy, J. (1985). Teacher's expectations, motives, and goals for working with problem students , in Ames, C. and Ames, R. (Eds). Research on Motivation in Education: The classroom milieu. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Chamot, A. U., & O'Malley, J. M. (1994). The CALLA handbook: Implementing the cognitive academic language learning approach . New York, NY: Longman. </li></ul><ul><li>Collier, V. (1987). Age and rate of acquisition of second language for academic purposes. TESOL Quarterly, 21(4), 617-641. </li></ul><ul><li>Collier, V. (1989). How long? A synthesis of research on academic achievement in a second language. TESOL Quarterly, 23(3), 509-531. </li></ul>
  45. 45. References <ul><li>Delpit, L. (1995). Other people’s children: Cultural conflict in the classroom . New York: New Press. </li></ul><ul><li>DeRosier, Melissa E., Kupersmidt, Janis B. & Patterson, Charlotte J. </li></ul><ul><li>Dewey, John. (1966). Democracy and Education . New York: Free Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Dörnyei, Z. (1994). Understanding L2 motivation: On with the challenge! The Modern Language Journal, 78 (4), 515 - 522. </li></ul><ul><li>Edmunds, R.R. (1979). Some schools work and others can. Social Policy, 9, 28-32. </li></ul>
  46. 46. References <ul><li>Edmunds, R. (1979). Effective schools for the urban poor. Educational Leadership, 36, 15-23. </li></ul><ul><li>Education Trust. (2007). The Education Trust-Closing the Achievement Gap. Retrieved August 20, 2008, from http://www.edtrust.org./ </li></ul><ul><li>Fogarty, R. (1991). Ten Ways to Integrate Curriculum. Educational Leadership, 49(2), 61-65. </li></ul><ul><li>Fraenkel, J.R. and Wallen, N.E. (2006). How to design and evaluate research in education (6th ed.) New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. </li></ul>
  47. 47. References <ul><li>Freeman, Y., & Freedman, D. (1998). ESL/EFL teaching principles for success. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Freiberg, H. J. (1998). Measuring school climate: Let me count the ways. Educational Leadership, 56(1), 22-26. </li></ul><ul><li>Fry, Richard. 2007. The Changing Racial and Ethnic Composition of U.S. Public Schools . August. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center. </li></ul><ul><li>Fry, Richard. 2007. How Far Behind in Math and Reading are English Language Learners? June. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center. </li></ul>
  48. 48. References <ul><li>Galloway, Dan & Gallenberger , Cathy . A Positive School Environment Is the Setting for Success High School Magazine, v7 n3 p28-33 Nov 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>Gandara, P. (1999). Staying in the race: The challenge for Chicanos/as in higher education. In J.F. Moreno (Ed.), The elusive quest for equality: 150 years of Chicano/Chicana education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Review. </li></ul><ul><li>Ream, Robert K & Rumberger, Russell W. Student Engagement, Peer Social Capital, and School Dropout Among Mexican American and Non-Latino White Students . Sociology of Education. Albany: Apr 2008. Vol. 81, Iss. 2; p. 109-123. </li></ul>
  49. 49. References <ul><li>Reed, Deborah, et. al. 2005. Educational Progress Across Immigrant Generations in California . San Francisco, CA: Public Policy Institute of California. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Rogers, C.R. & Freiberg, H.J. (1994). Freedom to Learn (3rd Ed). Columbus, OH:Merrill/MacMillan, ( http://www.educationau.edu.au/archives/cp/04f.htm ) </li></ul><ul><li>Rumberger, Russell W. 1987. “High School Dropouts: A Review of Issues and Evidence.” Review of Educational Research 57:101–21. </li></ul><ul><li>Rumberger, Russell W. 2004. “Why Students Drop Out of School.” Pp. 131–55 in Dropouts in America: Confronting the Graduation Rate Crisis, edited by Gary Orefield. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Quote <ul><li>“ One person seeking glory doesn’t accomplish much. Success is the result of people pulling together to meet common goals.” </li></ul><ul><li>(John Maxwell p. 27, 2001) </li></ul>
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