Chapter 5 Ordinary Language from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
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Chapter 5 Ordinary Language from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

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Chapter 5 Ordinary Language from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 5 Ordinary Language from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

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  • 1. Copyright © 2011 by William Allan Kritsonis/All Rights Reserved 5 ORDINARY LANGUAGE INSIGHTS1. By the term "ordinary language" is meant the forms of discourse employed in everyday speech and writing.2. Knowledge of a language comprises four elements: use, meaning, symbol, and communication.3. The test of a persons knowledge of a language is whether or not he can use it.4. One can learn a language only by speaking it, never by simply talking about it.5. The objective of using language is communication.6. Perhaps the deepest of all human needs is to be understood and accepted by others.7. The unique mark of being human is the capacity for experiencing meanings.8. A person knows a language only if he understands its meanings.9. Speech is an intellectual, not a mechanical, activity.10. Different languages reflect different ways of organizing experience. 95
  • 2. 96 PART TWO: FUNDAMENTAL PATTERNS OF MEANING11. Ordinary languages are "natural" in contrast to the "artificial" languages of some technical fields.12. Language is an instrument for communicating meanings within a common real world.13. Ordinary language presupposes a fund of common understandings about the world and a body of shareable experiences.14. The distinguishing feature of language is the structure of the conventional symbolic systems devised to express all meanings that can be communicated discursively.15. The chief method of acquiring knowledge of a language is to observe its use in the daily life.16. The ultimate goal of language study is the understanding of meaning.17. Analysis of language is to draw attention to the kind of understanding a person has when he knows a language.18. "Knowing a language" is not the same as "knowing about language." "Knowing a language" is practical. "Knowing about language" is theoretical.19. To learn a language is to master the formal symbolic systems by which the meanings of the particular community of discourse are expressed.20. The abstractness of language is the source of its power to express an infinite variety of experiences. ____________________
  • 3. INTRODUCTION TO PART TWO 97The realm designated "symbolics" is characterized by arbitrarysymbolic structures exhibiting certain customary rules ofconstruction and interpretation. There are three main subdivisionswithin this realm. They are ordinary language, mathematics, andnondiscursive symbolic forms. This chapter deals with ordinarylanguage, the first of the subdivisions. The other two, mathematicsand nondiscursive symbolic forms, are treated in the next twochapters. ORDINARY LANGUAGE By the term "ordinary language" is meant the forms ofdiscourse employed in everyday speech and writing. Technicallanguages, deliberately created for special purposes and notfollowing the generally recognized conventions of speech, are notincluded. Examples of such excluded languages are the codes designedto conceal information from unauthorized persons and those symbolsystems (as used in the sciences and professions) that areunintelligible except to initiates of a particular group of specialists. MANY ORDINARY LANGUAGES There are many ordinary languages. The variegated peoples ofthe world can be classified into language groups. Membership isdefined by the ability to communicate intelligibly with the othermembers of the group. The ordinary languages of humankind includeEnglish, French, German, Spanish, Hebrew, Greek, Russian, Chinese,Japanese, Hindi, Sanskrit, Arabic, and Swahili (to name only some ofthe widely used modern languages), and a multitude of languages anddialects used by smaller localized groups. The scientific study of thesemany languages belongs to the disciplines of linguistics, philology,and anthropology. It is the task of a philosophy of language ineducation to give a general account of what it means to know anylanguage and of the major methods and concepts useful in theteaching and learning of any language. KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE COMPRISES FOUR ELEMENTS: USE, COMMUNICATION, MEANING, AND SYMBOLS What does it mean to say that a person knows a language? Itmeans that he is able to use meaningful symbols for communication.Knowledge of a language comprises four elements: use, meaning,symbol, and communication, each of which deserves carefulattention.Use The test of a persons knowledge of a language is whether ornot he can use it. Though he may be able to speak words and recitegrammatical rules, if he cannot actually organize the words intointelligible discourse, he does not really understand the language.Language is a form of human behavior. Language teaching is a modeof modifying human behavior. The sovereign rule in teaching it is todemonstrate language in use and to develop correct habits of speechby reinforcing desirable speech behavior. One can learn a languageonly by speaking it, never by simply talking about it. Carefully
  • 4. 98 PART TWO: FUNDAMENTAL PATTERNS OF MEANINGguided practice and sustained confrontation with situations in whichthe learner needs to use the language are essential to good languageinstruction.Meaning Language behavior and the language community are, so tospeak, on the outer face of language. The inner face is meaning. Theunique mark of being human, as pointed out in earlier chapters, is thecapacity for experiencing meanings. Language is not merely a systemof signals to which a properly conditioned organism automaticallyresponds, it contains meanings. Ideation, or the mental power to formideas, intervenes between word and act. Speech is not primarily astimulus to direct action. Its content is an inner experience ofmeanings to which the persons deeds are related. It follows that aperson knows a language only if he understands its meanings, and notif he merely responds automatically to verbal signals. Human beingsare not parrots. Any language teaching that is simply devised totrain the students to exhibit approved language behavior withoutbenefit of reflective understanding misses the mark. Speech is anintellectual, not a mechanical, activity, it is not a skill to belearned as one would master a manual technique. For this reason,verbal dexterity should never be cultivated as an independent andself-justifying skill, but always with a view to increasingunderstanding and facilitating activity based on reflection.Symbol The meaning-content of language is expressed by symbols,which comprise another of the outer faces of language. These symbolsare spoken sounds or written marks that convey the meanings to becommunicated. They are physical entities serving as tokens ofintellectual signification. The symbols of a language in relation tothe meanings to be expressed constitute its vocabulary.Communication The objective of using language is communication. Language isa binding force in society. It is a means of establishing humanrelationships. Through language, communities are created andsustained. The strongest motive for learning language is theprimordial urge to belong to a community. Perhaps the deepest of allhuman needs is to be understood and accepted by others. Suchrelationships are the very ground of a persons own selfhood. Alanguage is best learned through participation in a community whosebasis of association is that language. It is important to provide thelanguage student with opportunities to participate actively in the lifeof groups who use only the language he seeks to learn.
  • 5. INTRODUCTION TO PART TWO 99 Ordinary language allows humans to communicate on a personal level. Many people like to take a break from "shoptalk" from time to time and become comfortable with associates. In order to encourage open communication with students, how personal of a level should ateacher speak with them? How will the students grade levels affect this decision?
  • 6. 100 PART TWO: FUNDAMENTAL PATTERNS OF MEANINGPicture
  • 7. INTRODUCTION TO PART TWO 101 MEANING-CONTENTS AND THE SYMBOL- EXPRESSIONS HAVE CERTAIN STRUCTURES The meaning-contents and the symbol-expressions of eachlanguage have certain characteristic structures. Knowledge of alanguage means having a working familiarity with these patterns ofsymbol and meaning. Language study is primarily a formal disciplinein which the typical patterns of discourse are mastered. Becauselanguage has this orderliness, it is possible to explain and predictspeech behavior and to engage in the activity of communication with ahigh degree of security and confidence of success. The subject matter of language is the formal structures ofsymbols by which meanings are expressed. The forms employedare not given in nature, but are cultural constructs. Differentlanguages reflect different ways of organizing experience. Thesedifferences have their bases in the varying histories, environmentalsettings, and genetic equipments of the populations among whom thelanguages develop. Different life-situations make for different kindsof communities and for different symbol-systems for communicatingmeanings. Ordinary languages are "natural" in contrast to the"artificial" languages of some technical fields. Ordinary languagesare products of the natural history of groups of people. They are not"natural" in the same way as rocks and trees are, becauselanguages are human inventions. In this sense language is essentiallyarbitrary. Its forms are matters of social convention. Its patternsaccordingly vary from one community of discourse to another. Despite the infinite variety of possible symbolic systems, there isanother sense that language is not completely arbitrary. Languageis an instrument for communicating meanings within a common realworld, not one simply invented. Symbols must be devised that will beadequate to the needs and purposes of communities in this real world.All successful ordinary languages must in some degree correspond tothe given realities of the world and of common experience. Ordinarylanguages are not purely arbitrary creations of human imagination.They are social conventions developed for the purpose ofeffectively sharing life within the world as it actually is and forprojecting common activity toward what is possible. Ordinary language presupposes a fund of common under-standings about the world and a body of shareable experiences. Thedistinctive feature of language is not the structure of theseunderstandings and experiences. The distinguishing feature of languageis the structure of the conventional symbolic systems devised toexpress all meanings that can be communicated discursively. METHODS OF GAINING KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE Having given an answer to the question of subject matter inlanguage study, it may be appropriate to say a word about thecharacteristic methods of gaining knowledge of language. From ourdescription of what language is, it is evident that the chief method ofacquiring knowledge of a language is to observe its use in the dailylife of the speaking community and to acquire skill in using it throughactual participation in the common life. But such learning throughobservation and participation may be facilitated by the analysis ofthe patterns of language. Such analysis requires the use of a numberof key concepts for directing and interpreting the observation and
  • 8. 102 PART TWO: FUNDAMENTAL PATTERNS OF MEANINGparticipant activity of the learner. In the science of linguistics theseconcepts are given technical names and are systematically treated ina manner that is quite unnecessary for the ordinary student oflanguage. Efficient mastery of a language follows from attention tothese leading ideas, even though they may not be explicitlyarticulated as a trained linguist would do.Phonemes Any language can be analyzed into a series of distinct sound-elements called "phonemes." Actually each phoneme is a limited classof similar sounds distributed according to certain patternscharacteristic of the language or dialect in question. By carefulstudy of actual speech behavior, the scientific linguist is able todiscover which sounds function in the sound-system of the language inthe same way, and these classes of similar sounds constitute thephonemes. The phonemes include stress, intonation, transition, andterminal indicators as well as consonant and vowel sounds. Onelinguist, H.A. Gleason, Jr., identifies forty-six phonemes in spokenEnglish.1 An understanding (preferably conscious and deliberate) ofthe phonemic pattern is essential to the mastery of a language. The elemental sound-system differs from language tolanguage. One cannot simply apply the phonemes of one language toanother tongue. When such an attempt is made, the new language isnot spoken correctly, but with a "foreign accent." The point to bestressed is that the sounds of a language are not isolated andseparable units; they are components of an entire pattern of soundscharacteristic of that one language and incommensurable with thesound-system of any other language. One cannot learn a newlanguage properly by redeploying the sounds of another language.Each language must be studied on its own terms as an integral, self-contained structureGraphemes Written language has its own special set of visual elementscalled "graphemes." Graphemes are classes of similar marks, each ofwhich functions in an identical way in the language. Writtenlanguage is to some extent independent of spoken language, despite theimportant structural similarities between what are generallyreferred to as the written and spoken forms of the same language.An important phase of language learning is to gain an understandingof the relation of the spoken to the written version of a language,with due recognition of the inability of the customary graphic formsto do full justice to the richness of the spoken tongue.Morpheme Another way of analyzing the structure of a language is by astudy of the elemental units of meaning. The name given by linguiststo a unit of meaning is "morpheme." As in the case of phonemes andgraphemes, morphemes are classes of variant expressions thatperform the same meaning function. For example, the three differentsuffix sounds in the words "dogs," "ducks," and "ditches" all functionin the same way—as means of expressing plurality—and belong to thesame morpheme class. Morphemes, like phonemes, are patterned incharacteristic fashion for each language. But unlike phonemes, the1 An Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics, rev. ea., Holt, Rinehart andWinston, Inc., New York, 1955, chaps. 2-4.
  • 9. INTRODUCTION TO PART TWO 103number of morphemes in each language is indefinitely large—asnumerous as are the distinct meanings to be expressed. The principal types of morphemes in all languages are rootsand affixes (mainly prefixes and suffixes). Thus, "play," "run," and"send" are one class of roots, and "boy," "ball," and "world" areanother class of roots. "-s", "-ed," and "-ing," on the other hand,are suffixes, and "re-," "pre-," and "in-" are prefixes. Roots are themost fundamental units of meaning, being modified by affixes to buildup more complex expressions.Grammar Important as the elements of sound and meaning are, they donot constitute the essence of speech. That essence consists in theregular patterns into which the elements of sound and meaning areorganized. The study of the meaningful forms of speech is called"grammar," and this study may be divided into (1) "morphology," thatdeals chiefly with the more intimate combinations of morphemes,designated as "words," and (2) "syntax," that concerns the largercombinations, such as phrases, clauses, and sentences.Parts of Speech In traditional morphology words have generally been classifiedon the basis of their meaning into "parts of speech." This approachhas the disadvantage because the lines between the various parts ofspeech so defined—nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and so on—cannotbe clearly drawn. As Edward Sapir points out,2 these conventionalclasses of words are only a vague approximation of the wayexperience is actually organized. Furthermore, since any scheme forparts of speech turns out to be different from language to language,these concepts are not characteristic of language as such. ULTIMATE GOAL OF LANGUAGE STUDY IS THE UNDERSTANDING OF MEANING Following the principle that the essence of language isstructure, modern linguists are abandoning meaning as the basis ofword classification and are using structural relationships instead.The ultimate goal of language study is the understanding of meaning.What is now becoming clear is that meanings depend on structurerather than structures on meaning. Meaning is best served byconcentrating attention on grammatical structure. PARADIGMATIC CLASSES AND SYNTACTIC CLASSES A structural definition of English parts of speech, instead ofusing meaning-classes like "nouns for things," "verbs for actions,""adjectives for qualities," and so on, divides words into paradigmaticclasses and syntactic classes. There are four paradigm classesdefined by four typical morphological patterns: nouns comprise wordswith two distinct forms-in-use, e.g., (man, men), (boy, boys); personalpronouns comprise words with four forms-in-use, e.g., (I, me, my,2 Language, Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., New York, 1921, pp. 116-119.
  • 10. 104 PART TWO: FUNDAMENTAL PATTERNS OF MEANINGmine), (he, him, his); verbs comprise words with five forms-in-use, e.g.,(do does, did, done, doing), (play, plays, played, playing); adjectivescomprise words with three forms-in-use, e.g., (good, better, best),(red, redder, reddest). The other English parts of speech, such asadverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions, differ from the paradigmaticclasses in not undergoing inflection. They are defined by means ofsyntactic classes, each of which is comprised of all words that playcomparable roles in the organization of the larger syntacticstructures (phrases, sentences, etc.).Paradigmatic Classes It should be emphasized that paradigmatic classes differ fromlanguage to language in the types and number of inflections and inthe combination rules by which morphemes are organized into largerpatterns. Much harm has been done in the academic study of Englishby the attempt to force English grammar into the Latin grammaticalmold. Such mistakes can be avoided if the structural uniqueness andintegrity of each language are duly recognized.Syntactic Classes Syntax, like morphology, is concerned with functional classes,that is, with typical conventional patterns for the expression ofmeaning. The analysis of sentences and their component parts may beaccomplished by developing a hierarchy of constituent classes(with sub-classes and sub-sub-classes) based upon characteristicconstruction patterns. Constituent classes are composed of membersthat differ in content but whose formal relationships are alike. Twoconstituents belong to the same class if one can be substituted for theother in any utterance without making the utterance eithernonsensical or different in kind. That is to say, syntactical analysisis a matter of discovering the various rules for combining expressiveelements into structures of successively higher orders of complexity. In syntax, as in morphology, the primacy of structure in theexpression of meaning is evident. Dictionary definitions are by no meansthe sole clues to meaning. Meanings are also commun-icated by thegrammatical structure. In many cases the meaning of a word can bebetter understood by reference to the context in which it is used thanby consulting a dictionary. Words have different meanings in differentcontexts. It follows the meaning of a whole utterance is not simplythe sum of the meanings of its component elements. The meaning is inthe complete utterance, and the meanings of the several elements inthe composite are dependent on their relation to the whole.
  • 11. INTRODUCTION TO PART TWO 105 Many people are frustrated by certainprofessionals use of technical jargon. Everyone knows things could be explained in laymens terms. Often times when something is not understood by someone, rather than feel embarrassed by admitting ignorance, one will simply nod his/her head in agreement. This happens with students as well. How can a teacher really know if a technical lesson is being understood as it is delivered? How much time will have been wasted if the teacher waits until a comprehensive exam is administered to check for understanding of the material?
  • 12. 106 PART TWO: FUNDAMENTAL PATTERNS OF MEANINGPicture
  • 13. INTRODUCTION TO PART TWO 107 EVERY LANGUAGE HAS ITS OWN SPECIAL DEVICES Every language has its own special devices for indicatinggrammatical structure. In addition to word order and constituentclass membership, that apply to all languages and are by far themost important syntactic markers, other related devices are used,including function words (e.g., articles and prepositions in English),government (e.g., cases for nouns), concord (e.g., agreementbetween noun and adjective or between subject and verb), and stressand intonation indicators (e.g., rising terminal inflection for aquestion, falling inflection to conclude a statement). The chief purpose here is not to describe the actualgrammatical structures of any particular language or languages.That is the subject of the large, complex, and technical subject ofdescriptive linguistics. The purpose of the present brief analysis oflanguage is to draw attention to the kind of understanding a personhas when he knows a language. We are interested in the logicalstatus of language as a realm of meaning. EVERY LANGUAGE INCLUDES SOUND PATTERNS, CONCEPTUAL ELEMENTS, AND STRUCTURAL PRINCIPLES Analysis shows that every language includes the followingthree components. (1) basic sound or visual elements; (2) elements ofmeaning [including (a) concrete concepts referring to objects,actions, and qualities, usually expressed by roots; (b) abstractrelational concepts, expressed by affixes, inner modification of roots,independent words, or position; and (c) a range of conceptsintermediate between the purely concrete and the purely abstractrelation types;3 and (3) characteristic structural devices for organ-izing the meaning-elements into complex expressive patterns. To"know" a language is to have a working understanding of all threecomponents: sound pattern, conceptual elements, and structuralprinciples. By "working understanding" is meant the ability to usesounds (or visual symbols), concepts, and grammatical devices inaccordance with the accepted customs of the particular languagecommunity. "KNOWING A LANGUAGE" IS NOT THE SAME AS "KNOWING ABOUT LANGUAGE" As noted earlier, "knowing a language" is not the same as"knowing about language." "Knowing a language" is practical."Knowing about language" is theoretical. Linguistic theory may behelpful in learning a language. Every teacher of language shouldcertainly be familiar with the fundamentals of linguistic science. Aperson can know a language very well without the slightestknowledge of linguistics. His theoretical ignorance does not mean thathe lacks understanding of the sounds (or visual symbols), theconcepts, and the grammatical structures of the language. It is in hisintimate and practical comprehension of these components, in use,that his knowledge of the language consists.3 Ibid., chap. 5.
  • 14. 108 PART TWO: FUNDAMENTAL PATTERNS OF MEANING Knowledge of language is knowledge of particulars withrespect to the specific sounds, concepts (root and relational), andgrammatical patterns that are unique to the given language. On theother hand, the knowledge is general in the sense the sounds,meanings, and grammatical forms are all classes of similarparticulars. The adept in the language knows when any particularsound falls within the sound classes proper to the language. He knowsthe acceptable ways of categorizing experience in the language (bothas to basic meaning-elements and as to inflectional modifications,e.g., number, gender, person, tense, mood, voice). He also knows thegeneral patterns—the kinds of structures—into which sounds andconcepts are supposed to be organized in that language. A person can be said to know a language only to the extentthat he has practical competence in both the particular and thegeneral aspects mentioned above. It is not possible to know languagein general. Language knowledge is always knowledge of particularlanguages (about which the linguist can make generalizations, laws,and theories). At the same time, knowledge of any particularlanguage is not simply a collection of particular sounds andimpressions. It is practical understanding of general patterns ofsound, concept formation, and structural arrangement. Thesepatterns are generalizations, laws, or rules that define theparticular language. Other languages have different sets of suchdefining principles. AN ELEMENTARY PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE For an elementary philosophy of language, the heart of thematter is that ordinary language consists of formal conventions,not given in physical or biological nature, but created in thelaboratory of culture in the course of the natural history ofparticular language communities. To learn a language is to masterthe formal symbolic systems by which the meanings of the particularcommunity of discourse are expressed. If it be objected that the foregoing account submerges therelation between language and experience in the real world in favorof an abstract formalism, it must be answered that the distinctivelogic of language is in this very abstraction and that the forms oflanguage are necessarily applied to the real world of experience. Theabstractness of language is the source of its power to express aninfinite variety of experiences. To represent the real world in all itsdepth and complexity. By this miracle of language the boundlessworld is opened to shared understanding. WAYS OF KNOWING1. What role does "ordinary language" play in the activities of everyday life?2. What does it mean to say that a person knows a language?3. How do you demonstrate language in use?4. How does a person help others to correct habits of speech?5. How does a person learn a language?6. How can a person use language to improve communi-cation?7. How does a person know if someone really understands a language?8. Ordinary languages are "natural." What does this mean?
  • 15. INTRODUCTION TO PART TWO 1099. Artificial languages are "technical." What does this mean?10. What are some methods for gaining knowledge of a language?11. Meanings depend on structure rather than structures on meaning. What does this mean?12. What kind of understanding does a person need in order to know a language?13. What does it mean to "know a language?"14. What does it mean to "know about language?"15. How is ordinary language created?16. What is the relationship between language and lifes experiences?17. Why is the abstractness of language the source of its power?