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Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
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Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

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Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

Chapter 14 The Arts of Movement from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

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  • 1. Copyright © 2011 by William Allan Kritsonis/All Rights Reserved 14 THE ARTS OF MOVEMENT INSIGHTS1. The earliest and most elemental of all the arts is the dance.2. Bodily movement is fundamental to all human existence.3. The sense of movement is inherent in every human activity.4. To be alive is to be able to respond—to be moved and to move.5. No other instrument is as elaborate, sensitive, and intimately responsive as the human body.6. The term "arts of movement" is intended to include all inten- tional activities, undertaken for esthetic purposes.7. The arts of movement are the foundation for the learnings that take place under the broad heading of "physical education."8. Closely related are the fields of health education and recre- ation.9. The arts of movement, and particularly the dance, provide the main key to methods and meanings in health, recreation, and physical education.10. The fundamental concept of the arts of movement is the organ- ic unity of the person.11. Health means wholeness, and the goal of education may be re- garded as personal wholeness.12. If learning is to be organic, provision needs to be made for ac- tivities in which the intellectual and motor components of expe- rience are deliberately correlated.13. The persons own body is the instrument of expression and re- sponse.14. The meanings communicated are, so to speak, flesh or our flesh and bone of our bone. They interpret the life of persons at the very well-springs of organic being.15. In the arts of movement the organization of space, time, and weight has symbolic importance. 27
  • 2. 28 PART TWO: FUNDAMENTAL PATTERNS OF MEANING16. The expressive qualities of movements can be analyzed in terms of the qualities and combinations of the various motion factors.17. Above all, what makes the composition a work of art is its or- ganic quality.18. Of great importance in the arts of movement and in the larger related fields of health, physical education, and recreation is the element of play.19. Play is not a minor and incidental form of human activity ap- propriate only to children and to adults in their times of relax- ation, but it is a primordial civilizing force influencing every field of cultural endeavor.20. Play is free, not obligatory.21. Play is concerned with a make-believe world.22. Play occurs within a limited space and time.23. Play has order.24. Play lives on contest and tension.25. Play proceeds according to rules that are absolutely binding on the players in the game.26. Play activities tend to form enduring communities.27. Play associations tend to be esoteric and secret.
  • 3. THE ARTS OF MOVEMENT 2928. The arts of movement are the source of esthetic meanings in which the inner life of persons is objectified through significant dynamic forms using the human body as the instrument.29. Meanings are expressed in purest form in the dance arts and are the basis for physical education conceived as the develop- ment of mature psychophysical coordination.30. An important element in the achievement of health is the sprit of play.31. The arts of movement, physical education, and health and recreation activities are all closely interrelated resources for the enrichment of esthetic meaning, both in individual persons and in the life of society. ____________________
  • 4. 30 PART TWO: FUNDAMENTAL PATTERNS OF MEANINGMusic and the visual arts have been considered first in the presentsection because they are the most highly developed, most widely un-derstood, and, in a sense, the "purest" forms of esthetic expression.However, these arts are not primary, either historically or in rela-tion to human nature. The earliest and most elemental of all the artsis the dance. The dance is the primordial art because the instrumentemployed in it is the human body itself, and because bodily movement isfundamental to all human existence. BODILY MOVEMENT IS FUNDAMENTAL TO ALL HUMAN EXISTENCE The sense of movement is inherent in every human activity.To be alive is to be able to respond—to be moved and to move. All per-ceptions of the surrounding world are accompanied by motor reac-tions. Every experience, whether primarily of feeling, thought, or vo-lition, engages the whole person, including the interconnected systemof muscles, nerves, bones, tissues, organs, and internal secretions. Noother instrument is as elaborate, sensitive, and intimately responsiveas the human body. This is why the arts of movement are so importantfor the expression and perception of human meaning. THE SPECIAL VALUE OF THE ARTS OF MOVEMENT IS THEY AFFORD OPPORTUNITIES FOR CULTIVATING BODILY POTENTIALITIES The term "arts of movement" is intended to include all inten-tional activities, undertaken for esthetic purposes, in which the desiredexpressive effects are communicated by the movement of the humanbody. Obviously movement also occurs for other than esthetic rea-sons, as in daily work, eating, locomotion, and social activities. Muchof what a person must learn relates to the motor skills required forthe successful conduct of daily life. The special value of the arts ofmovement, and particularly of the dance, is they afford opportunitiesfor the deliberate and concentrated cultivation of bodily potentiali-ties without limitation by the exigencies of practical life. THE ARTS OF MOVEMENT ARE FOUNDATIONAL TO THE BROAD AREAS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION The arts of movement are the foundation for the learnings thattake place under the broad heading of "physical education." The pro-gram of instruction in this field is ordinarily centered around individu-al and team sports and gymnastic activities, with the dance being atmost one among many options. Closely related are the fields ofhealth education and of recreation. All these fields are concernedwith promoting the vigor of the human organism, neuromuscularskills, good interpersonal behavior, emotional balance and control,and sound judgment. While these objectives extend beyond the estheticconcern that is proper to the arts, it is still true that the arts ofmovement, and particularly the dance, provide the main key to meth-ods and meanings in health, recreation, and physical education. THE FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT OF THE ARTS OF MOVEMENT IS THE ORGANIC UNITY OF THE PERSON
  • 5. THE ARTS OF MOVEMENT 31 The fundamental concept of the arts of movement is the organ-ic unity of the person. Health means wholeness, and the goal of edu-cation may be regarded as personal wholeness. From this standpointthe classic duality of mind and body is rejected. A person cannot thinkwithout a body, nor are his motor responses independent of thought. Iflearning is to be organic, provision needs to be made for activities inwhich the intellectual and motor components of experience are delib-erately correlated. This union of thought, feeling, sense, and act isthe particular aim of the arts of movement and of the fields of heath,recreation, and physical education. Nowhere else is the coordinationof all components of the living person so directly fostered, nor theresulting activity so deeply rooted in the unitary existence of the per-son. It was pointed out earlier that meanings in the arts are immedi-ate perceptions rather than the mediated conceptions of the discursivefields. Of all the arts, the arts of movement best exemplify this imme-diacy, since the persons own body is the instrument of expression andresponse. Here perceptions arise from the felt Dance is one of the most evolved art forms known to humans. Dance, as the first art form, has been developed nearly as long as humans have been capable of physical movement. Even the beasts in the wild used dance ritualistically. Not only is dancing taught, but it can be used to teach. How many other arts can be taught or explained using the arts of movement?
  • 6. 32 PART TWO: FUNDAMENTAL PATTERNS OF MEANING
  • 7. THE ARTS OF MOVEMENT 33Picture
  • 8. 34 PART TWO: FUNDAMENTAL PATTERNS OF MEANINGtensions and rhythms of the organism itself, without objectification inany nonhuman thing. The meanings communicated are, so to speak,flesh of our flesh and bone of our bone. They interpret the life of per-sons at the very wellsprings of organic being. DANCE AND MOVEMENTS The materials of dance are movements, perhaps with assistancefrom music, costumes, stage settings, architecture, and lighting. Thesesupplementary materials are all subordinate to movement and areonly justified insofar as they enhance the presentation of the innerlife of dynamic conflict and resolution, lift and decline, as it is objec-tified by bodily movements. The movements of the dance are designed toexpress definite inward purposes, moods, and attitudes. movements arenot random and haphazard, but controlled so as to convey ideas ofthe ebb and flow of feelings and emotions. Movements are intelligibleforms with their own characteristic presentational logic. Movementsmake visible the subjective life of persons by means of a series ofsymbolic gestures. DANCE DESIGNS TRANSMITTED DIRECTLY FROM PERSON TO PERSON Unlike music, that has a highly efficient system of notation, thedance has traditionally had no written form. Consequently, dance de-signs have largely had to be transmitted directly from person to per-son instead of impersonally through graphic transcriptions. As a re-sult, the accurate recovery of long discontinued forms is impossible,protracted declines in the condition of the art have been difficult toavoid, and the preservation and diffusion of dance achievements havebeen hindered. Only in the 20th century have satisfactory systems ofdance notation begun to be developed (as in the work of Rudolph La-ban, the author of a comprehensive system of notation for indicatingmovement). DANCE CLOSELY RELATED TO MUSIC As an art form, dance is closely related to music. Though orig-inally music was used only as an accompaniment to dance, it long agobecame established as an independent art in the Western world. Theforms devised to solve musical problems are ordinarily not suitablefor dance, and musical ideas are not always translatable into cor-responding forms of movement. Complete dance does involve voice aswell as movement, and appropriate subordinate musical accompani-ments are often composed for the dance. CONNECTIONS BETWEEN DANCE, DRAMA, AND MUSIC The connection between dance and drama is even closer thanbetween dance and music. Music is a disembodied expression of emotionsthat dance expresses bodily. Drama, on the other hand, embodies emo-tions in the persons of characters, while the dance aims at typifyinghuman emotions. Dance is a composition of movements that expresskinds of feelings, while drama is composed of actions that portrayevents of human significance. DANCE SHARES THE QUALITY OF ABSTRACTION
  • 9. THE ARTS OF MOVEMENT 35 The dance shares with all the arts the quality of abstraction.The meanings expressed in dance are not merely accidental, subjec-tive, and personal. They are intended as objectifications of inner ex-periences having universal importance. They are not of the same na-ture as the abstractions of the sciences, which are contained in con-ceptual generalizations. The meanings conveyed in the dance and inthe other arts are communicated in particular sensuous presenta-tions. Their perceptual vital connotations are contained in specificorganic forms capable of being understood by other sensitive and re-ceptive persons because the feelings conveyed are deeply rooted in thebasic structure of human nature. These meanings are also idealizations. They are not meant toreproduce nature nor to imitate commonplace actions, which are in noneed of artistic expression. The forms of art offer a reshaping ortransformation of nature that exalts, clarifies, and concentratesperception through significant abstraction. The artist creates a newworld in which human potentialities not fulfilled in the natural worldcan be realized.
  • 10. 36 PART TWO: FUNDAMENTAL PATTERNS OF MEANING MEANING IN DANCE CONSISTS IN THE DIRECT EXPERIENCE In the dance, as in every other art, the expressive forms tend tocrystallize into traditional formulas. Historical, geographic, andethnic factors enter into the development of standardized styles inart. Even though the impulses of artistic creation are universal, theparticular forms of expression are influenced by circumstances oftime and place. This fact of stylization imposes two obligations onthose who seek to communicate esthetic meanings. First, attentionshould be directed beyond the forms to the inner life they are designedto express. Second, interpretations have to be offered so that theartistic style of a group of people can become meaningful to personsliving in a different time or culture. Translation across group linesrequires an imaginative and sympathetic attempt to participate in thelife of the other people so that their unfamiliar artistic idioms maybecome intelligible. The goal of understanding alien styles of dance isnot merely conceptual in quality, yielding knowledge about otherpeople and their ways. The goal of understanding depends on the abili-ty to make the appropriate motor responses to the forms presented.The characteristic meaning of the dance consists in the direct experi-ence, whether as a dancer or as a spectator, of the sense of move-ment the forms of the art objectify. CONTEMPORARY DANCE: CONTRASTING BALLET AND MODERN EXPRESSIVE DANCE Contemporary dance as an art form is of two main types: bal-let and modern expressive dance. In ballet the objective formal quali-ties are emphasized; in the expressive dance the chief concern is thecommunication of emotion. In the ballet more or less standard codes ofmovement are used, and particular motor skills are exploited to thefull; in the expressive dance the crystallization of forms is minimized,and the direct relation of movement to life experience is emphasized. BALLET The ballet is a particular kind of theater dance developed dur-ing the Renaissance. It suffered stylistic ossification and became amere decorative adjunct to the opera, until it was rescued and givenits independent place as a theater art by Jean George Noverre in themid-18th century. After another period of decay in the 19th century, itwas again revitalized in the present century by Michel Fokine, whosecardinal rules may be summarized as follows: (a) Let there be noready-made routines; (b) each ballet shall be a unified dramatic se-quence without extraneous passages; (c) expression is to be effectedby means of the whole body, not by stylized hand gestures; (d) thecorps de ballet is to participate integrally in the dance and notserve merely as a decorative background; (e) music, scenery, and cos-tumes are to serve with the dance in fulfilling a single esthetic pur-pose. The essence of these rules is the principle of organic vitality:the insistence that the dance express living experience through an in-tegrated sensuous pattern. According to John Martin, the soul of ballet is idealistic ab-straction, and its body is dynamic equilibrium, in which “the dancerbecomes a sensuous sentient object maintaining balance against all
  • 11. THE ARTS OF MOVEMENT 37hazards, inviting and even extending these hazards far beyond themargin of safety and meeting them effortlessly in evidence of a domin-ion over the inertial and circumscriptions of realism.”1 The classical ballet has its own vocabulary of movement.There are five fundamental positions of the feet, five correspondingpositions of the arms, others for the hands and head, eight directionsof the body, seven types of movement (bending, stretching, rising,jumping, gliding, darting, turning), and various climactic poses used tofinish sequences of movement. Additional effects can be achieved bythe dancer rising on the toes. From these various elements an inex-haustible variety of movement designs can be created. The dynamic equilibrium of the ballet is achieved within a gravi-tational field. The postural standard from which all departures aremade is that the vertical body supported by the legs as a single solidcolumn, with the feet as a stable base. As parts of the body aremoved from this neutral position, compensatory movements are madeby other parts to maintain gravitational equilibrium. The support ofthe legs is dramatized in a great variety of ways, the arms partici-pate in the development of designs, and the orientation of the head andthe facial expression are made to harmonize with the larger bodymovements. In all cases the movements and postures are felt as ema-nating from the whole body as a dynamic unity and not simply fromseparate body parts. MODERN EXPRESSIVE DANCE The modern expressive dance emerged as an art in the presentcentury through the revolutionary work of such artists as IsadoraDuncan, who saw the dance as a projection of the inner life of adancer, and Mary Wigman, who first developed expressive dance asan objective art with clear dramatic form. These modernists in thefield of dance, like their counterparts in music (e.g., Arnold Schon-berg and Igor Stravinksy) and in the visual arts (e.g., Paul Cézanneand Frank Lloyd Wright), aim to liberate the artist from subservienceto standard forms, particularly from the obligations of verisimili-tude, so that he may create new and unfamiliar ideal abstractionsfor the enrichment of the world of human meanings. The method of the expressional dance differs from that of theballet in that, rather than starting with a given vocabulary ofmovement and using it to display the dancer’s powers, as in the bal-let, the point of departure in expressional dance is the presentation ofa significant emotional concept through formal movement materi-als created extempore for that specific purpose. The primary equip-ment of the modern dancer is a body trained for strength, control,plasticity, and responsiveness. The training required is physical educa-tion in the organic sense: the development of skill in bodily responsesin perfect correlation with relevant intellectual and affective fac-tors within the whole person.1 Introduction to the Dance, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York, 1939,p. 217. Reprinted by permission of the publisher.
  • 12. 38 PART TWO: FUNDAMENTAL PATTERNS OF MEANING THE MASTER OF EMOTIONAL OBJECTIFICATION IS THE HEART OF DANCE TECHNIQUE As s tated e arlie r, the em otion expressed by the d ance r is notm ere ly an ind ividual sub j ctive im pul The d ance r is not supposed to e se.m ove unde r the com pul sion o f im m ediate p rivate em otional p ressures.He has to le arn to rem em ber, re -cre ate , and ob j ctify significant hu- em an em otions so as to e voke sim ilar re sponses in o the r peopl This e.m aste ry o f emotional objectification is the heart of dance tech-nique. SPACE, TIME, AND WEIGHT IN DANCE The native realm of the dance in all types of dance is space,both the particular space around the body and the general space inwhich he moves. Movement through space introduces the factor oftime, and since the movement must take account of gravity, weightalso enters as an essential element. Space, time, and weight in thedance are perceptual categories—the stuff of immediate inward experi-ence—and not general metrical standards as they are in the conceptu-al formulations of the physical sciences, where the same three fac-tors also occupy a central position. THE ARTS OF MOVEMENT HAVE SYMBOLIC IMPORTANCE In the arts of movement the organization of space, time, andweight has symbolic importance. For example, the basic body attitudesin dance are sometimes described metaphorically as those of “arrow,”“wall,” and “ball,” connoting respectively such feelings as piercing,dividing, and turning inwards. Movements upward may signify aspira-tion, downward submission, across the body seclusion, outwardsawareness and welcome, backward retreat, forward initiative andpurposefulness. When directional movements such as these are accom-panied by compensatory shifts in weight, quite different expressive ef-fects—with more tension and complexity of emotion—are achieved. Forexample, movements along diagonal directions (from the standpoint ofthe body imagined as in a horizontal cube) produce more tension thando movements in the vertical and horizontal directions, because of therequired weight redistributions. Each body orientation has its naturalexpressive possibilities, that the dancer seeks to explore and to real-ize through his movements. EXPRESSIVE MOVEMENTS ANALYZED IN TERMS OF QUALITIES AND COMBINATIONS The expressive qualities of movements can be analyzed interms of the qualities and combinations of the various motion factors.The weight factor may vary on a scale from heavy to light, thespace factor from direct to flexible, and the time factor from suddento sustained. Different combinations of these factors produce differentqualities of movement. For example, a heavy, direct, sudden movement(a punch) differs in quality from a heavy, direct, sustained movement(a press) or a light, flexible, sustained movement (a float). Being able to analyze movements is no indication that they areunderstood inwardly and that one has learned to respond to them withhis own whole being. Conceptual analysis of perceptual forms may behelpful in directing attention to the essentials of what is to be
  • 13. THE ARTS OF MOVEMENT 39le arned th rough the arts o f m ovem ent. S uch inte lle ctu al fo rm u lationis also necessary in arriving at an unde rs tand ing o f the d istinctivekinds of m eaning in these arts of m ovem ent and the ir p lace within thewhol ente rp rise of te aching and le arning. e THE GOAL IS CREATING AND UNDERSTANDING In the arts of movement, as in the other arts, the goal of cre-ation is the making of significant individual works of art, and the per-ceiver’s aim is to understand the importance of those works in theiruniqueness. In the dance the object to be created and understood is theindividual dance composition. For the making of such works no fixedrules of method apply. They are the offspring of creative imagina-tion, in response to the urgencies of vital expression, using the natu-ral powers of the human organism itself as materials. THE METHOD OF INVENTION Concerning the method of invention in the arts of movement, onebegins with some kind of stimulus, such as a movement idea, a verbalconcept, a visual image, or a sound, that starts an expressive move-ment flow. This flow comprises movement motives and movementphrases, analogous to the melodic motives and phrases in musicalcomposition. Using these elements, themes are developed, with repeti-tions and variations to supply the continuity and contrast essential inevery significant esthetic object. The boundaries and divisions of thecomposition are marked by climaxes, produced by final thrusts, inten-sifications, or sharp contrasts. THE COMPOSITION OF A WORK OF ART IS ITS ORGANIC QUALITY Above all, what makes the composition a work of art is its or-ganic quality. It is a whole, with beginning, middle, and end and withparts so interfused and interdependent that none could be omittedwithout damage to the others. It is not a collection of isolated ele-ments, It is a creation expressing the organic rhythms of the livingperson. The logic of its development reflects the inner dialectic ofpersonal life, in which each new element is assimilated within a systemwith basic organic integrity and continuity. The forms of the dance ex-hibit intrinsic relationships growing out of the immediacy of the innerlife rather than the extrinsic relationships that characterize arbi-trary constructions and conventional abstractions. THE IMPORTANT ELEMENT OF PLAYElements of Play A final factor of great importance in the arts of movementand in the larger related fields of health, physical education, andrecreation is the element of play. Whether or not particular playactivities fall within the province of the arts as such, the typicalmeanings inherent in play belong to the esthetic realm. A considera-tion of play helps to reinforce and illuminate the meanings charac-teristic of the several fields of artistic creation.
  • 14. 40 PART TWO: FUNDAMENTAL PATTERNS OF MEANING The classic tre atm ent o f the philosophy of p lay is JohanHuizinga’s Homo Ludens: A Study of the Play Element in Cul- 2ture. Huizinga demonstrates that play is not a minor and incidentalform of human activity appropriate only to children and to adults intheir times of relaxation, but that it is a primordial civilizing forceinfluencing every field of cultural endeavor. He shows that the playelement is clearly evident in language, in law, in war, in the pursuitof knowledge, in philosophy, in religion, in poetry, in music, and mostparticularly in the dance, the perfect exemplification of play.Analysis of the Essentials of Play Huizinga’s analysis of the essentials of play discloses eightfeatures of meaning in this field. First, play is free, not obligatory.The player chooses to participate in the game, just as the artist de-liberately elects to create his works of art and the perceiver of theworks voluntarily enjoys them. Second, play is concerned with a make-believe world, and notwith ordinary, everyday life. Play, like the arts, effects a transfor-mation of existence. By the power of imagination a new order ofthings is created in which the complexities and frustrations of con-crete actuality are overcome in the ideal abstraction of a game or awork of art. Play is not designed to enable one to adjust to the realworld or to help him meet ordinary wants and needs. It is a kind of ec-stasy lifting up the participant to a realm of freshness and extraor-dinary delight. Third, play occurs within a limited space and time. A game,like a work of art, is a definite finite object with a beginning and anend. It is a complete, individual whole. Like a picture, it has a frame,and like a symphony, it has its proper duration. Fourth, play has order. It is not random activity. A game isan organized pattern of events, a structure with its own inherentlogic. The order of play is not primarily that of ordinary discourse orof science; it belongs, rather, to the perceptual idealizations of theesthetic realm—of forms presented for the immediate enjoyment of theexperiencer. Fifth, play lives on contest and tension. Players strugglewith one another to win the game, not for personal gain but for thelove of the activity itself. The player strives for excellence. His aimis prowess in the chosen form of contest. His satisfaction consists inplaying the game well, as the artist also seeks perfection in the mak-ing of his works, devoting himself without reservation to the serviceof his art. Sixth, play proceeds according to rules that are absolutelybinding on the players in the game. The worst sinner in play is thespoilsport, who rejects the rules, and not the cheat, who implicitlyacknowledges the rules in attempting to conceal his breaking of them.The rules comprise the constitution of the play society, the binding el-ement making possible a disciplined form of conjoint activity. The artsreflect this aspect of play to the extent that certain artistic conven-tions are adopted as the agreed basis for artistic construction and in-terpretation. In both play and art, of course, the principle of freedom2 Beacon Press, Boston, 1955.
  • 15. THE ARTS OF MOVEMENT 41re quires th at the ru le s be vo luntarily ad opted and th at new se ts ofru le s m ay be invented withou t lim it. Seventh, play activities tend to form enduring communities.The temporary association of the play group lead to long-term vol-untary associations. Similarly, though works of art are individual es-thetic objects, artistic activity leads to persisting schools and move-ments, that are influential in determining the cultural atmosphere ofcivilization. Eighth and finally, play associations tend to be esoteric andsecret. They give their members a sense of being privileged insiders,”and the life shared is regarded as something special, different fromthe ordinary life of the public world. Belonging to such groups seemsto fulfill a deep hunger in human beings. The esoteric voluntary as-sociations of play are perhaps the best answer to the pernicious in-group/out-group distinctions of race, class, and religion. Similar ben-efits may also flow from the esoteric associations of devotees in thearts, who by voluntarily combining in groups of persons with similaresthetic concerns both preserve freedom and secure the benefit of so-cial reinforcement.
  • 16. 42 PART TWO: FUNDAMENTAL PATTERNS OF MEANING Children need physical movement to help develop coordination and motor skills. The problem lies in making a student interested in physical education. It is possible to tailor play activities that would interest most students to take the place of structured exercise. However, if a student is required to participate in such exercises, will he/she still see it as play?
  • 17. THE ARTS OF MOVEMENT 43Pictu re
  • 18. 44 PART TWO: FUNDAMENTAL PATTERNS OF MEANING THE ARTS OF MOVEMENT ARE SOURCES OF ESTHETIC MEANING In sum m ary, the arts of m ovem ent are the source o f es the ticm eanings in which the inne r life of pe rsons is ob j ctified th rough sig- enifican t d ynam ic fo rm s using the hum an bod y as the ins trum ent. Thesem eanings are expressed in pures t fo rm in the d ance arts and are thebasis fo r physical education conceived as the deve l ent o f m atu re opmpsychophysical coord ination. The goal o f such education is pe rsonalwhol eness, or organic we ll-being of m ind and bod y, which is theessence of he alth . An im portan t e lem ent in the achie vem entof he althis the spirit o f p lay, which has p roved to be a powe rfu l fo rce in thecre ation o f cu ltu re in all its aspects. The arts o f m ovem ent, physicaleducation, and he alth and re cre ation activities are all close ly in te r-re late d re sources fo r the enrichm ent o f es the tic m eaning, both in ind i-vidual pe rsons and in the life o f socie ty. WAYS OF KNOWING1. Why are the visual arts considered the “purest” forms of es- thetic expression?2. What is the most elemental of all the arts?3. Why is bodily movement fundamental to all human existence?4. What does it mean to be alive?5. How is the term “art of movement” intended to be used for es- thetic purposes?6. What is the special value of the arts of movement?7. What is the program of instruction in the broad areas of physi- cal education?8. What is the fundamental concept in the arts of movement?9. What is the goal of education?10. If learning is to be organic, what provision needs to be made for activities in which the intellectual and motor components of ex- perience are deliberately correlated?11. What is the particular aim of the arts of movement in the fields of health, recreation, and physical education?12. How are meanings communicated in the esthetic realm when one uses his own body?13. What materials are used in dance?14. What is the purpose of supplementary materials in dance?15. What are movements of dance designed to express?16. How do movements make visible the subjective life of the per- son?17. How has dance designs been largely transmitted to others?18. As an art form, how is dance closely related to music?19. Why is the connection between dance and drama closer than be- tween dance and music?20. How are meanings in dance expressed and conveyed?21. How does stylization impose obligations on those who seek es- thetic meanings?22. What is the goal for understanding alien styles of dance?23. What does the characteristic meaning of dance consist of?24. What is emphasized in ballet?25. What is emphasized in modern expressive dance?26. Why is there an insistence that ballet express living experience through an integrated sensuous pattern?27. The aim of modern expressive dance is to liberate the artist from what standard forms?
  • 19. THE ARTS OF MOVEMENT 4528. How does the m e thod of expressional d ance d iffe r from th at o f balle t?29. What is the goal of the expressional d ance r?30. What is the p rim ary equipm ento f the m odern d ance r?31. What training is required in the organic sense for the modern expressive dancer?32. How does the dancer learn to objectify significant human emo- tions so as to evoke similar responses in other people?33. In dance, what is the significance of space, time, and weight?34. Does being able to analyze movements indicate understanding inwardly that one has learned to respond to them with his whole being?35. Is conceptual analysis of perceptual forms helpful in directing attention to the essentials of what is to be learned through the arts of movement?36. Why is intellectual formulation necessary in arriving at an understanding of the distinctive kinds of meanings in these arts of movement and their place within the whole enterprise of teaching and learning?37. What is the goal in the arts of movement?38. What is the method of invention in the arts of movement?39. What makes the composition a work of art?40. Why does play belong to the esthetic realm?41. How is play a civilizing force that influences every field of cultural endeavor?42. What are the eight essentials of play?43. In both play and art, what does the principle of freedom re- quire?44. What are some positive esoteric benefits in voluntary associa- tions of play?45. What are some positive benefits in voluntarily combining groups of persons with similar esthetic concerns?

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