Copyright © 2011 by William Allan Kritsonis/All Rights Reserved                                                           ...
234                                             PART THREE:                      THE CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL EDUCATION     ...
THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES                                    23519.   The optimum curriculum for general education ...
236                             PART THREE:      THE CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL EDUCATION
THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES                                      237Since learning takes place over time, the materia...
238                                         PART THREE:                  THE CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL EDUCATION        Abstr...
THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES   239Picture
240                                              PART THREE:                       THE CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL EDUCATION   ...
THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES                                     241empirical knowledge. Such knowledge is necessary i...
242                                               PART THREE:                        THE CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL EDUCATIONs...
THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES                                   243Logical Hierarchy Also Exists       Among the scienc...
244                                      PART THREE:               THE CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL EDUCATION             materi...
THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES   245Picture
246                                               PART THREE:                        THE CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL EDUCATIONT...
THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES                                            247Another way of stating the problem of seque...
248                                                PART THREE:                         THE CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL EDUCATIO...
THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES                                           249                FIELDS OF STUDY EASILY BECOM...
250                                                PART THREE:                         THE CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL EDUCATIO...
THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES                                          25128.    How is it the ad vanced le ve ls are t...
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Chapter 22 The Logic of Sequence of Studies from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

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Chapter 22 The Logic of Sequence of Studies from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

In June 2008, Dr. Kritsonis received the Doctor of Humane Letters, School of Graduate Studies from Southern Christian University. The ceremony was held at the Hilton Hotel in New Orleans, Louisiana.

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Chapter 22 The Logic of Sequence of Studies from WAYS OF KNOWING THROUGH THE REALMS OF MEANING by William Allan Kritsonis, PhD

  1. 1. Copyright © 2011 by William Allan Kritsonis/All Rights Reserved 22 THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES INSIGHTS1. Not everything can be studied at once.2. Decisions must be made about the order of instruction.3. There is no law of sequence.4. Temporal sequence is arbitrary from a logical standpoint only if the materials to be learned are logically independent.5. If they are logically interdependent, then the order of studying them is significant.6. If one subject logically depends upon the conclusions of anoth- er subject, then clearly the former subject must follow the latter subject in the course of study.7. Logically the realm of symbolics has priority over all the oth- er realms of meaning, because they all depend on symbolisms as means of expression.8. There is abundant justification in the logic of meaning for the traditional practice of concentrating upon reading, writing, speaking, and computation in the early years of school.9. Beginning early with the nondiscursive modes of expression is highly recommended.10. Exclusive preoccupation with discursive symbolisms in the first years of school may lead to a serious imbalance in expressive power, inhibiting esthetic, personal, historical, and religious growth in favor of one-sided development of literal ways of thinking.11. The empirical and esthetic realms may be introduced as soon as language becomes available.12. In their essential logic, personal knowledge (synnoetics) and ethics are independent of empirical and esthetic meanings and 233
  2. 2. 234 PART THREE: THE CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL EDUCATION therefore can be introduced as soon as communicative means have begun to develop.13. Between personal relations and ethics, neither has logical pri- ority, the two being in reciprocal relation.14. The logic of the synoptic disciplines places them last in order, because they depend upon all the other realms for their materi- als.15. Since there is no limit to what can be learned in any realm, it is impossible to complete one kind of study before starting the next.16. All that logic requires is that enough learning take place in one subject to enable work to proceed in other subjects that are logically dependent on it.17. The ideal curriculum is one in which the maximum coherence is achieved, and segmentation is minimized.18. The curriculum of general education may be planned so as to provide concurrent study in all six of the realms of meaning, subject to the logical condition that each topic be introduced only after the prerequisites to its proper understanding have been mastered.
  3. 3. THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES 23519. The optimum curriculum for general education would appear to consist of concurrent studies in all six realms of meaning.20. Regardless of which discipline proves to be the most fundamen- tal in providing the ultimate explanatory models, each has its own relative autonomy and may be studied largely independent- ly of the others.21. If a subject of study is regarded simply as a collection of iso- lated items, there is no reason to prefer one arrangement over any other.22. If the subject is seen as an orderly pattern of interconnected items, then the sequence of study becomes of great importance.23. In making decisions about logical order the teacher needs to be familiar with the patterns of meaning in his field of instruction.24. There is no single logical pattern that must be used for any given field of inquiry.25. Logical structure only provides a set of relationships among the various components of a discipline. It does not in itself dic- tate order in time.26. The order of discovery moves from the unknown to the known; the order of analysis moves from knowledge toward a more critical perspective on the known.27. The clue to curricular sequence consists in combining the two types of order in such a way that discovery is aided by analy- sis.28. Instruction should begin with the elementary and proceed to the advanced levels.29. The question for any discipline is: What are the elements, and how are the advanced stages built up from the elementary ones?30. The progression from elementary to advanced levels is not merely a passage from the simple to the complex or from the particular to the general.31. In one sense, the most advanced phases of a subject are the sim- plest, because they make use of the most powerful organizing concepts.32. In another sense, the advanced levels are the most complex, in that a greater range and variety of apparently disparate factors are integrated by these concepts.33. The best routes are those that lead most directly to the goals of the discipline.34. Fields of study easily become standardized and consequently fall behind significant developments in knowledge and method.35. Disciplines undergo modification, and corresponding changes are appropriate in the patterns of instruction based on those disci- plines.36. A good program from a logical standpoint is one in which the sequence of items is in accordance with the inherent logic of the subject and is designed so as to bring the learner, in the mini- mum number of steps, to the kinds of meaning that characterize the discipline in its mature expressions.37. Every discipline has its distinctive patterns of meaning that must be respected in constructing an effective order of instruc- tion. ____________________
  4. 4. 236 PART THREE: THE CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL EDUCATION
  5. 5. THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES 237Since learning takes place over time, the materials of instructionhave to be arranged in temporal sequence. Not everything can bestudied at once; therefore, decisions must be made about the order ofinstruction. How are these decisions to be made? What principles ofsequence are available? THERE IS NO LAW OF SEQUENCE THAT PRESCRIBES EXACTLY THE SUCCESSION OF LEARNING EVENTS It should be granted at once that to a degree the order of stud-ies is arbitrary. There is no law of sequence that, if it were known,would prescribe exactly the succession of learning events. Educationis, in this respect, like many of the affairs of ordinary life, in whichthe order of activities may be a matter of indifference. If one plansboth to read a magazine and to run an errand, there may be no rea-son at all for doing one rather than the other first. If it is decidedthat the curriculum is to include both music and painting, it may be amatter of indifference which comes first. It follows that, to some de-gree, accidental factors relating to historical traditions, personalinclinations, and available resources may properly be used to deter-mine the sequence of studies and that many different, equally satis-factory orders can be devised. TWO KINDS OF SEQUENCE FACTORS: PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS AND LOGICAL FACTORS Granted this limited arbitrariness, it is still necessary to studythe principles of sequence that govern a desirable curriculum. Thereare two kinds of sequence factors to be considered. the first kind hasto do with the psychological factors in learning, by which the orderof studies is related to the order of human growth and development.These considerations will be taken up in the next chapter. The secondkind of sequence factors relate to the logic of what is to be learned.This is the focus of the present chapter. It seems there is a sense to what sequence material can be learned by a child in a particular discipline. The developmental level of a child is a serious factor to be considered.
  6. 6. 238 PART THREE: THE CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL EDUCATION Abstract thought for example, does not occur in most children until about the age of twelve or the early teens. Does the fact that science and math are becoming increasingly advanced mean that a child today can jump right to a higher level in that discipline?
  7. 7. THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES 239Picture
  8. 8. 240 PART THREE: THE CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL EDUCATION TEMPORAL SEQUENCE LOGIC Temporal sequence is arbitrary from a logical standpoint onlyif the materials to be learned are logically independent. If they arelogically interdependent, then the order of studying them is signifi-cant. If one subject logically depends upon the conclusions of anothersubject, then clearly the former subject must follow the latter sub-ject in the course of study. THREE LEVELS OF LOGICAL STUDIES IN THE CURRICULUM OF GENERAL EDUCATION In Part Two attention was directed to the logical characteris-tics of the six realms of meaning and of certain disciplines within theserealms. These analyses provide the basis for some conclusions aboutthe logical order of studies in the curriculum of general education.There are three levels of logical sequence requiring consideration.First, the logical relations among the six realms of meaning will beexamined. Second, the relations of logic between disciplines within agiven realm will be considered. Third and finally, the logic of se-quence within a particular discipline will be discussed. LOGICAL RELATIONS AMONG THE SIX REALMS OF MEANINGSymbolics Has Priority Over All the Realms of Meaning Logically the realm of symbolics has priority over all the oth-er realms of meaning, because they all depend on symbolisms as meansof expression. One cannot express empirical meanings without discur-sive symbolisms. Understanding of the sciences beyond the qualitativedescriptive stage depends on a knowledge of the language of mathe-matics. Esthetic perception requires the use of presentational sym-bols. Personal and moral knowledge are mediated by ordinary lan-guage or by nondiscursive symbols, and history, religion, and philoso-phy have their characteristic patterns of words and symbolic acts.Specifically, there is abundant justification in the logic of meaningfor the traditional practice of concentrating upon reading, writing,speaking, and computation in the early years of school. The furtherpractice of beginning early with the nondiscursive modes of expressionis also indicated. Exclusive preoccupation with discursive symbolisms inthe first years of school may lead to a serious imbalance in expres-sive power, inhibiting esthetic, personal, historical, and religiousgrowth in favor of one-sided development of literal ways of thinking.Empirics, Esthetics, Synnoetics, Ethics Introduced The empirical and esthetic realms may be introduced as soon aslanguage becomes available. Since neither science nor art is to anylarge degree logically dependent on the other, neither is prerequisiteto the other in the curriculum. In their essential logic, personalknowledge (synnoetics) and ethics are independent of empirical and es-thetic meanings and therefore can be introduced as soon as commu-nicative means have begun to develop. However, since factual knowl-edge is an important resource in the improvement of understanding inboth personal relations and morals, the full development of thesemeanings depends upon the prior acquisition of a considerable fund of
  9. 9. THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES 241empirical knowledge. Such knowledge is necessary in making wise deci-sions, based on the consideration of alternatives and the prediction ofconsequences. As between personal relations and ethics, neither haslogical priority, the two being in reciprocal relation. Moral decisionpresupposes a free and integral self-in-relation, and becoming a per-son depends upon making moral choices. The logic of the two realmsspecifically indicates their contemporary rather than sequential de-velopment.Synoptics Disciplines Introduced The logic of the synoptic disciplines places them last in order,because they depend upon all the other realms for their materials.History requires a knowledge of symbols, empirical data, dramaticmethods, decision making, and moral judgments, to be welded togetherinto a reenactment of the past. Religion depends upon experience oflanguage, truth, beauty, being, and goodness, as elements in a visionof ultimacy. Philosophy requires a comprehensive world of meaningsto analyze, evaluate, and synthesize.Logical Order of the Realms of Meaning It is evident that the sequence of topics in Part Two reflectsthe logical order of the realms outlined above. First is symbolics,then empirics and esthetics (here with empirics and esthetics there is nopreference as to precedence), next, personal knowledge (synnoetics)and esthetics (these are reciprocally related and although distinctivein their essence, to some extent, esthetic understanding; therefore,they are subsequent to science and art in logical sequence), and fi-nally synoptics. It does not follow from the foregoing conclusions that thestudy of language and mathematics must be completed before any ofthe other studies can begin, and the synoptic disciplines cannot beginuntil work in all the other realms has been finished. Since there is nolimit to what can be learned in any realm, it is impossible to completeone kind of study before starting the next. All that logic requires isthat enough learning take place in one subject to enable work toproceed in other subjects that are logically dependent on it. RELATIONS OF LOGIC BETWEEN DISCIPLINES WITHIN A GIVEN REALM OF MEANINGThe Ideal Curriculum The usual curricular program provides for several differentkinds of studies to be pursued concurrently. This is desirable for thesake of the interrelationships of the various kinds of meaning and theintegration of meanings into the person as a whole. The ideal curricu-lum is one in which the maximum coherence is achieved, and segmenta-tion is minimized. To this end, the curriculum of general education maybe planned so as to provide concurrent study in all six of the realmsof meaning, subject to the logical condition that each topic be intro-duced only after the prerequisites to its proper understanding havebeen mastered.Logical Prerequisites In many cases logical prerequisites can be offered directly inassociation with the topics for which they are needed. For example, in-
  10. 10. 242 PART THREE: THE CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL EDUCATIONstruction in certain phases of mathematics may be given in connectionwith the study of the science topics for which these particular mathe-matical formulas are required. Similarly, in learning to think histori-cally, a student may be introduced to the prerequisite empirical, per-sonal, and moral understandings. Moreover, as pointed out in thechapters on the arts, the connection between the nondiscursive sym-bolic forms comprising the symbolism of the arts and the particularworks of art in which they are used is so intimate that it is not prac-ticable to separate instruction in art from the study of the prerequi-site symbolic forms, as can be done for ordinary language and mathe-matics, which are formally separable from their specific expressiveuses.The Optimum Curriculum for General EducationConsists in all Six Realms of Meaning Balancing the twin factors of integration and sequential logic,the optimum curriculum for general education would appear to consistof concurrent studies in all six realms of meaning, with early majoremphasis on mathematics and languages (both discursive and nondis-cursive), and later major emphasis on synoptic studies. From the veryfirst years of school, while concentrating on powers of expression,the student should acquire factual knowledge, learn to make and tounderstand things of perceptual significance, gain in understanding ofhimself and others, grow in moral sensitivity, and begin to integratehis understandings. In the later years, in high school and college, heshould concentrate on understanding the past, on achieving ultimateperspective, and on interpreting critically all phases of his experi-ence.Balance Between Subjects A balance is also desirable between subjects studied explicitlyfor themselves and those undertaken as preparation for learning inanother discipline. Some language and mathematics should be learnedas such in their own domains in order to gain insight into the distinctivequalities of symbolics as a kind of meaning. Some symbolic formsshould also be learned in connection with other types of inquiry, in or-der to make evident how symbolism functions in the various otherrealms of meaning. In the later years, while it would seem desirableto teach a good deal of science, art, personal knowledge, and ethicswithin the context of historical, religious, and philosophic studies—these being the consummatory disciplines in general education—somework should also be taken, concurrently, in the separate subjects, inaddition to the synoptics, in order to ensure thorough understanding ofthe distinctive characteristics of these other disciplines. Without suchunderstanding, the synoptic meanings themselves are likely to be con-fused and distorted.Logical Factors Must Be Considered Besides the sequence of realms it is necessary to consider thelogical factors in the sequences of disciplines within each realm.Within the realm of symbolics ordinary speech is logically prior bothto mathematics and to the nondiscursive symbolic forms, since the im-portance of mathematical symbolisms, gestures, rituals, and otherpresented forms is normally explicated by means of common discourse.
  11. 11. THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES 243Logical Hierarchy Also Exists Among the sciences, a logical hierarchy also exists. Physics isthe most fundamental science because it is concerned with certain as-pects of all things whatsoever. The biological, psychological, andsocial sciences are less fundamental in the sense that they deal withmore limited classes of things. This logic is, however, challenged bythose who regard the categories of life, or even of mind and society,as more fundamental than those of matter and energy. Regardless ofwhich discipline proves to be the most fundamental in providing the ul-timate explanatory models, each has its own relative autonomy andmay be qualified with respect to certain disciplines that make sub-stantial use of other disciplines. For example, astronomy makes muchuse of the principles of physics, and experimental psychology dependsto a considerable extent upon biology. Among the arts no clear order of precedence is discernible.However, a case can be made for the logical priority of the arts ofmovement, on the grounds that sensitivity to bodily movement is a pre-requisite to full understanding of rhythms in music and drama and oftensions and balances in the visual arts. For the most part it appearsthat each art may be developed largely independently of the others. The three synoptic disciplines are by and large logically inde-pendent. If any one were to be assigned priority in sequence, historyshould be chosen, for both religious and philosophical understandingmake use of knowledge of the past. Of the synoptic studies, historyshould have temporal priority. LOGIC OF SEQUENCE WITHIN APARTICULAR DISCIPLINE IN A GIVEN REALM OF MEANINGThe Order of Learning Within Particular Disciplines The last and most important aspect of logical sequence con-cerns the order of learning within particular disciplines. From thestandpoint of logic, in what order should the various topics and phas-es of a given field of study be presented? Which topics and phases areprerequisite to which others? Such questions can be effectively an-swered only by reference to the logical structure of each discipline.If a subject of study is regarded simply as a collection of isolateditems, there is no reason to prefer one arrangement over any other.On the other hand, if the subject is seen as an orderly pattern of in-terconnected items, then the sequence of study becomes of great im-portance. For this reason, in making decisions about logical order theteacher needs to be familiar with the patterns of meaning in his fieldof instruction. As long as the
  12. 12. 244 PART THREE: THE CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL EDUCATION material being presented to the student is presented at the appropriate level of the child’s development, many disciplines may be taught at one time. If the comprehension level of the child is considered, is there a limit to the number of subjects a child can learn at one time?
  13. 13. THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES 245Picture
  14. 14. 246 PART THREE: THE CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL EDUCATIONThe Problem of Deciding Sequence on theBasis of Structure is not Easy to Solve In practice, the problem of deciding sequence on the basis ofstructure is not easy to solve, for at least three reasons. First,there is no single logical pattern that must be used for any givenfield of inquiry. Any number of different (though not ordinarily incon-sistent) conceptual schemes may be devised for the interpretation of adiscipline. The continuing discussion concerning fundamental conceptsand methods, by practitioners of every field of study, is evidence ofthe plurality of possible structures. Second, logical structure only provides a set of relationshipsamong the various components of a discipline. It does not in itself dic-tate order in time. For example, in language one may designatephonemes and morphemes as basic structural elements, of which wordsand sentences are composed. It does not follow that a student mustfirst learn phonemes, then morphemes, and then rules of morphologyand syntax. Normally it is better to begin with sentences and proceedto analyze them into their constituent elements. This distinction between logical and temporal priority requiresspecial emphasis. From the fact that a concept is an elemental or ba-sic idea in a discipline, it does not follow that that concept shouldnecessarily be taught first in time, as an explicit topic. Even thoughmeasurement is a ruling concept in natural science, it is probably notwise to begin the study of science with a deliberate study of the ideaand meaning of measurement. Similarly, although the idea of ultimacyis fundamental to religion, it would not be desirable to begin a studyof religion with an explicit study of that idea. The third reason is an elaboration and specification of thefirst two. A distinction should be made between two types of logicalpatterns. One type is an order of discovery, the other an order ofanalysis. The order of discovery refers to creation and synthesis. Theorder of analysis refers to dissection and critical evaluation. Bothreflect the structure of the discipline, and each is consistent with theother. They differ in their respective points of departure and theirtemporal progressions. The order of discovery moves from the un-known to the known; the order of analysis moves from knowledge to-ward a more critical perspective on the known. For example, many de-scriptions of the structure of science are derived from an analysis ofthe results of scientific inquiry. These descriptions do not disclose muchabout the ways in which the results were discovered. Similarly, theart critic may analyze the structure of a work of art without re-vealing the way in which the artist created his work.Discovery is Aided by Analysis The clue to curricular sequence consists in combining the twotypes of order in such a way that discovery is aided by analysis. Thestudent, who is in the position of the discoverer, needs the help of theteacher. From his more advanced analytical perspective, the teachercan direct the student’s inquiry into the most profitable channels.Thus, the order of instruction within a given field of study is given bya judicious alliance of the logics of creation and analysis.Progression From Elementary to Advanced Levels
  15. 15. THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES 247Another way of stating the problem of sequence within a subject is interms of the progression from elementary to advanced levels. It is atruism, if not a tautology, to say that instruction should begin withthe elementary and proceed to the advanced levels.1 The question forany discipline is: What are the elements, and how are the advancedstages built up from the elementary ones? No general answer to thisquestion can be given. For any subject of study the answer dependsupon the possibility of organizing the field into some consistent hierar-chical pattern. If no such hierarchy can be found, because the variousitems to be learned are unrelated to each other, then no progressionin learning is possible, and no distinction between elementary and ad-vanced levels can be made. Any subject for which the distinction ispossible is one in which the components are organizable into certainorders of mutual interdependence. The progression from elementary to advanced levels is notmerely a passage from the simple to the complex or from the particu-lar to the general. It is, rather, a cyclic process of successive differ-entiations and integrations, the nature of which differs from disciplineto discipline. Naïve experience is largely undifferentiated, and learn-ing consists in making discriminations by means of conceptual abstrac-tions. These abstractions afford a great simplification of experience,enabling an inchoate mass of impressions to be organized into a systemof manageable categories. In one sense, the most advanced phases ofa subject are the simplest, because they make use of the most power-ful organizing concepts. In another sense, the advanced levels are themost complex, in that a greater range and variety of apparently dis-parate factors are integrated by these concepts.Advanced Levels in the Realms of Meaning In the languages the advanced stage consists in skill with syn-tactical rules (Symbolics). In the sciences the aim is understanding ofgeneralizations and theoretical models (Empirics). In the arts the ob-jectives are significant particular esthetic constructions (Esthetics).In personal relations the goal is concrete existential understandingof self and others (Synnoetics). In ethics it is knowledge of the goodand practice of the right (Ethics). In synoptics the aim is comprehen-siveness of vision (Synoptics). In each of these realms the end in viewinfluences the nature of the rhythmic process of differentiation andintegration by which the movement is made from elementary to ad-vance stages of understanding.A Picture Puzzle Analogy As noted earlier, there are many possible logical sequences forinstruction in any given discipline. A picture puzzle can be put togeth-er starting with any piece. Once that piece is in position, the logic ofthe puzzle begins to unfold, as each added piece gives hints aboutneighboring pieces that must be integrated into the total pattern.While each of the many possible sequences is consistent with thestructure of the puzzle as a whole, there is no single preferred orderof development.1 It is true, if at first glance paradoxical, that instruction at all levels, fromelementary to advanced, should be elemental. This is the theme elaborated inChapter 26 below.
  16. 16. 248 PART THREE: THE CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL EDUCATION The pictu re puzzl analogy app lies only to som e kinds o f sub- ej cts , particu larly those fie ld s, such as the sciences, which are d is- ecu rsive and add itive ly cum ulative in characte r, being built up by thecontinuity o r ju x taposition o f separate units. It is not satis facto ry toth ink in th is way about p rogress in the arts , in pe rsonal knowl edge,o r in the synoptic d isciplines. In such s tud ies the analogy o f the deve l-oping organism with its cycle s o f d iffe re ntiation and inte gration isp re fe rab le .Two Principles Always Hold True in theSequential Organization of a Discipline Whatever analogy is used to describe the sequential organiza-tion of a discipline, two principles always hold. The first is the previ-ously discussed principle of multiple possible orders. The second is theprinciple that the best routes are those that lead most directly to thegoals of the discipline. It follows that the pattern of the wholeshould always govern the choice of progression. In the picture puzzleanalogy the directness of solution is greatly enhanced by imagininghow the completed picture will appear. Similarly, in the organicanalogy each cycle of differentiation and integration takes place un-der the direction of the genetic pattern, in which the plan of thewhole developed organism is contained. Accordingly, a logical se-quence of study in a discipline is any succession of experiences that areconsistent with the internal patterns of meaning in that discipline andthat are conceived in relation to the goals of the discipline as awhole.
  17. 17. THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES 249 FIELDS OF STUDY EASILY BECOME STANDARDIZED AND FALL BEHIND SIGNIFICANT DEVELOPMENTS IN KNOWLEDGE AND METHOD In speaking of the goals o f the d isciplines, a note o f cau tion is ino rde r. Fie l of s tud y e asily becom e s tand ard ized and thus fall behind dssignificant deve l ents in knowl opm edge and m ethod. The rad ical re vi-sions in the m athem atics and physical science cu rricu la re com m ended(am ong o the rs) by the in flue ntial S chool Mathem atics S tud y G roupand by the Physical S cience S tud y C om m ittee in the 1 950s we re neces-sary to b re ak the ou tm oded patte rns th at had becom e trad itional inthose sub j cts. Im portan t re visions have like wise been p lanned fo r eo the r d isciplines. That the e arlie r cu rricu lar re visions th at had oc-cu rred in the 1 920s p roved insufficient fo r the 1 950s suggests th atcu rre n t fo rm u lations shoul not be expected to s tand fo re ve r. D isci- dp lines unde rgo m odification, and corre sponding changes are app rop ri-ate in the patte rns of ins truction based on those d iscip lines. This iswhy the s tud y of pedagogy needs to be carried on in continuous re la-tion to the work of the scholarly com m unity and why school of edu- scation shoul be close ly linked with the arts and sciences d ivisions in dthe unive rsity. CONTROLLED SEQUENCES UNDERLIES THE DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN EDUCATION Provision for carefully controlled sequences underlies the de-velopment of programmed instruction, which is a growing feature ofmodern educational practice primarily delivered through the use oftechnology. Attention has chiefly been focused on the psychologicalaspects of such instruction, supported by the doctrine of reinforce-ment in learning theory. Perhaps even more important is the impetusprovided by the programming movement to the careful examination ofthe logical patterns of the subjects of instruction. A good programfrom a logical standpoint is one in which the sequence of items is in ac-cordance with the inherent logic of the subject and is designed so as tobring the learner in the minimum number of steps to the kinds of mean-ing that characterize the discipline in its mature expressions. EVERY DISCIPLINE HAS DISTINCTIVE PATTERNS OF MEANING THAT MUST BE RESPECTED IN CONSTRUCTING AN EFFECTIVE ORDER OF INSTRUCTIONS Programmed instruction is simply the regularization (and, insome of its phases, the mechanization) of what has always charac-terized effective teaching, namely, the organization of learning expe-riences in accordance with the logical nature of what is to belearned. Every discipline has its distinctive patterns of meaning thatmust be respected in constructing an effective order of instruction.While the logic of meanings is not the only clue to sequence, it is byall odds the most important one. WAYS OF KNOWING1. Why is there no law of sequence that prescribes exactly the succession of learning events?
  18. 18. 250 PART THREE: THE CURRICULUM FOR GENERAL EDUCATION2. What are two kinds o f sequence facto rs th at m ustbe conside red in le arning?3. What are th re e le ve ls of logical s tud ies in the cu rricu lum o f gene ral education?4. Why does the re al o f sym bolics have p rio rity ove r all the m o the r re al s? m5. What is the p rob l of exclusive p reoccupation with d iscursive em sym bolism s in the firs t ye ars o f schooling?6. Why is neithe r science nor art, to any large degree, dependent on the o the r?7. Why can pe rsonal knowl edge and e thics be introd uced as soon as com m unicative m eans have begun to deve l op?8. Why is it true th at in pe rsonal re lations and e thics, neithe r has logical p rio rity?9. Why does the logic o f the synoptic d iscip lines p lace them in the las t logical orde r?1 0. Why is the re no lim it to what can be le arned in any o f the re al s of m eaning? m11. Why shoul an ideal cu rricu lum be one in which the m axim um co- d he rence is achie ved, and segm entation is m inim ized?12. How can logical p re requisites be o ffe red d irectly in association with the topics fo r which the y are needed?1 3. Why shoul the op tim um cu rricu lum fo r gene ral education con- d sis t of concurre nt s tud ies in all six re al s of m eaning? m14. Why is a balance desirab le be tween sub j cts s tud ied explicitly e fo r them se lves and those unde rtaken as p reparation fo r le arn - ing in anothe r d iscip line?15. Why is it im portan t to conside r the logical facto rs in the se- quences of d iscip lines within e ach re al o f m eaning? m16. F rom the s tandpoint o f logic, in what orde r shoul the various d topics and phases of a given fie ld of s tud y be p resented?1 7. F rom the s tandpoint o f logic, which topics are p re requisite to which o the rs in a given fie ld o f s tud y?1 8. Why is it im portan t fo r the te ache r to be fam iliar with the patte rns o f m eaning in his fie ld o f ins truction when m aking deci- sions about logical orde r?19. What are th re e re asons why the p rob lem o f deciding sequence on the basis o f s tructu re is not e asy to solve ?20. Why shoul cu rricu lar sequence consist in com bining the o rde r d o f d iscove ry and the o rde r of analys is?21 . Why m ust the te ache r unde rs tand the orde r of ins truction with- in a given fie ld o f s tud y?22. Why m ust a te ache r give special atte n tion to the o rde r o f in- s truction by a jud icious alliance of the logics o f cre ation and analys is?23. S houl ins truction begin with the e l entary and p roceed to the d em ad vanced le ve ls?24. What are the e l ents of any d iscip line and how are the ad- em vanced s tages built up from the e l entary ones? em25. Why is it im portan t to o rganize a fie ld of s tud y into som e con- sis tent hie rarchical patte rn?26. Is the p rogression from e l entary to ad vanced le ve ls always em a passage from the sim pl to the com pl e ex?27. How is it the m ost ad vanced phases o f a sub j ct are the sim- e p les t?
  19. 19. THE LOGIC OF SEQUENCE IN STUDIES 25128. How is it the ad vanced le ve ls are the m ostcom pl ex?29. What two p rincip l always hol true in describing the sequen- es d tial organization of a d iscip line?30. When fie ld s of s tud y becom e s tand ard ized, how do the y fall be- hind significant deve l entsin knowl opm edge and m ethod?31 . Why is it wise to unde rs tand th at cu rricu lar re visions th at have occurred m ay p rove insufficient fo r the fu tu re ?32. Why is it im portan t to unde rs tand th at cu rre nt cu rricu lar fo r- m ulations shoul not be expected to s tand fo re ve r? d33. Why shoul the s tud y o f pedagogy be carried on in continuous d re lation to the work o f the scholarly com m unity?34. S houl school of education be close ly linked with the arts and d s sciences d ivisions in the unive rsity?35. What is the configu ration of a good p rogram o f ins truction from a logical s tandpoint?36. Why is it im portan t fo r the te ache r to b ring the le arne r to the kinds o f m eaning th at characte rize the d iscipline in its m atu re expressions in a m inim um num bero f s teps?37. Why is it im portan t to o rganize le arning expe riences in accor- d ance with the logical natu re o f what is to be le arned?38. Why is it im portan t to rem em ber th at e ve ry d iscip line has its d istinctive patte rns of m eaning th at m ust be re spected in con- s tructing an e ffe ctive orde r of ins truction?39. Why is the logic of m eanings so ve ry im portan t?

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