ENGAGEMENT LEVELS OFHISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY LEADERS   IN ENTREPRENEURIALISM THROUGH FUNDRAISING         ...
ABSTRACT      Public Historically Black College and University leaders are beingincreasingly called upon to develop an ent...
institutions. This study also examined the extent to which leadersvalued and carried out entrepreneurial activities, the f...
DEDICATION      Words cannot express the debt of gratitude I owe you, Canaan L.Harris, MD, for your continued encouragemen...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS       My ever-evolving relationship with God has made this journeypossible. To Him, I am eternally gratef...
I could not have asked for better parental support than I receivedfrom my parents, June and Jerry Dillingham. During the t...
From childhood until now, I have always been able to depend onyou, Chandra Robertson-Bailey. You and Aunt Charlene (Rubit)...
Willie Trotty and George Wright, I am grateful for the confidenceyou placed in me to lead the best development office amon...
much for having that confidence in me. I always wanted to be a “doctor”because of you.      Lastly, but most importantly, ...
TABLE OF CONTENTSABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………...iiiDEDICATION.......................................................
West Virginia.............................................................................167       U.S. Virgin Islands......
Research Questions.....................................................................47    Research Question 1.............
RECOMMENDATIONS ………………………………………..85          Summary.........................................................................
LIST OF FIGURESFigure 2.1 – Title III: Aid for Institutional Development........................23Figure 4.1 – Participant...
CHAPTER I                             INTRODUCTION                        Background of the Problem      College and unive...
HBCUs decreases, and as the economy worsens, competition for fundingsources increases” (Reaves, 2006). For this reason, a ...
Predominantly White institutions have alumni giving rates thatrange between 20-60 percent, whereas, Black college alumni g...
programmatic and capacity building support to its member institutions.Building upon this infrastructural support will help...
1. What connection exists between the Historically Black College and      University leaders’ entrepreneurial orientation ...
nontraditional methods of teaching to gain tuition, a traditional source ofincome.      For this study, the researcher emp...
3. Each administrator surveyed will not breech the confidentiality   relating to specific donors and/or fundraising practi...
Definition of TermsChief Development Officer – the person responsible for the advancementefforts within a defined area; th...
established prior to 1964, whose principal mission was, and is, theeducation of Black Americans, and that is accredited by...
employ a rational approach to developing and implementing acomprehensive fundraising program. Actually executing funddevel...
strategy and how they focus on advancement activities and tactics makesa difference in the amount of private money the ins...
CHAPTER II                     REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE                                 Overview      This chapter present...
administrators to capture the spirit of entrepreneurialism in order to besuccessful in their fundraising efforts.History o...
establish colleges for industrial education. The Morrill Acts of 1862 and1890 granted federally controlled land to the sta...
University, Tuskegee University, University of Arkansas Pine Bluff,Florida A & M University, Fort Valley State University,...
“He lifted the veil of ignorance from his people and pointed the way toprogress through education and industry” (History o...
Presbyterian Church in the USA – were religious organizations (Cohen,2006). While the aforementioned societies were made u...
“The interminable retrenchment of state and federal support has forcedcolleges and universities to become increasingly rel...
among Black Americans. The church is characterized as a powerfulhistorical and contemporary influence regarding African-Am...
preachers convey the needs of the church and consistently encourageparishioners to support the work of the church. “It is ...
to produce a capable but submissive workforce. Today, HBCU graduateshold significant status as stated by Holloman, Gasman ...
institutions with limited resources have ensured severe financialconstraints on America’s HBCUs” (Nealy, 2008). In early 2...
Title III: Aid for Institutional Development (B.A. in Millions)                                                           ...
significantly in obtaining philanthropic support. There is an obviousneed for HBCUs to modify their current fundraising pr...
corporations into the business of higher education (Cook, 1997).Institutions are being called upon by parents and students...
and persuasive (Riggs, 2005). Other researchers have describedentrepreneurs as individuals who recognize and seize opportu...
Howard University trustees and officers, lead the institution’s record-breaking fundraising campaign that yielded $275 mil...
increased from 4% to as high as 20% during the campaign (Masterson,2008).      Waddell (1992) confirms that “empirical res...
CHAPTER III                                 METHOD                                 Overview      The framework for conduct...
relationships with donors due to their temporary assignment or minimaltime in office were not included. One interim admini...
5. What is the perception of the entrepreneurial orientation of the          administrator’s role by the administrator?   ...
The qualitative method used for this research was open-endedquestions. Open-ended questions were used to capture responses...
entrepreneurial orientation of HBCU fundraisers that will allow others togain knowledge and understanding for university a...
Membership to CASE and AFP is strictly voluntary. It is not thepractice of either of these organizations to identify best ...
was that the questionnaire was distributed electronically and copies weremade available to participants at a regularly sch...
1. Identified HBCU leaders to participate in the study.2. Once identified, participants were sent the participant letter  ...
Clark (1998) asserts that entrepreneurial activities help togenerate non-traditional revenues (p. 25). For purposes ofthis...
b. In asking what general differences HBCU leaders   perceive between their role as a leader and the role of   traditional...
administrator. (Research Question 5; Interview                   Questions 8 & 9)      To avoid high attrition rates, foll...
their institution. Being able to ensure validity, reliability, andgeneralizations enhances qualitative research.      Conf...
Research ProceduresThe procedures for implementing this study were as follows:   1. The researcher applied and received pe...
5. Made questionnaires available through electronic mail, U.S.            mail, and through conferences hosted by the TMCF...
Each participant was asked the same set of questions in Survey Monkey.The data collected in Survey Monkey was analyzed thr...
The researcher carefully read through each response and identifieda list of the main themes in the data. Insight into the ...
opportunistic tactics used to get the job done, risk-taking approach torealize fundraising goals, competitive nature, visi...
considerate of volunteer bias. Volunteer bias is more likely to happenbecause participants who voluntarily participate are...
CHAPTER IV                           ANALYSIS OF DATA                               Introduction      Presented in this ch...
2. To what extent do Historically Black College and University            leaders value and carry out entrepreneurial acti...
Research Question 2      Research question two queried the extent to which HBCU leadersvalue and implement entrepreneurial...
asked how philanthropy impacts institutional initiatives. In order tohave successful fundraising programs, leaders must be...
View A&M University approved the study for a minimum of five schoolsto be selected.      Numerous attempts were made by th...
In order to maintain confidentiality and protect anonymity, eachinstitution was given a pseudonym and categorized by enrol...
Table 4.1Respondent IdentificationRespondent      Pseudonym          Tier        Agreed to     Completed                  ...
States is home to 9,100 students. Also in the south central part of thecountry is Flagship University C with an enrollment...
representing Tier 1 Institution), has a Master of Education degree andhas been employed at Flagship University A for three...
academic program director and tenured faculty member at variousinstitutions, R9-T1I has led the university for six years. ...
Flagship University E      Flagship University E is in the United States’ Deep South. Thepresident, who responded to the q...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M Unive...
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Monica G. Williams, PhD Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M University System

  1. 1. ENGAGEMENT LEVELS OFHISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY LEADERS IN ENTREPRENEURIALISM THROUGH FUNDRAISING A Dissertation by Monica Georgette Williams Submitted to the Graduate School Prairie View A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Philosophy August 2009 Major Subject: Educational Leadership
  2. 2. ABSTRACT Public Historically Black College and University leaders are beingincreasingly called upon to develop an entrepreneurial spirit thatencourages fundraising from the private sector. Fundraising at HBCUsis no longer the sole responsibility of development officers. Theoverwhelming truth is that donors want relationships with a variety ofinstitutional leaders and the direct beneficiaries of their gifts. So often,donors need to feel connected to a cause and the gift benefactor. Thisconnection presupposes direct involvement by university leaders in thecultivation activities for donors. Unfortunately, many HBCU leaders failto engage in the donor cultivation and stewardship process that creates acontinuum of giving by philanthropists. This researcher believes that thelack of money raised at public HBCUs could be attributed to a leaders’unwillingness to exercise entrepreneurial behavior. In an attempt to define and understand the entrepreneurialuniversity and its leader, the researcher applied Clark’s (1998)theoretical framework. Clark (1998) asserts that entrepreneurialactivities encompass third-stream income sources that generateinnovative, non-traditional revenues and stimulate engagement inactivities that produce and enhance traditional income streams. To address this problem, the researcher conducted a study thatquestioned whether there is a relationship between HBCU leaders’entrepreneurial orientation and the financial stability of their
  3. 3. institutions. This study also examined the extent to which leadersvalued and carried out entrepreneurial activities, the factors associatedwith the best practices in fundraising, the degree to which theinstitutions’ development practices influence entrepreneurial activities inboth the president’s and advancement offices. Finally, the researcherexplored the institutional leaders’ perception of their entrepreneurialabilities. This study utilized results from a questionnaire surveyingpresidents and fund development officers employed at five of theThurgood Marshall College Fund’s 47 member schools to examine howentrepreneurial orientation among public HBCU presidents impactsrevenue generation or gifting at their respective institutions.
  4. 4. DEDICATION Words cannot express the debt of gratitude I owe you, Canaan L.Harris, MD, for your continued encouragement and support during myeducational journey. I thank you for saving me from myself. I dedicatemy career and this manuscript to you.
  5. 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS My ever-evolving relationship with God has made this journeypossible. To Him, I am eternally grateful. The new mercies He grants meeach day have guided this project. It is only appropriate that I give allglory and honor to Him for giving me the wisdom and intelligence toproduce this body of literature. Brittaney Cooks, you are my greatest inspiration. Knowing howproud you are of me has motivated me in more ways than you know. Iam proud to have you as my daughter, and I look forward to the daywhen you, too, embrace all the rewards higher education has in store foryou. No matter what, Theodore Bruce Lawrence, I believe you are myfriend and my gift from God. I am thankful that I have you to challengethe ethical dimensions of my life. Your firm demeanor and interest in myconstant growth and development is what I value most. I only hope I canlive up to your belief that I will follow in the footsteps of the great MaryMcLeod Bethune. Thank you, Daryl Michelle, for sharing your daddywith me and Brittaney. Georgiana A. Thomas, “Mama”, when God made you mygrandmother, He gave me the greatest gift one could ever imagine. Youare my favorite girl! Your love and support keeps me going.
  6. 6. I could not have asked for better parental support than I receivedfrom my parents, June and Jerry Dillingham. During the times that Ithought I couldn’t keep going and wanted to give up, you showed up justin time to help me sort things out. Having you as my younger siblings, Jordan Williams and CherRiles, has helped me realize the importance of setting a good example.You and your spouses, Tavonye and Kevin, have encouraged meconstantly as I have sought to achieve this milestone. I hope that yourchildren, Joshua, Madison, and Joel will one day take advantage of allthe opportunities that education has to offer. To my aunt, Fleur Lyman, I sincerely appreciate your wisdom andobjectivity. I love you and Russell and only wish Gerrard was here tocelebrate this accomplishment with us. Living in Dallas, Texas, taught me survival skills. Gladys Williams,“Grandma”, thank you for your love and support. Jordan Williams, Sr.,Daddy, I inherited your love for education. Sister-friends have been with me in every aspect of my life.Theresa Moor, you have always wanted better for me than I did formyself. I am overwhelmed by our 30 years of amity and blessed that youunselfishly shared Aunt Barbara (Thompson) with me. Having theMoor’s (Jules, Jillyan and Jules) as my second family has been inspiring.
  7. 7. From childhood until now, I have always been able to depend onyou, Chandra Robertson-Bailey. You and Aunt Charlene (Rubit) haveconsistently been in my corner. I would be remiss if I did not mention my gratitude for thehospitality extended to me by Nelson and Michelle Bowman over the lastfew years. Your constant encouragement has meant more to me thanyou’ll ever know. Thanks for always keeping the light on! Patsy and Willie Drewrey, I can always depend on you to give it tome straight! You are great friends. xoxoxoxo Thank you to my “Sissy”, Sherilynn Scott, for always being therewhen I need you. God didn’t make us blood-sisters, but Shanda Patterson, you aremy sistah. I cannot tell you the many times you have lifted me up whenall I wanted to do was fall flat on my face. Two words come to mindwhen I think of you—guardian angel! Jessica Bell and Dominique Sanders, I am so thankful for thecamaraderie we have reciprocated over the years. All of my friends at the Sportsman Country Club, you haveencouraged me when I needed it the most. Love you Kim and Sherry! Charlene Evans and James Ward, you have been the mentors whohave guided me personally and professionally. I appreciate your insightand guidance throughout the years.
  8. 8. Willie Trotty and George Wright, I am grateful for the confidenceyou placed in me to lead the best development office among all HBCUs.The opportunity you granted me stimulated my interest in conductingthe research for this body of knowledge. Larry V. Green, Esq., I appreciate your confidence in me. Yourfriendship means the world! Extend the View Cabinet Members June & Marvin Brailsford, OpalJohnson Smith, Nathelyne A. Kennedy, and Roy G. Perry, you made thiswork important by giving me the confidence that HBCU alumni do valuetheir institutions. Thanks for your wisdom, Patty Lonsbary! Nina Wilson Jones, you have been my spiritual sister and teacherof many things. Because of your constant pouring into me, I believe thatI can do all things through Christ who strengthens me. Pastors Mia & Remus Wright, your spiritual guidance has been mysource of strength many times during this process. Even though youlead an enormous flock, you have always made me feel like I was the onlymember at The Fountain of Praise. Your continued words ofencouragement and prayers will never be forgotten. Naomi Lede, it all started with you. You gave me my name which Ilater came to learn means “wise counselor”. Somehow, you always knewI would do great things…especially in education. Thank you so very
  9. 9. much for having that confidence in me. I always wanted to be a “doctor”because of you. Lastly, but most importantly, I would like to thank my committeemembers for pushing me to make this study worthwhile. To Dr. WilliamA. Kritsonis, you are a God-send; Dr. David Herrington, I hope you arepleased; Dr. Michael McFrazier, I never would have made it without yourencouragement; and Dr. Ronald Howard, I appreciate getting to knowyou. Dr. Lisa Hobson-Horton, I appreciate you serving on my committeeand for providing professional assistance. Dr. Tyrone Tanner, you didn’tserve on my committee, but you were always there when I needed you.
  10. 10. TABLE OF CONTENTSABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………...iiiDEDICATION...................................................................................................................vACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.........................................................................viABSTRACT...........................................................................................viiiTABLE OF CONTENTS...........................................................................xiLIST OF FIGURES................................................................................xivLIST OF TABLES..................................................................................xiv IRB APPROVAL LETTER ...........................................................116 QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE FORM ........................................118 1. HBCU Leader Participant Letter of Consent Form.................119 2. Default Section......................................................................120 LIST OF HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES ..................................................................................................161 United States & Virgin Islands...................................................162 Historically Black Colleges and Universities...............................162 Alabama....................................................................................162 Arkansas...................................................................................162 Delaware...................................................................................162 District of Columbia...................................................................162 Florida.......................................................................................163 Georgia......................................................................................163 Kentucky...................................................................................163 Louisiana...................................................................................163 Maryland...................................................................................164 Michigan....................................................................................164 Mississippi.................................................................................164 Missouri....................................................................................164 North Carolina...........................................................................164 Ohio..........................................................................................165 Oklahoma..................................................................................165 Pennsylvania.............................................................................165 South Carolina..........................................................................165 Tennessee..................................................................................166 Texas.........................................................................................166 Virginia......................................................................................166
  11. 11. West Virginia.............................................................................167 U.S. Virgin Islands.....................................................................167 EXPERIENCE SUMMARY...........................................................169 PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE..................................................169 OTHER EXPERIENCE AND EXPERTISE....................................174 PROFESSIONAL CREDENTIALS ...............................................174 PUBLICATIONS..........................................................................175 EDUCATION..............................................................................175Grade Point Average: 4.0 / 4.0........................................................................................176CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE...............................................12 Overview......................................................................................12 History of Educational Fundraising.............................................13 History of African-American Philanthropy....................................18 Entrepreneurialism in Higher Education.....................................21CHAPTER III. METHOD........................................................................................29 Overview......................................................................................29 Research Questions ………………………………………………………..30 Research Design..........................................................................31 Population and Sample................................................................34 Instrumentation..........................................................................34 Research Procedures...................................................................41 Data Collection............................................................................42 Data Analysis..............................................................................42 Limitations of the Study..............................................................45CHAPTER IV. ANALYSIS OF DATA..................................................................47 Introduction................................................................................47
  12. 12. Research Questions.....................................................................47 Research Question 1....................................................................48 Research Question 2....................................................................49 Research Question 3....................................................................49 Research Question 4....................................................................49 Research Question 5....................................................................50 Respondent Information..............................................................50 Description of Institutions...........................................................53 Tier 1 Institutions...................................................................53 Tier 2 Institutions...................................................................54 Flagship Universities..............................................................54 Superior Universities..............................................................58 Entrepreneurial Operations.........................................................60 University Leader vs. Business Executive...............................62 Advancement Experience/Professional Development..............66 Who’s to Blame?.....................................................................69 Entrepreneurial Activities............................................................71 Unfunded Priorities................................................................72 Donor Cultivation and Solicitation..........................................77 Impact of Philanthropy...........................................................80 The Bottom Line.....................................................................83CHAPTER V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND
  13. 13. RECOMMENDATIONS ………………………………………..85 Summary.....................................................................................85REFERENCES...............................................................................................................88APPENDICES........................................................................................96 Appendix A: Informed Consent...................................................97 Appendix B: Interview Questions................................................99 Appendix C: IRB Approval Form...............................................102 Appendix D: Questionnaire Response Form..............................104 Appendix E: Participant Responses...........................................110 Appendix F: Historically Black Colleges & Universities..............148CURRICULUM VITAE..........................................................................155
  14. 14. LIST OF FIGURESFigure 2.1 – Title III: Aid for Institutional Development........................23Figure 4.1 – Participant Entrepreneurial Characteristics.............................61Figure 4.2 – The Fundraising Cycle.......................................................................78 LIST OF TABLESTable 3.1 – Research Questions Paired with Interview Questions..........43Table 4.1 – Respondent Identification..................................................................53Table 4.2 – Respondent Identification Numbers …..……………………….. 62Table 4.3 – Differences Between University Leaders and BusinessExecutives.............................................................................................63Table 4.4 – Responsible Parties for Fundraising................................... 70Table 4.5 – Current Fundraising Strategies...........................................75Table 4.6 – Future Fundraising Strategies ............................................76Table 4.7 – Impact of Fund Development …………………………………….82Table 4.8 – Funds Raised in Three Year Period .....................................83
  15. 15. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Background of the Problem College and university presidents are consistently challenged withdeveloping new resources to support unfunded priorities at theirinstitutions. Faced with competing against historic non-profit agenciesand entities, these educational chief executive officers have the challengeof taking a more entrepreneurial approach toward the financing of theirschools. A review of the literature suggests that entrepreneurialleadership will help these leaders demonstrate more innovative andexpansive efforts. Research indicates that corporate, foundation, and privatephilanthropy at majority institutions substantially surpasses giftingtrends at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).Disparities in philanthropy between these two institutional types can beseen as high as 50%. Consequently, the need for external funds has puttremendous pressure on HBCU presidents so much so that 25% of thesepresidents left their jobs during the period 2000-2002 (New YorkAmsterdam News, 2002). The curtailments of federal funds, changingdemographics, and the entrance of private corporations into the businessof higher education have significantly affected the financial state ofhigher education institutions (Riggs, 2005). “As government support of
  16. 16. HBCUs decreases, and as the economy worsens, competition for fundingsources increases” (Reaves, 2006). For this reason, a study addressingthe engagement of HBCU presidents in entrepreneurialism throughfundraising was deemed necessary. Increasing fundraising initiatives at HBCUs means placing moreemphasis on cultivating alumni and educating them about theimportance of philanthropy. Without private support, these minorityflagship institutions are likely to fail, and it is the president’s job toeducate and engage the donor community. Engaging donors with thecapacity to make a significant financial or in-kind contribution wouldultimately translate into healthier endowments and impact the quality ofeducation provided at HBCUs. Statement of the Problem Tindall (2007) states that “fund raising has become vital to allHBCUs because those additional funds allow colleges and universities topromote and continue research programs, supplement budgetary weakspots, enhance campus infrastructure, upgrade the physical plant, andattract and retain prospective faculty” (p. 1). Tindall (2007) also notesthat the fund-raising efforts of both private and public HBCUs lingersignificantly behind the established fundraising programs at traditionallyWhite institutions.
  17. 17. Predominantly White institutions have alumni giving rates thatrange between 20-60 percent, whereas, Black college alumni giving ratestypically fall below ten percent (Holloman, Gasman & Anderson-Thompkins, 2003; Williams & Kritsonis, 2006). “At a time whenendowments are decreasing due to economic forces and public support ofinstitutions of higher education” is at an all-time low, “it is a matter ofsurvival that Black colleges increase their giving rates” (Holloman,Gasman & Anderson-Thompkins, 2003, p. 159). Unlike private HBCUs,public institutions are supported by state government entities. It is withthis fact in mind that seeking private philanthropy has not been apopular practice among public HBCUs. Contrarily, Cohen (2006) arguesthat “Although HBCUs alumni giving have been under attack for beingnegligent, African Americans on the contrary have maintained a rich anddiverse tradition of giving and philanthropic support in the UnitedStates” (p. 31). There are 105 HBCUs across the nation, yet few scholars havedevoted time and effort to understanding the complexities and challengesassociated with fundraising at these institutions. By and large, schoolsare supported either by the United Negro College Fund (39 private HBCUmembers) or the Thurgood Marshall College Fund (47 member publicschools and 6 law schools). The Thurgood Marshall College Fund (TMCF)is the only national organization to provide merit scholarships,
  18. 18. programmatic and capacity building support to its member institutions.Building upon this infrastructural support will help to prepare a newgeneration of leaders throughout the HBCU community and the world.Development professionals at these specialized institutions face agrowing dilemma – how to strengthen university resources in a climatethat has historically relied almost wholly on public funding (Williams &Kritsonis, 2006). Public HBCUs will eventually be forced to identifyprivate resources to survive and thrive. The higher education landscapeis changing rapidly, and both private and public institutions aresearching for new revenues – requiring more entrepreneurial ways(Bowen & Shapiro, 1998). Purpose of the Study Historically Black College and University leaders are increasinglybeing called upon to develop an entrepreneurial spirit that encouragesfundraising from the private sector. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to determine the entrepreneurial orientation of public HBCUadministrators (Corrigan 2002) and 2) to determine how thoseorientations are perceived to be related to the revenue-generatingactivities of their institutions and the institutions’ financial stability(Tierney 1988). Research QuestionsThe following qualitative research questions guided the study:
  19. 19. 1. What connection exists between the Historically Black College and University leaders’ entrepreneurial orientation and the financial stability of their institution? 2. To what extent do Historically Black College and University leaders value and carry out entrepreneurial activities? 3. At Historically Black Colleges and Universities, what factors are associated with best practices in fundraising? 4. How do the institutions’ development practices influence entrepreneurial activities for the purpose of advancing the institution? 5. What is the perception of the entrepreneurial orientation of the administrator’s role by the administrator? Theoretical Framework This study used Clark’s (1998) theoretical framework as a basis fordefining and understanding the entrepreneurial university. According toClark (1998), entrepreneurial activities comprise third-stream incomesources that include 1) innovative and profit-based, self-supportingoperations that go beyond traditional sources, such as businessdevelopment activities and innovative retail sales operations, 2) activitiesthat develop and enhance traditional income streams such asendowment and tuition, and 3) activities that involve both traditional andnontraditional aspects, such as distance learning, which uses
  20. 20. nontraditional methods of teaching to gain tuition, a traditional source ofincome. For this study, the researcher employed Clark’s (1998) theory tostudy the relationships between HBCU fundraising administrators atinstitutions within the Thurgood Marshall College Fund’s 47 memberschools. While there are 47 member schools and six law schools in thiscohort, 17 institutions and all law schools were not included in thisstudy for reasons explained in Chapter III. Specifically, this investigationwill serve a two-fold purpose: 1) the identification of innovative andprofit-based self-supporting operations that go beyond traditionalsources; and 2) activities that develop and enhance traditional incomestreams at the selected institutions. The third component of Clark’s(1998) study addressing both traditional and nontraditional activityaspects offers no relevance to this study and will not be included. Assumptions 1. Each administrator surveyed will be knowledgeable about employing entrepreneurial orientations necessary for increasing revenue generation. 2. Each administrator will respond to survey questions without prejudice thereby revealing the degree to which he/she is entrepreneurial.
  21. 21. 3. Each administrator surveyed will not breech the confidentiality relating to specific donors and/or fundraising practices. Delimitations of the Study1. This was a purposeful study. It focused on the entrepreneurial orientations administrators who practice fundraising on behalf of public HBCUs within the membership of the TMCF. HBCUs which are not members of the TMCF were not be included in the study.2. Only presidents and chief development officers were surveyed regarding their self-perception of engagement levels of entrepreneurial orientation. Limitations of the Study1. This study did not address the entrepreneurial orientation of presidents and chief development officers at private institutions or HBCUs affiliated with the United Negro College Fund.2. Because the survey was self-reported, presidents and chief development officers may not provide an objective, unbiased self-assessment regarding their entrepreneurial orientation.3. Some institutions invited to participate did not have the development office infrastructure or capacity to report data relative to the study.
  22. 22. Definition of TermsChief Development Officer – the person responsible for the advancementefforts within a defined area; the lead person in fundraising (Patton,1993).Entrepreneur – an organizational leader who tirelessly and activelytranscends good leadership and management practices and personallyidentifies opportunities, develops a creative and innovative vision,welcomes competition, and persuades others to contribute andparticipate; undertakes a challenge in a new way (Riggs, p. 10).Entrepreneurial activities – activities that generate revenue from non-traditional methods (Riggs, p. 10).Entrepreneurial Orientation – interest in entrepreneurial activityengagement (Riggs, p. 10).Fundraising – The solicitation of gifts from private sources, specificallyindividuals, corporations and foundations (Terrell & Gold, 1993).Financial Stability – a broad description of a steady state in which thefinancial system efficiently performs its key economic functions(Schinasi, 2004).Historically Black College(s) and University(ies) – public and privateeducational institutions founded for the purpose of educating BlackAmericans. The Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, defines anHBCU as "...any historically Black college or university that was
  23. 23. established prior to 1964, whose principal mission was, and is, theeducation of Black Americans, and that is accredited by a nationallyrecognized accrediting agency or association determined by the Secretary[of Education)…" (White House Initiative on Historically Black Collegesand Universities, 2007).Institutional Advancement – Activities and programs undertaken todevelop understanding and support from constituencies to help achieveits goals in securing resources such as students, faculty, and dollars(Rowland, 1986).Non-traditional Revenue – philanthropically generated dollars or newrevenue garnered from the private sector (Williams & Kritsonis, 2007).Philanthropy – a charitable gift that expresses love for humankind(Sears, 1990).Traditional Revenue – money secured from tuition, sponsored programs(i.e. federally funded initiatives), or the public sector (Williams &Kritsonis, 2007). Significance of the Study Since the research on raising money at HBCUs is limited, thisstudy contributes to the existing body of literature, as well as, probessignificant issues surrounding entrepreneurial orientation and revenuegeneration at these specialized institutions. Results of this study will beof assistance to HBCU presidents and other administrators as they
  24. 24. employ a rational approach to developing and implementing acomprehensive fundraising program. Actually executing funddevelopment in a strategic, entrepreneurial way will be critical to thesurvival of these institutions. Summary Changing economic conditions at the state level have reduced theamount of governmental support available to public institutions of highereducation. These shrinking revenues have added a new responsibility tochief executive officers and administrators at institutions of highereducation. Accordingly, embracing an appreciation for cultivatingrelationships with donors is a necessary step for university presidents atpublic institutions. This is a different and oftentimes unwelcomeresponsibility among HBCU institutional leaders (Birnbaum, 1992). The fact of the matter is simply that HBCUs have to step up to theplate in order to compete with majority institutions. The competition isfierce for student enrollment, student recruitment, public funding, andnow private funds. A major source of fundraising difficulties arises fromthe small size of HBCUs and from their less-affluent alumni bases (NewYork Amsterdam News, 2002). “If historically Black colleges are to survive, they must learn how toplan effectively within the institutional context to achieve their desiredfund-raising results” (Barrett, p. 7). Each administrator’s leadership
  25. 25. strategy and how they focus on advancement activities and tactics makesa difference in the amount of private money the institution raises. It isobvious from this study that institutions must implement some methodof strategic planning to develop advancement activities and strategies.Employing a rational approach to developing and implementing acomprehensive fundraising campaign is key. Identifying institutionalneeds, developing plans for achieving those needs, beginning toimplement those plans, and actually executing the campaigns will becritical to the survival of these institutions.
  26. 26. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Overview This chapter presents research on the engagement levels ofHistorically Black College and University (HBCU) presidents and chiefdevelopment officers in fundraising and the connection betweenincreasing educational resource development through entrepreneurialideology. Entrepreneurial ideology suggests that there is a morecomplex, integrated way of thinking that makes business people moresuccessful. Dunkelberg and Cooper (1988) describe entrepreneurs ashaving orientations that influence growth and independence.Accordingly, HBCU leaders that possess entrepreneurial characteristicscould be more successful in their fundraising efforts if they exerciseentrepreneurial ideology. This literature review begins with a brief historical overview offundraising and philanthropy which helps to understand the importanceof fundraising in education. Next, the researcher presents literature onthe history of African-American philanthropy in order to capture beliefsand assumptions around fundraising for African-Americans. Finally, thesection on entrepreneurialism in higher education provides acollaboration of thoughts surrounding the need for university
  27. 27. administrators to capture the spirit of entrepreneurialism in order to besuccessful in their fundraising efforts.History of Educational Fundraising The concept of private philanthropy and fundraising can be seenthroughout history for thousands of years. For centuries, Americanshave relied on fundraising to support religious infrastructure, politics,economic relief for families, and even wars. Humanitarian effortspromoting the spirit of giving can be witnessed prior to colonial dayswhen families shared their good harvests with less fortunate families(Schoenecke, 2005, p. 17). “From their earliest days, universities, colleges, and schools havedepended on fundraising and the generosity of benefactors, clients, andpublic bodies who shared their dreams and supported their purposes”(Rhodes, 1997, p. xvii). Harvard College, the oldest higher educationinstitution in the United States, was founded in 1634 as a result ofphilanthropic support provided by Reverend John Harvard (Worth,1993). By 1745, the only colleges in the colonies were Harvard, Williamand Mary, and Yale. Most college presidents in the colonial era wouldsolicit funding in order to assure institutional survival. More than 100 years later, in 1862, the first federal land grant actwas established, resulting in growth and expansion in higher education.Senator Justin Smith Morrill lobbied Congress for financial support to
  28. 28. establish colleges for industrial education. The Morrill Acts of 1862 and1890 granted federally controlled land to the states for the purpose ofbuilding educational institutions. As a result of the 1862 Act,institutions were commissioned to teach agriculture, military tactics,mechanic arts, and home economics in addition to classical studiesBrowning & Williams, 1978). By the second land grant act in 1890,several public institutions were funded by the states (Cultip, 1990).During the Industrial Revolution, college presidents solicited wealthybusinessmen to gain institutional support. Because of their generousphilanthropy, many institutions were renamed in honor of thesebenefactors. The establishment of land grant institutions paved the way for thecreation of some specialized public institutions, namely HBCUs. A keycomponent of the land grant system is the agricultural experimentstation program created by the Hatch Act of 1887. The Hatch Actauthorized direct payment of federal grant funds to each state toestablish an agricultural experiment station in connection with the landgrant institution (Browning & Williams, 1978). The amount of thisappropriation varies from year to year and is determined for each statethrough a formula based on the number of small farmers. A majorportion of the federal funds must be matched by the state. HBCUscreated under jurisdiction of the Morrill Acts are Alabama A & M
  29. 29. University, Tuskegee University, University of Arkansas Pine Bluff,Florida A & M University, Fort Valley State University, Kentucky StateUniversity, Southern University and A & M College, University ofMaryland Eastern Shore, Alcorn State University, Lincoln University,North Carolina A & T University, Langston University, South CarolinaState University, Tennessee State University, Prairie View A & MUniversity, University of the Virgin Islands, Virginia State University, andWest Virginia State University. Nearly ten years before land grant institutions were established,former slave owner, George Campbell, and former slave and communityleader, Lewis Adams, founded the Negro Normal School in Tuskegee.Adams negotiated the establishment of what is now known as TuskegeeUniversity in exchange for Adams’ influence on the Black vote (History ofTuskegee, 2008). Dr. Booker T. Washington was selected as the school’sfirst teacher and was installed as principal of the school in 1881.Tuskegee recognizes Dr. Washington as a highly skilled organizer andfundraiser who was counsel to American presidents, a strong advocate ofAfrican-American entrepreneurs, and instrumental in the founding ofSouthern educational institutions (History of Tuskegee, 2008).Dedicated in 1922, the Booker T. Washington Monument, “Lifting theVeil”, at the center of Tuskegee’s campus has an inscription that reads,
  30. 30. “He lifted the veil of ignorance from his people and pointed the way toprogress through education and industry” (History of Tuskegee, 2008). “Booker T. Washington stressed that the Negro would best benefitfrom agricultural training because this is how a living would be made”(Scott, 2000, p. 32). According to Scott (2000), being mechanicallyinclined, knowledgeable of commerce, familiar with domestic services,and professionally educated would help to advance the Negro. PrairieView A & M University in Prairie View, Texas, is an example of Dr.Washington’s vision for an industrial educational system. Established in1876 as the Alta Vista Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas forColored Youth, Prairie View A & M can be remembered for its role in thepreparation and training of teachers, farming programs, food preparationand preservation, and improving health. Today, Prairie View A & MUniversity continues to be recognized as an HBCU leader in the arts andsciences, home economics, agriculture, mechanical arts, and nursing. In 1896, the Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson ruledthat separate public institutions could be established for Blacks andWhites. Hence, other HBCUs were established by four major missionsocieties. The American Missionary Association was a federalgovernment organization. The remaining three – the Freedmen’s AidSociety of the Methodist Episcopal Church, the American Baptist HomeMission Society, and the Board of Missions for the Freedmen of the
  31. 31. Presbyterian Church in the USA – were religious organizations (Cohen,2006). While the aforementioned societies were made up of Whites, ithas been argued that Black colleges supported by Whites were generallyregarded as more prestigious than those colleges supported by Blacks(Cohen, 2006). According to Cohen (2006), “between 1865 and 1915,Blacks contributed $25 million toward their own educational efforts,almost half that contributed by Whites” (p. 19). White missionaryphilanthropists financed and managed HBCUs with the highestenrollment. In 1902, John D. Rockefeller’s General Education Boardcontributed significantly to higher education for Blacks (Curti & Nash,1965). Gifts from this fund totaling nearly $130 million were grantedwithout respect to sex, creed, or race. The Supreme Court reversed its Plessy v. Ferguson decision in1954, ruling under Brown v. Board of Education that separateinstitutions denied Blacks an equal education. As a result of the 1954decision, public schools received funding for physical improvements andfinancial aid (Browning & Williams, 1978). Public HBCUs are by and large under-funded compared topredominantly White institutions as is evidenced by the disparity inbudgetary allocations between the two institutional types. Withoutexternal funding, HBCUs will be good institutions, but they will not havethe quality education that is essential for students to be successful.
  32. 32. “The interminable retrenchment of state and federal support has forcedcolleges and universities to become increasingly reliant on theprocurement of funds from private sources in order to recruit qualitystudents, retain distinguished faculty, and produce value addedresearch” (Johnsen, 2005, p.1). Changing economic conditions at the state level have reduced theamount of governmental support available to public institutions of highereducation. These shrinking revenues have added a new responsibility touniversity presidents. Embracing an appreciation for cultivatingrelationships with donors is a necessary responsibility for universityadministrators at public institutions but is a different and oftentimesunwelcome responsibility among HBCU institutional leaders (Birnbaum,1992, p. 39). As stated by Barrett, (2006), “If historically Black collegesare to survive, they must learn how to plan effectively within theinstitutional context to achieve their desired fund-raising results” (p. 7).History of African-American Philanthropy Unlike majority institutions, HBCUs have not had a long history ofprivate philanthropy. Until recently, there was not much emphasisplaced on alumni giving at Black colleges. In fact, “for many graduates ofHBCUs, giving back is not a priority and, in some cases, not aconsideration” (Reaves, 2006, p. 2). Contrarily, the Black Church and itscongregants have offered a source of inspiration for effective fundraising
  33. 33. among Black Americans. The church is characterized as a powerfulhistorical and contemporary influence regarding African-Americans andgiving, and the Black Church continues to be the extremely influential inthe lives of Black Americans (Reaves, 2006). “Throughout American history, the Black Church has occupied adistinctive position in the individual and collective lives of African-Americans” (Ellison, 1991, p. 4). Research indicates that African-Americans attend church more frequently, participate in church-relatedactivities, and belong to more church-affiliated activities than many otherAmericans. African-Americans look to the church for guidance,advocacy, and the promotion of social needs. Accordingly, fundraisingprofessionals at HBCUs could view the most effective fundraisingmechanism for African-Americans as the Black Church. Someresearcher, however, have pointed out that HBCUs have not followed themodel of the Black Church. In a study conducted by Holloman, Gasman& Anderson-Thompkins (2003), it is revealed that HBCU leaders did notask for contributions until the day of graduation, “however, fundraisingliterature tells us that colleges and universities need to educate theirstudents about giving as soon as they arrive on campus” (p. 156). Most African-Americans are taught philanthropy as childrenthrough their obligation to attend church and to make a donation.Through personal engagement and building trust, African-American
  34. 34. preachers convey the needs of the church and consistently encourageparishioners to support the work of the church. “It is surprising then,giving the way Black churches model giving for their youngest membersthat Black colleges do not” (Holloman, Gasman & Anderson-Thompkins,2003, p. 157). As Carson (2001) points out, “African-Americans understand thatthe role of the Black church – especially in the area of fundraising islegendary” (p. 4). Continuing, he says, “We recognize that the Blackchurch puts the force of authority and legitimacy behind its appeals toreach givers in the Black community. The Black Church is a triumphantexample of philanthropy among friends” (Carson, 2001, p. 4). “As Blacks became better educated and their churches grew innumbers and strength, their conviction began to be expressed throughthe notion that Blacks ought to have schools under their ownmanagement and financial control” (Cohen, 2006, p. 20). The originalpurpose of HBCUs was to teach freed slaves to read the Bible or becomepreachers or teachers (Kujovich, 1994). Early philanthropy for Black education has been described as “therichness and vitality of American life” and as “an illustration of America’sbroken promises, a crafty form of ‘generosity’ designed to prevent realreform” (Anderson & Moss, 1999, p.1). It is vastly argued that northernWhite philanthropists established HBCUs to maintain social peace and
  35. 35. to produce a capable but submissive workforce. Today, HBCU graduateshold significant status as stated by Holloman, Gasman & Anderson-Thompkins (2003): In the future, a greater percentage of college alumni will be Black, and equipped with degrees. More African Americans will enter the middle class. Not only does this mean that more African Americans will be in a position to give, but as they advance economically, they will participate more fully in financial planning and institutionalized giving--tax incentives, charitable trusts, and living wills. Finally, as the children of African American alumni enter the institutions of their parents, those parents will seek to increase their giving in an effort to support the continued social and economic development of their families. This situation presents enormous opportunities for Black colleges to increase their financial stability and above all, to solidify their position within the Black community and within the greater world of American higher education (p. 159).Entrepreneurialism in Higher Education Presidents and other administrators of HBCUs continue to impressupon government officials the need for greater federal financial supportat a time when “cutbacks in federal and state spending coupled withinfrastructure repairs and staunch competition from mainstream
  36. 36. institutions with limited resources have ensured severe financialconstraints on America’s HBCUs” (Nealy, 2008). In early 2009, fundingfor HBCUs was cut by $85 million nationally in the category forStrengthening Historically Black Colleges and Universities.Strengthening Historically Black Colleges Graduate Institutionsremained neutral for Fiscal Years 2008 and 2009. Figure 2.1 illustratesthe Obama Administration’s aid for institutional development fundingallocations from 2007-2009 (White House Initiative on Historically BlackColleges and Universities).Figure 2.1
  37. 37. Title III: Aid for Institutional Development (B.A. in Millions) 2009 2007 2008 Request Strengthening Institutions (Part A) $79.5 $78.1 $78.1 Strengthening Tribally Controlled Colleges and Universities (Part A) 23.6 23.2 — 1 (mandatory) — 30.0 30.01 Strengthening Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian-serving Institutions (Part A) 11.8 11.6 — 1 (mandatory) — 15.0 15.01 Strengthening Historically Black Colleges and Universities (Part B) 238.1 238.1 153.1 1 (mandatory) — 85.0 85.01 Strengthening Historically Black Graduate Institutions (Part B) 57.9 56.9 56.9 Minority Science and Engineering Improvement (Part E) 8.7 8.6 8.6 Strengthening Predominantly Black Institutions (mandatory) — 15.01 15.01 Strengthening Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-serving Institutions (mandatory) — 5.01 5.01 Strengthening Native American- serving nontribal institutions (mandatory) — 5.01 5.01 Total 419.6 571.5 451.7 1 Mandatory funds made available by the College Cost Reduction and Access Act, P.L. 110-84 (September 27, 2007). These funds are not part of the fiscal year 2009 budget request. Fundraising in higher education is the most widely recognizedsupplement to government funding. Several HBCUs have enjoyed thefruits of laborious fund development while the vast majority lag
  38. 38. significantly in obtaining philanthropic support. There is an obviousneed for HBCUs to modify their current fundraising practices to includeaggressive solicitation strategies for various constituencies.Corporations, foundations, alumni and other vehicles for securingprivate philanthropic gifts are essential to the survival of publicinstitutions of higher education. Across the nation, higher education has experienced a significantdecline in funding, yet enrollment in higher education is at an all-timehigh (Schoenecke, 2005). Riggs (2005) posits that “for most Americaninstitutions of higher education, traditional academic ideology held thatthe institution had no business in the marketplace” (p. 27).Traditionally, higher education communities were designed exclusively toprovide teaching, learning, and research. Accordingly, institutions ofhigher education did not exercise conventional business models in orderto generate current-use funds. Today, these institutions are expected toenter the marketplace, survive in the competitive market, and adapt thepractices of their for-profit counterparts. Until recently, public colleges and universities did not face theneed to compete with private entities because most public funds wereautomatically disbursed to public education. In the last two decades, thepublic funding landscape has changed drastically, causing publicinstitutions of higher education to embrace the entrance of private
  39. 39. corporations into the business of higher education (Cook, 1997).Institutions are being called upon by parents and students to addressconcerns about rising tuition costs, yet they are also being held moreaccountable by public funding entities. Due to the decline in stateresources, public institutions are placing stronger emphasis onfundraising (Riggs, 2005). Sears (1990) defines philanthropy as “anexpression of love for mankind” (p. 10) that includes “all gifts exceptthose from the State” (p.10). Riggs (2005) believes that “the rapid changes in economic,demographic, and political conditions that face American institutions ofhigher education indicate that both the institutions and their leadersmust be adaptable and diverse” (p. 3). Changes in the historical rolesand responsibilities of college presidents have presupposed that theseleaders possess entrepreneurial characteristics. “A business-likeorientation focused on efficiency, accountability, and productivity isreshaping the management of higher education” (Dingfelder, p. 2, 2007). Clark (1998) suggests that entrepreneurs embody a set ofcharacter traits that are synonymous with leaders. Entrepreneurialefforts by university administrators translate into institutionaltransformation. Attributes used to describe an individual withentrepreneurial orientation are innovative, creative, team builder,opportunist, proactive, risk taker, change agent, competitive, visionary,
  40. 40. and persuasive (Riggs, 2005). Other researchers have describedentrepreneurs as individuals who recognize and seize opportunities whenthey occur (Smith-Hunter, 2003). Princeton University’s WordNet (2008) describes innovative asbeing ahead of the times. Originative and productive are characteristicsof a creative individual. Team builders create better employees who arewilling to advance the mission of the organization through the leader’svision. Being an opportunist means making tough decisions regardlessof sacrifice. In seizing opportunities, individuals often take a proactiveapproach. One who controls a situation rather than responding to theoutcome embodies this attribute (WordNet, 2008). Implementing projectswithout regard to loss is what proactive risk takers do. Being entrepreneurial also means embracing change. A changeagent alters or modifies a current situation in hopes of improving it(WordNet, 2008). By and large, being a change agent requirescompetitive nature, vision, and persuasiveness. Employing an aggressivedisposition demonstrates competitiveness. Having a strong imaginationor image of predictability is what helps visionaries compete. Finally,calling others to action or belief is required. This persuasive personaalso lends credibility to entrepreneurs. Howard University president, H. Patrick Swygert can be describedas an entrepreneurial president. Swygert, along with assistance from
  41. 41. Howard University trustees and officers, lead the institution’s record-breaking fundraising campaign that yielded $275 million, the largestamount raised to-date by any HBCU. Masterson (2008) reports thatHoward officials sought to raise $100 million before Swygert convincedhis superiors that the goal was too modest. H. Patrick Swygert’s entrepreneurial attributes moved HowardUniversity to an unprecedented level, elevating Howard to its rankingamong the 136 institutions asked by the United States FinanceCommittee how they spend their endowments (Masterson, 2008).Swygert, an alumnus, invested $2 million in the campaign. HowardUniversity’s endowment now sits at a healthy $532 million, and there istalk of a $1 billion capital campaign in their future. It is expected thatuniversity officials will publish a report on lessons learned that will bemade available to other HBCUs. According to the director of the Council for Aid to Education’ssurvey on giving as reported by Masterson (2008), HBCUs have “lessmature fund-raising operations that rely more on money fromfoundations and corporations than from alumni” (p. 2). In order forHBCUs to increase their endowments through private philanthropy,alumni participation is necessary. Swygert recognized the importance ofre-engaging alumni by connecting them to students. His proactiveapproach could be one reason why annual alumni giving at Howard
  42. 42. increased from 4% to as high as 20% during the campaign (Masterson,2008). Waddell (1992) confirms that “empirical research is limited withrespect to fund-raising in public colleges and universities, particularlypublic Black institutions” (p. 3). In Scott’s (2000) study on successfulfundraising units at public historically Black colleges and universities,there are several references to the lack of research conducted related tofundraising at HBCUs. In retrospect, adding to the current scarce bodyof literature regarding HBCU fundraising is much needed and theprimary intent of this study.
  43. 43. CHAPTER III METHOD Overview The framework for conducting this investigation including sectionson research design, population and sample, instrumentation, researchprocedures, data collection, and data analysis is referenced in thischapter. Also addressed in this section are validity and reliability. This study was designed to examine the entrepreneurialengagement levels among Historically Black College and University(HBCU) administrators directing inquiry to 30 of the 47 TMCF memberschools. The TMCF law schools and seventeen member schools were notincluded in this study. Persons who currently serve as actingadministrators or those who had not been in their positions more thantwelve months were not included in this study. The rationale forexcluding these individuals was that they were serving on a temporarybasis and/or that they had not served in the current leadership capacitythat would allow them to objectively complete the questionnaire. Theadministrators who were eligible to participate in the study but sodeclined were represented in the seventeen schools not included in thestudy. Relationship-building is the premise for successful fundraising, soadministrators who had not had the opportunity to cultivate
  44. 44. relationships with donors due to their temporary assignment or minimaltime in office were not included. One interim administrator was includedin the study because at the time she completed the questionnaire, shewas serving in a permanent role. Strengthening university resources from the private sector in anenvironment that has traditionally relied on local and state funding ismandatory for HBCU survival. Bowen and Shapiro (1998) suggest that ifpublic HBCUs do not become aggressive about their fundraisingpractices and engage in entrepreneurial practices to increaseinstitutional revenue, they may not survive. Research QuestionsThe following qualitative research questions guided the study: 1. What connection exists between the Historically Black College and University leaders’ entrepreneurial orientation and the financial stability of their institution? 2. To what extent do Historically Black College and University leaders value and carry out entrepreneurial activities? 3. At Historically Black Colleges and Universities, what factors are associated with best practices in fundraising? 4. How do the institutions’ development practices influence entrepreneurial activities for the purpose of advancing the institution?
  45. 45. 5. What is the perception of the entrepreneurial orientation of the administrator’s role by the administrator? Research Design A qualitative study design was used to explore the connectionbetween HBCU leaders’ entrepreneurial orientation and the financialstability of their universities. The qualitative variables used for this studyincluded: • the amount of employment training and preparation, • length of employment at the institution, • innovative approaches used on the job, • creativity in fundraising strategies, • team building exercises implemented, • opportunistic tactics used to get the job done, • risk-taking approach to realize fundraising goals, • competitive nature, • vision-driven initiatives, • ability to be proactive, • persuasiveness, • professional experience, • philosophy of fund development, and • the impact of private philanthropy on the institution
  46. 46. The qualitative method used for this research was open-endedquestions. Open-ended questions were used to capture responses ofindividuals in their natural settings. This qualitative method of inquiryhelped to build upon theory and seek to gain understanding of thesubject (Winegardner, 2004). According to Lee (1999), there are fourqualities that appear in qualitative studies. The first quality is thatstudies are conducted in a natural setting. Next, empirical data isgenerated as a result of participation by the researcher. Third, theresearch design allows for flexibility based upon the study. Finally,instruments, observation methods, and modes of analysis are notstandardized allowing for more extensive response set from participants(Lee, 1999). Qualitative research is that which refers to a person’s life, livedexperiences, behaviors, emotions, as well as organizational functioning,social movements, cultural phenomena, and interactions betweennations (Strauss & Corbin, 1998, p. 11). This type of research can beextremely helpful when exploring research topics about which little isknown. This is especially applicable to the present study of theentrepreneurial engagement levels of HBCU administrators infundraising. There are no studies that examine this topic. Accordingly,the objective of this study was to explore issues surrounding the
  47. 47. entrepreneurial orientation of HBCU fundraisers that will allow others togain knowledge and understanding for university advancement purposes. There are generally common practices and standards used bydevelopment professionals to raise money. To ensure that philanthropymerits the respect and trust of the general public, these commonpractices are recognized and outlined by a number of organizationsincluding the Council for the Advancement and Support of Education(CASE) and the Association of Fundraising Professionals (AFP). Withmore than 3,400 member institutions of higher education, “CASE helpsits members build stronger relationships with their alumni and donors,raise funds for campus projects, produce recruitment materials, markettheir institutions to prospective students, diversify the profession, andfoster public support of education” (Council for the Advancement andSupport of Education, 2009). The Association of FundraisingProfessionals boasts more than 30,000 members in 200 chaptersthroughout the world by helping their members “advance philanthropythrough advocacy, research, education and certification programs”(Association of Fundraising Professionals, 2009). According to AFP(2009), its “association fosters development and growth of fundraisingprofessionals and promotes high ethical standards in the fundraisingprofession”.
  48. 48. Membership to CASE and AFP is strictly voluntary. It is not thepractice of either of these organizations to identify best practices infundraising for specific groups. In other words, standards set forth bythese organizations have been endorsed by some organizations andoverlooked by others. HBCUs often do not have the resources tosubscribe to these entities, and therefore, do not have access to thetechnical assistance and other benefits these organizations provide. Population and Sample A stratified sample based on enrollment size was used toselect a minimum of five schools for participation in this study. Forpurposes of this study, schools with 8,000 or more students wereconsidered Tier 1 institutions; institutions with 5,000 – 7,999 studentswere considered Tier 2 schools; schools with 2,000 – 4,999 students wereconsidered Tier 3 institutions; and Tier 4 schools represent those withless than 2,000 students. Instrumentation The instrument used in this study will be an original surveyquestionnaire based on prior research regarding the entrepreneurialorientation of presidents at majority institutions. Palys (2003) outlinesmany advantages to utilizing questionnaires when conducting research.First, surveys and questionnaires are an excellent way of gathering datafrom the respondents in a direct and timely manner. Another advantage
  49. 49. was that the questionnaire was distributed electronically and copies weremade available to participants at a regularly scheduled TMCFconference, thereby granting direct access to the conference participantswho are HBCU college presidents, development officers, alumni relationsprofessionals, and students. Using this research methodology in thismanner increases the response rate especially when respondents aregiven structured time within the conference to complete the survey.Palys (2003, p. 151) further states, “when a group of prospectiverespondents agrees to allow a researcher access to the group…responserates may approach 100 percent.” Types of questions used in the questionnaire were based on Clark’s(1998) discussion of entrepreneurial involvement by colleges anduniversities. Clark (1998) asserts that entrepreneurial activities help togenerate non-traditional revenues (p. 25). For purposes of this study,non-traditional revenue generation includes (1) the identification ofinnovative and profit-based self-supporting operations that go beyondtraditional sources; and 2) activities that develop and enhancetraditional income streams at the selected institutions. The surveyinstrument was developed with this understanding in mind. The instrument used was an open-ended questionnaire designed tomeasure the entrepreneurial orientation of HBCU leaders. Theresearcher implemented the following plan for conducting research:
  50. 50. 1. Identified HBCU leaders to participate in the study.2. Once identified, participants were sent the participant letter of consent form (attached) requesting the leader to participate. a. If the leader agreed to participate by returning the consent form, he/she was given access to Survey Monkey where they completed the 15-question survey that sought responses to questions related to the amount of employment training and preparation, length of employment at the institution, innovative approaches used on the job, creativity in fundraising strategies, team building exercises implemented, opportunistic tactics used to get the job done, risk- taking approach to realize fundraising goals, competitive nature, vision-driven initiatives, ability to be proactive, persuasiveness, professional experience, philosophy of fund development, and the impact of private philanthropy on the institution.3. The open-ended questionnaire administered was an original survey questionnaire. Types of questions used in the questionnaire were based on Clark’s (1998) discussion of entrepreneurial involvement by colleges and universities.
  51. 51. Clark (1998) asserts that entrepreneurial activities help togenerate non-traditional revenues (p. 25). For purposes ofthis study, non-traditional revenue generation included (1)the identification of innovative and profit-based self-supporting operations that go beyond traditional sources;and 2) activities that develop and enhance traditionalincome streams at the selected institutions. Using Clark’stheory, for example, the following was queried: a. HBCU leaders were asked to self-assess whether they are innovative, creative, a team-builder, an opportunist, a risk-taker, a change-agent, competitive, a visionary, proactive, and persuasive to determine what connection exists between the leaders’ entrepreneurial orientation and the financial stability of the institution. Leaders were also asked when the institution last engaged in a capital campaign and how much private money the institution raised to evaluate the connection between the leaders’ entrepreneurial orientation and the financial stability of the institution. (Research Question 1; Interview Questions 6, 14 & 15)
  52. 52. b. In asking what general differences HBCU leaders perceive between their role as a leader and the role of traditional business executives, the researcher examined the extent to which HBCU leaders value and carry out entrepreneurial activities. (Research Question 2; Interview Question 13)c. Strategies that HBCU leaders would like to implement in order to seek resources from private philanthropists but are unable to do so because of forces outside of their control sought to frame the factors associated with best practices in fundraising. (Research Question 3; Interview Question 12)d. The impact of private philanthropy on institutional initiatives and the strategies HBCU leaders employ to seek resources from private philanthropists examined how the institutions’ development practices influence entrepreneurial activities in the leaders’ offices. (Research Question 4; Interview Questions 10 & 11)e. Responses from HBCU leaders regarding their philosophy of fund development and whom they hold accountable for fund development addressed the perception of the administrator’s role by the
  53. 53. administrator. (Research Question 5; Interview Questions 8 & 9) To avoid high attrition rates, follow-up telephone calls, e-mails,and letters were sent to targeted participants who had not respondedwithin 30 days. Seale (1999), in his assessment of the trustworthiness of a study,states that “the trustworthiness of a research report lies at the heart ofissues conventionally discussed as validity and reliability” (p. 226).Triangulation and peer examination were used to increase validity andreliability. Triangulation occurred through consistent use of multiplesources of evidence. Examination of the participant responses helpeddetermine accuracy through triangulated data obtained through thequestionnaires. Reliability is the extent to which a study can be duplicated.Qualitative research is difficult to have consistent reliability. Stake(1995) identifies techniques the researcher can use to help strengthenreliability. By using multiple means of data collection, the accuracy ofdata is increased. Keeping accurate records helps authenticate thefindings of the researcher. Detailed records of how data is collected,analyzed, and conclusions are reached increase the accuracy of records(Stake, 1995). Generalizations and comparisons can be made ifdescriptions are given that allow similar institutions to use the data at
  54. 54. their institution. Being able to ensure validity, reliability, andgeneralizations enhances qualitative research. Confidentiality is a critical component of research if trust is todevelop between participants and the researcher. There can be atremendous amount of fear regarding disclosure of vital information ifthe participant is unable to trust the researcher to maintain privacy atall costs. However, if confidentiality is secured, the participant is morelikely to provide key information. Glesne (1992) encourages researchersto provide participants with complete access to the research andinterview materials at all times which will give subjects more power overdocuments and reports that may contain information related to them. Tomaintain anonymity, study participants were referred to using a tieredstructure. Research projects must utilize diligence in creating a researchenvironment that brings no harm to the subject in any way. In additionto treating the subject with respect and care, this notion also involvedincluding the participant in a thorough discussion, prior to the actualresearch, regarding all aspects of the study and how these aspects mayimpact the participant. All factors were considered in fulfilling thisobligation, including the future possibility of the research beingpublished.
  55. 55. Research ProceduresThe procedures for implementing this study were as follows: 1. The researcher applied and received permission from the researcher’s institutional review board (IRB) to conduct the proposed study. Approval was granted to poll a minimum of five HBCUs. 2. Identified a stratified sample of college fundraisers within the TMCF membership to participate in the study. 3. Contacted the fundraisers at each institution and explained the research study. Each TMCF member school administrator was sent an electronic packet of information including a cover letter, abstract of the study, consent form, and the questionnaire. (APPENDIX C) The electronic version was sent to participants by e-mail, and each participant was able to access the questionnaire in Survey Monkey. 4. Notified the participant of his/her right to confidentiality, how their personal information would be handled over the duration of the study, and their right to withdraw without penalty once he/she agreed to engage in the study. Participant and institution names were not used when findings were reported. A pseudonym was assigned to each institution.
  56. 56. 5. Made questionnaires available through electronic mail, U.S. mail, and through conferences hosted by the TMCF. 6. Analyzed data for conclusion development. 7. Provided to participants a copy of the research results upon completion. Data Collection The 30 TMCF member presidents and their chief developmentofficers were contacted by electronic mail. In the electronictransmission, each president and development officer received a letterexplaining the purpose and significance of the study, an informedconsent statement, and the questionnaire. Once respondents accessedthe link to Survey Monkey’s website, they were prompted to select thechoice do not wish to participate or agree to participate. Once therespondent chose the agree to participate option, they were immediatelyredirected to the next page to begin the survey. As a follow-up to non-respondents, a reminder letter was sent by U.S. Mail with an additionalcopy of the survey. Finally, the researcher used telephone calls as ameans to follow up on questionnaire responses. Data Analysis This section presents the data analysis including a descriptiveanalysis of each of the study participants. Each respondent was askedbasic demographic information followed by the interview questions.
  57. 57. Each participant was asked the same set of questions in Survey Monkey.The data collected in Survey Monkey was analyzed through coding. Thecorrespondence between the research questions and the interviewquestions is documented in Table 3.1. Table 3.1 Research Questions Paired with Interview Questions RESEARCH QUESTIONS CORRESPONDING INTERVIEW QUESTION FROM QUESTIONNAIRE 1. What connection exists between the 6, 14, 15 Historically Black College and University leaders’ entrepreneurial orientation and the financial stability of their institution? 2. To what extent do Historically Black 13 College and University leaders value and carry out entrepreneurial activities? 3. At Historically Black Colleges and 4, 12 Universities, what factors are associated with best practices in fundraising? 4. How do the institutions’ development 7, 10, 11 practices influence entrepreneurial activities for the purpose of advancing the institution? 5. What is the perception of the 8, 9 entrepreneurial orientation of the administrator’s role by the administrator?
  58. 58. The researcher carefully read through each response and identifieda list of the main themes in the data. Insight into the operations of eachinstitution was gained by examining beliefs, assumptions, and roles offundraising administrators. These beliefs and assumptions comprised asignificant part of the institutional culture. The professional experienceand attitudes about fund development helped determine the level towhich the institution has entrepreneurial leadership. Also factored intoprofessional experience was the institution’s age, length of time thedevelopment office or foundation has been in existence, and actualphilanthropic dollars secured including the total of the endowment. Once the codes were developed, numeric variables were assigned toeach code, and the relevant numeric coding for each response wasdocumented. After each response was coded and verified, a frequencyanalysis of the numeric codings was conducted. Next, the researcherdocumented the findings using percentages, the nature of the themes,relationships and differences between the data, and interrelationshipswithin the themes. The data collected was used to provide a descriptive analysis aboutengagement levels of HBCU leaders in entrepreneurialism throughfundraising in the areas of employment training and preparation, lengthof employment at the institution, innovative approaches used on the job,creativity in fundraising strategies, team building exercises implemented,
  59. 59. opportunistic tactics used to get the job done, risk-taking approach torealize fundraising goals, competitive nature, vision-driven initiatives,ability to be proactive, persuasiveness, professional experience,philosophy of fund development, and the impact of private philanthropyon the institution. The results have been documented and displayed in the forms ofcharts, tables, and graphs. Summary measures of respondents’perceptions of their own entrepreneurial characteristics were producedby computing the average of responses to items regarding individualentrepreneurial traits. Specifically, descriptive statistical methods wereused to analyze the relationship between HBCU leaders’ entrepreneurialorientation and the financial stability of their institution. Limitations to the Study There were several limitations to this study. The researcher wasthe primary instrument for data collection, therefore imposing concernsregarding ability and ethics (Creswell, 1998). When reviewing responsesto the questionnaires, the investigator must remain within theconceptual framework of the study. Specifically, questionnaires do have some limitations. Instructionsand questions must be clear and relative to professional development.Participants must not feel pressured to participate so as not to violateethical issues (Palys, 2003). Palys (2003) also warns researchers to be
  60. 60. considerate of volunteer bias. Volunteer bias is more likely to happenbecause participants who voluntarily participate are less objective thanthe general population causing the possibility of skewed results.
  61. 61. CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF DATA Introduction Presented in this chapter are the findings that emerged from theresponses to the on-line questionnaire which sought to answer the fiveresearch questions guiding this study. The constructs for this studywere concepts that define entrepreneurial activities that could create anentrepreneurial university. According to Clark (1998), creatingopportunities to enhance revenue can be derived from 1) innovative andprofit-based, self-supporting operations that go beyond traditionalsources, such as business development activities and innovative retailsales operations and 2) activities that develop and enhance traditionalincome streams such as endowment and tuition. The methodology used to collect data and ascertain answers wasan on-line questionnaire using Survey Monkey, a secure on-line surveytool that enables respondents to respond quickly and easily. Responsesfrom questionnaire participants were enlightening and helped theresearcher to formulate concrete answers to the research questions. Research Questions 1. What connection exists between the Historically Black College and University leaders’ entrepreneurial orientation and the financial stability of their institution?
  62. 62. 2. To what extent do Historically Black College and University leaders value and carry out entrepreneurial activities? 3. At Historically Black Colleges and Universities, what factors are associated with best practices in fundraising? 4. How do the institutions’ development practices influence entrepreneurial activities for the purpose of advancing the institution? 5. What is the perception of the entrepreneurial orientation of the administrator’s role by the administrator? Research Question 1 The first research question sought to examine the existingconnection between HBCU leaders’ entrepreneurial orientation and thefinancial stability of their institutions. The linkages betweencharacteristics associated with entrepreneurial orientation and theamount of money raised at an institution can impact the level of successin private fundraising. Leaders who self-identified as being innovative,creative, team builders, opportunists, risk takers, change agents,competitive, visionaries, proactive and persuasive would be likely to haveraised more money than leaders who self-reported having fewerentrepreneurial characteristics.
  63. 63. Research Question 2 Research question two queried the extent to which HBCU leadersvalue and implement entrepreneurial activities. In order to assess thevalue placed on entrepreneurial activities and the likelihood ofimplementing those activities, participants were asked to report theirperception of differences between their role as a university leader and therole of a traditional business executive. Research Question 3 In the third research question, the researcher explored factorsassociated with best practices in fundraising. Through open-endedquestions, respondents were asked to document specialized training theyhad to prepare them for their positions and strategies they would like toemploy to seek resources from private philanthropists but are unable todo so because of various restraints. Training, or the lack thereof, isinfluential on the organizational structure and can positively ornegatively impact institutional fundraising. Research Question 4 The fourth research question examined how the institutions’development practices influenced entrepreneurial activities for thepurpose of advancing the institution. Respondents were asked to reporttheir professional experience in fund development as well as strategiesthey employ to seek resources from philanthropists. They were also
  64. 64. asked how philanthropy impacts institutional initiatives. In order tohave successful fundraising programs, leaders must be knowledgeableabout which practices have been beneficial to institutional advancementand which practices have had little or no impact. Research Question 5 Finally, the researcher examined how each leader perceived hisown entrepreneurial orientation. The leaders’ philosophy of funddevelopment and whom they felt responsible for raising money wereimportant constructs to examine. In higher education, all administratorsshould bear some responsibility for institutional advancement. Eachleaders’ perception regarding fundraising responsibilities as well as theirphilosophy of fundraising could determine the success or failure of afundraising program. Respondent Information Originally, 17 individuals from 16 institutions agreed to participatein the study. After agreeing to participate in the study, fouradministrators from four institutions withdrew from participation forunreported reasons. Two additional administrators replied that theywere “unable to participate” in the study but did not cite the reason whythey elected not to participate. The total number of participants in thestudy was 13 from 12 schools. The Institutional Review Boar at Prairie
  65. 65. View A&M University approved the study for a minimum of five schoolsto be selected. Numerous attempts were made by the researcher to secureadditional responses to the questionnaire. In addition to requests madeby electronic mail, the researcher sent the questionnaire by mail throughthe United States Postal Service and followed up with telephone calls tonon-respondents. Of the 30 schools eligible to participate in the study,representatives from 16 schools (53.3%) agreed to participate andaccessed the on-line questionnaire, but administrators from 13 schools(43.3%) actually completed the questionnaire. Administrators from HBCUs in Mississippi, Louisiana, Maryland,North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Texas, and West Virginiaparticipated in the study. The following administrative titles representthe population of respondents: three university presidents, one vicechancellor of institutional advancement, one vice president of universityadvancement, one vice president for development and external relations,one vice president for university relations and development, one vicechancellor of development and university relations, one vice president forinstitutional advancement, one interim vice president for universityrelations (who at the time of survey completion had just been promotedto this position from the director of development position), one director ofdevelopment and one director of institutional advancement and planning.
  66. 66. In order to maintain confidentiality and protect anonymity, eachinstitution was given a pseudonym and categorized by enrollment size.Tier 1 schools were represented by having the word “flagship” at thebeginning of the pseudonym followed by a letter in the alphabet thatsignified the synchronized order in which questionnaires were received.Tier 2 schools were labeled with the word “superior” and a correspondingletter of the alphabet that represents the synchronized order in whichquestionnaires were received. Table 4.1 on the next page denotes thenumbers assigned to respondents who agreed to participate in the study,the institutional pseudonym and tier, and whether the institutionalrepresentative actually completed the survey after they agreed toparticipate.
  67. 67. Table 4.1Respondent IdentificationRespondent Pseudonym Tier Agreed to Completed Participate Questionnair e 1 Superior A 2   2  3 Superior B 2   4  5 Flagship B 1   6  7 Superior C 2   8 Superior D 2   9 Flagship C 1   10 Superior E 2   11 Flagship C 1   12 Flagship A 1   13 Flagship E 1   14  15 Flagship D 1   16 Flagship F 1   17 Flagship G 1  Note. Blanks in this table represent persons who agreed to participate inthe study and actually entered the secure questionnaire area but did notcomplete the questionnaire. Description of InstitutionsTier 1 Institutions Schools with 6,000 or more students were identified as Tier 1institutions. There were seven institutions represented in this category.Eight administrators completed the questionnaire. Flagship UniversityA, located in the southeastern United States, has a student enrollment of9,038. Flagship University B in the south central part of the United
  68. 68. States is home to 9,100 students. Also in the south central part of thecountry is Flagship University C with an enrollment of 8,600. FlagshipUniversity D is positioned in the southeast and has an enrollment of10,388. Flagship University E is in the Deep South with 8,500 students.Flagship University F, located in the mid-Atlantic region of the UnitedStates, has 7,000 students. Flagship University G in the southeast hasan enrollment of 6,442. (Surveys 5, 9, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17)Tier 2 Institutions Tier 2 institutions were categorized as schools with less than 6,000students. There were five institutions represented in this category.Superior University A is positioned in the southeast part of the UnitedStates with an enrollment of 3,061 students. Superior University B, alsolocated in the southeast, has 3,100 students. Superior University C,located in the northeast, has 2,524 students. Superior University D inthe southern region of the United States has 5,100 students. SuperiorUniversity E with 3,900 students is located in the Deep South. (Surveys1, 3, 7, 8, 10)Flagship University A Flagship University A is located in the southeast. The six-yeartenured vice president for university relations and development atFlagship University A responded to the questionnaire. This respondent,who will be referred to as Respondent 12 or R12-T1I (Respondent 12
  69. 69. representing Tier 1 Institution), has a Master of Education degree andhas been employed at Flagship University A for three years.Entrepreneurial characteristics that best described this respondent wereinnovative, risk taker, proactive, creative, change agent, persuasive, teambuilder, competitive, opportunist and visionary.Flagship University B Flagship University B is positioned in the south central part of thecountry. With a Master of Business Administration degree and morethan 30 years service in marketing and communications in multipledevelopment offices, this respondent has served in the capacity of vicepresident for university advancement for one year at Flagship UniversityB. This respondent will be referred to as Respondent 5 or R5-T1I(Respondent 5 representing Tier 1 Institution). Entrepreneurialattributes that described this participant were innovative, proactive,creative, change agent, persuasive, team builder, and visionary.Flagship University C Flagship University C is also in the United States’ south centralregion. Both the president and director of development responded to thequestionnaire. The president, who will be referred to as Respondent 9 orR9-T1I (Respondent 9 representing Tier 1 Institution), holds a Doctor ofPhilosophy degree and is a seasoned academician and veteran highereducation administrator. Having served as provost, vice provost,
  70. 70. academic program director and tenured faculty member at variousinstitutions, R9-T1I has led the university for six years. Entrepreneurialbehaviors the president reports to exhibit are proactive, change agent,persuasive, team builder and competitive. The director of development, who will be recognized as Respondent11 or R11-T1I (Respondent 11 representing Tier 1 Institution), has anundergraduate degree and has worked in the Office of Development forfive years. As is consistent with the attributes needed to increaseinstitutional giving, this director is innovative, proactive, creative, achange agent, persuasive, a team builder, an opportunist, and avisionary.Flagship University D Flagship University D is located in the southeast part of the UnitedStates. The associate vice chancellor of development and universityrelations responded to the questionnaire. With an undergraduate degreeand fifteen months serving as the associate vice chancellor at FlagshipUniversity D, this respondent has fifteen years experience as adevelopment director at two other institutions. This respondent, who willbe referred to as Respondent 15 or R15-T1I (Respondent 15 representingTier 1 Institution), reported having the following entrepreneurialattributes: innovative, proactive, creative, a change agent, persuasive, ateam builder, competitive, and a visionary.
  71. 71. Flagship University E Flagship University E is in the United States’ Deep South. Thepresident, who responded to the questionnaire and will be referred to asRespondent 13 or R13-T1I (Respondent 13 representing Tier 1Institution), holds a Doctor of Jurisprudence with more than 25 yearsexperience in preparation for this position. This respondent’sprofessional background in development and institutional advancementhave compliment the ten years of service given to the presidency atFlagship University E. Innovative, risk taker, proactive, creative, changeagent, persuasive, team builder, competitive, opportunist, and visionaryare the words this respondent used to self-describe personalentrepreneurial characteristics.Flagship University F Flagship University F is located in the mid-Atlantic region of theUnited States. The vice president for institutional advancement, who willbe referred to as Respondent 16 or R16-T1I (Respondent 16 representingTier 1 Institution), completed the questionnaire. This respondent, whohas been employed at Flagship University F for nine years, has servedfive years in the current role. Innovative, risk taker, proactive, creative,change agent, persuasive, team builder, competitive, and visionary arethe words this respondent used to self-describe personal entrepreneurialcharacteristics.

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