Factors Impacting Student Success in Grades 6-8 During School of Choice Transition at Two Middle Schools
<ul><li>  PRAIRIE VIEW A&M UNIVERSITY </li></ul><ul><li>THE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  <...
Agenda <ul><li>Part I, The Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of the problem </li></ul><ul...
The Problem
Introduction <ul><li>Educating the 21 st  Century student often entails numerous and somewhat overwhelming challenges.  An...
Background of the Problem <ul><li>One component of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA) is adequate yearly progress, or AY...
  Statement of the Problem   <ul><li>In response to the NCLBA (No Child Left Behind) Act of 2001, administrators, counselo...
Purpose of the Study <ul><li>The purpose of the study is three-fold: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) The study will assess the acade...
Significance of the Study <ul><li>The significance of the study is to ensure that children across the country receive the ...
Research Questions to be Investigated <ul><li>Quantitative research questions to be answered are as follows: </li></ul><ul...
Research Questions to be Investigated <ul><li>Quantitative research questions to be answered are as follows: </li></ul><ul...
Research Questions to be Investigated <ul><li>Quantitative research questions to be answered are as follows: </li></ul><ul...
Null Hypotheses <ul><li>The following null hypotheses were developed from the preceding quantitative research questions: <...
Qualitative Research Questions <ul><li>Qualitative research questions to be answered are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>4. ...
Literature Review
Diagrammatic format of the Conceptual Framework A graph format of Omrod’s (1999) findings developed from Albert Bandura’s ...
Existing Studies <ul><li>A comprehensive set of information regarding school choice has been provided in The National Hous...
Existing Studies <ul><li>The United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) conducted a study in December of 2004 to...
Existing Studies <ul><li>The GAO found “(a)bout 1 in 10 of the nation’s 50,000 Title I schools were identified for school ...
Existing Studies <ul><li>Eight hundred families were surveyed by Researchers at the Center on Reinventing Public Education...
Existing Studies <ul><li>45% Quality of the academic program </li></ul><ul><li>19% Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>11% Locati...
Description of research methods Research Methods: Mixed Methods Study Quantitative Data Descriptive Statistics Causal-Comp...
Description of research methods (continued) <ul><li>Quantitative Data </li></ul><ul><li>For the quantitative portion of th...
Description of research methods (continued) <ul><li>Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>Independent variable  </li></ul><ul>...
Description of research methods  (continued) <ul><li>Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive Statistics for the foll...
Description of research methods  (continued) <ul><li>T-tests for independent means will be calculated to determine if diff...
Description of research methods  (continued) <ul><li>Population and Sample </li></ul><ul><li>6 th  – 8 th  grade students ...
Description of research methods  (continued) Instrumentation Extant data from the 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 Mathematics and ...
Description of research methods  (continued) <ul><li>Research Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>A database of all transfer stud...
Description of research methods  (continued) <ul><li>Research Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher will develop two...
Description of research methods  (continued) <ul><li>Data Analysis  </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive statistics  will include...
Description of research methods  (continued) <ul><li>Data Analysis  </li></ul><ul><li>T-tests for independent means  will ...
Description of research methods  (continued) Qualitative The qualitative data will consist of responses from participants....
Description of research methods  (continued) <ul><li>Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>For the qualitative portion of the ...
Description of research methods  (continued) Instrumentation Extant data from the 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 Mathematics and ...
Description of research methods  (continued) <ul><li>Pilot Study </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher will pilot the structure...
Description of research methods  (continued) <ul><li>Population and Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Counselors that had the oppor...
Description of research methods  (continued) <ul><li>Instrumentation </li></ul><ul><li>Interview questions will be structu...
Description of research methods  (continued) <ul><li>Research Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Eligible counselor participants...
Description of research methods  (continued) <ul><li>Data Collection and Recording </li></ul><ul><li>Structured demographi...
Description of research methods  (continued) <ul><li>Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative data will be coded accord...
References Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning.  Educational Psychologist...
References Ormrod, J. E. (1999). Human learning (3rd ed) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Public Agenda, 1999).   Sc...
References Viadero, D. (2007, January). Researchers Examine School Choice Picks.  Education  Week, 26 (19), 9.  Retrieved ...
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Michelle Annette Cloud, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Dr. Michelle Annette Cloud, PhD Program in Educational Leadership, PVAMU, Member of the Texas A&M University System.

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  • READ SLIDE Nevertheless, schools cannot evade their responsibility towards properly educating children. Schools must be able to meet the challenge of educating all students in a manner and environment that allows them to reach their full potential. Historically and philosophically, schools are charged with the mission of holistically developing the continuously evolving student.
  • The stakes are continually being raised due to state and national accountability standards associated with the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001(NCLBA). NOW READ SLIDE Districts, campuses, and the state are required to meet AYP criteria on three measures: Reading/Language Arts, Mathematics, and either Graduation Rate (for high schools and districts) or Attendance Rate (for elementary and middle/junior high schools)
  • The topic of school of choice is being heavily considered for parents, students, counselors, teachers and school administrators. Parents need helpful resources to make well-informed decisions regarding their child’s academic placement. THEREFORE: READ SLIDE
  • READ SLIDE FIRST The results of this study will provide insight to school leaders and parents charged with assisting and supporting students as they transition to a selected school of choice.
  • READ SLIDE FIRST The function of the pubic school is to maximize student achievement, it is important to measure the advantages and disadvantages of transferring students to a selected school of choice. The findings of this study will provide insight to parents and school officials charged with assisting and supporting students as they transition.
  • According to Goldhaber (2002), Despite the years of research and debate, the question of whether school choice improves student outcomes persists (p. 1). READ BULLET
  • The GAO recommends the following: monitor(ing) issues [that] promote promised practices related to limited classroom capacity, help(ing) states develop strategies for better involving parents about school choice, and includ(ing) in its planned NCLBA implementation study, and examination of . . . academic outcomes and retention rates of transferring students (p. 1).
  • Does this only apply to Title 1 schools
  • Forty-five percent of parents indicated that the quality of the academic program was a primary item when deciding on their child’s school. Nineteen percent mentioned the curriculum used by the school was a strong factor in determining a campus. Eleven percent expressed that the location of the school was a major item when considering a campus as an option for their child. The study concluded that most families expressed satisfaction with their choice and satisfaction increased when students were an integral part of making the decision (Viadero, 2007). The researchers discovered that families utilize an array of resources to determine the school their child will attend. Some notable resources included, but were not limited, recommendations from others, school visits, conversations with administrators and teachers and available printed materials. The study further found: READ BULLETS
  • Research Methods This study is a mixed-method design. triangulation since you are looking at quanti, the questionnaire of teachers and interview of counselors. Triangulation - when two different methods are used in an attempt to confirm, cross- validate, or corroborate findings within a single study (Creswell, 1998). In this mixed-method design, the researcher will collect quantitative data using descriptive methods and causal comparative methods. Descriptive methods will include a review of “frequency distributions or relationships between variables . . .” (Sirkin, 2006, p. 193). Isaac &amp; Michael (1997) describe causal comparative methods as “(investigating) possible cause-and effect relationships by observing some existing consequence and searching back through data for plausible causal factors” (p. 46).
  • The researcher will identify the independent and dependent variables. Independent variables are defined as variables “ . . . the researcher chooses to study in order to assess their possible effect(s) on one or more other variables” (Fraenkel &amp; Wallen, 2006, p. 43). READ FIRST BULLET
  • &amp;quot;Descriptive Statistics for the following variables&amp;quot;: (The statistics that you may utilize can be: frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations). Descriptive statistics will be used to describe the sample population. Descriptive statistics are “(s)tatistics in which frequency distributions or relationships between variables are described” (Sirkin, 2006, p. 193). NOTES JUST FOR YOU MICHELLE The dependent variable is “(t)he variable that is being caused or explained” (Sirkin, 2006, p. 24). Fraenkel and Wallen explain that independent variables influence at least one other variable known as the dependent variable.
  • T-tests are “ . . . used to compare means scores of two different, or independent, groups” (Fraenkel &amp; Wallen, 2006, p. 233).
  • The subjects of the study will be sixth through eighth grade students from two campuses from one large school district in Texas. The transfer students will be a criterion case, which entails criterion sampling. The criteria for selecting cases in this study will be all transfer students that elected to transfer. There will be a total of 153 transfer students from School A and a total of 156 transfer students from School B. The total number of transfer students will be 309. Stratified random sampling will be utilized to select the cases of non-transfer students. “Stratified random sampling is a process in which certain subgroups, or strata, are selected for the sample in the same proportion as they exist in the population” (Fraenkel &amp; Wallen, 2006, p. 96). The number of non-transfer students will equal to the number of cases of transfer students and will be similar in certain demographics.
  • Demographic information will include: gender, grade level, race, socio-economic status, educational placement (special education, regular education, gifted and talented, English Language Learners), at-risk status and chronological age.
  • NOTES FOR REFERENCE The significance level will be p &lt; 0.05.
  • NOTES FOR YOU MICHELLE Structured interviews “. . . consist of a series of questions designed to elicit specific answers from respondents” (Fraenkel &amp; Wallen, 2006, p. 455). Demographic information will include: gender, age, ethnicity, years of experience in education and years of experience in counseling and total years in current position. Semistructured interviews (see Appendix I) assist the researcher in “. . . (obtaining) information that can later be compared and contrasted” (Fraenkel &amp; Wallen, 2006, p. 455). Fraenkel &amp; Wallen (2006) explain that semistructured interviews “. . . are often best conducted toward the end of a study . . . (and) are most helpful for obtaining information to test a specific hypothesis that the researcher has in mind” (p. 455) “ Feeling questions concern how respondents feel about things” (Fraenkel &amp; Wallen, 2006, p. 458). “Sensory questions focus on what a respondent has seen, heard, tasted, smelled or touched” (Fraenkel &amp; Wallen, p. 458).
  • THIS ARE JUST NOTES FOR YOU MICHELLE A pilot study is “. . . a small-scale trial of proposed procedures. The purpose of the pilot study is to detect any problems so that they can be remedied before the study proper is carried out” (Fraenkel &amp; Wallen, 2006, p. 606).
  • DO NOT READ THIS. REFER TO IF YOU NEED TO EXPLAIN Criterion sampling entails selecting cases “. . . that meet some predetermined criterion of importance” (Isaac &amp; Michael, 1997, p. 224). According to Isaac &amp; Michael, these cases “. . . are likely to be information rich because they reveal major system weaknesses (or strengths) leading to program improvement” (Isaac &amp; Michael, p. 224).
  • READ FIRST BULLET Semistructured questions will be based on the Review of Literature and Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory. Semistructured interview questions will be used to gauge the counselors’ perceptions of factors impacting student success during school of choice transition. READ SECOND BULLET Counselors meeting this standard are highly qualified and considered credible and dependable. Due to the competencies stated out by the State Board of Education in Texas, counselors consistently fulfill similar roles and responsibilities throughout the state. Based on peer debriefing and feedback from panel of experts, the instrument is both reliable and valid.
  • READ AFTER SLIDE
  • READ BULLET FIRST The semistructured interview questions will be recorded if all counselor participants provide consent. The researcher will describe the coding or analysis scheme. The researcher will identify the major themes (first level codes) from participants’ responses and discuss the results of the pattern codes, using copious quotes as illustrations. The researcher will share information that both support and refute the claims in the major themes used in emergent category designation. All data will be stored in a secure location, locked file cabinets, in the researcher’s residence. All data will be appropriately destroyed seven years succeeding the conclusion of the study.
  • Cross-case analysis involves formulating a conceptual framework containing dominant themes and cross-referencing these themes to make comparisons and explore contrasts (Maxwell, 2005).
  • Michelle Annette Cloud, PhD Dissertation Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair

    1. 1.   Factors Impacting Student Success in Grades 6-8 During School of Choice Transition at Two Middle Schools
    2. 2. <ul><li>  PRAIRIE VIEW A&M UNIVERSITY </li></ul><ul><li>THE COLLEGE OF EDUCATION </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>FACTORS IMPACTING STUDENT SUCCESS IN GRADES 6-8 DURING </li></ul><ul><li>SCHOOL OF CHOICE TRANSITION AT TWO MIDDLE SCHOOLS </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>MICHELLE ANNETTE CLOUD </li></ul><ul><li>Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. William Allan Kritsonis </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. David Herrington </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Wanda Johnson </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Lucian Yates, III </li></ul><ul><li>Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for </li></ul><ul><li>DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>October 2008 </li></ul>
    3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>Part I, The Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Statement of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Significance of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Research questions </li></ul><ul><li>Part II, Literature Review </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptual framework </li></ul><ul><li>Existing studies </li></ul><ul><li>Part III, Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Research design </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects of the study </li></ul><ul><li>Data analysis method </li></ul>
    4. 4. The Problem
    5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Educating the 21 st Century student often entails numerous and somewhat overwhelming challenges. An ever-increasing number of students enter school with deficits stemming from socio-economic to socio-linguistic barriers. At far too many campuses, resources, parental support, and community support are limited. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Background of the Problem <ul><li>One component of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLBA) is adequate yearly progress, or AYP. Any Title I school designated in need of improvement (based on AYP rating) must offer all students attending that school the opportunity to attend a school in the district that has successfully met its AYP goals (Texas Education Agency, 2008). </li></ul>
    7. 7.   Statement of the Problem <ul><li>In response to the NCLBA (No Child Left Behind) Act of 2001, administrators, counselors, teachers, students and parents are now strongly considering the benefits and disadvantages of transferring students to a selected school of choice. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Purpose of the Study <ul><li>The purpose of the study is three-fold: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) The study will assess the academic impact on transfer students. </li></ul><ul><li>(2) The study will assess the social impact on transfer students. </li></ul><ul><li>(3) The study will explore the perception of counselors on the academic and social impact of transfer students. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Significance of the Study <ul><li>The significance of the study is to ensure that children across the country receive the maximum benefit from the legislation prescribed in the NCLBA. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Research Questions to be Investigated <ul><li>Quantitative research questions to be answered are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences in the 2005/2006 Mathematics and Reading Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills scores and 2006/2007 Mathematics and Reading Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills scores between transfer and non-transfer students in </li></ul><ul><li>grades 6-8? </li></ul>
    11. 11. Research Questions to be Investigated <ul><li>Quantitative research questions to be answered are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>2. What are the differences in the Mathematics and Language Arts grade point average (G.P.A.) between transfer and non-transfer students in grades 6-8? </li></ul>
    12. 12. Research Questions to be Investigated <ul><li>Quantitative research questions to be answered are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>3. What are the differences in the attendance rate between transfer and non-transfer students in grades 6-8? </li></ul>
    13. 13. Null Hypotheses <ul><li>The following null hypotheses were developed from the preceding quantitative research questions: </li></ul><ul><li>H 01 : There is no statistically significant difference between the 2005/2006 Mathematics and Reading Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills scores and the 2006/2007 Mathematics and Reading Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills scores of transfer students and non-transfer students in grades 6-8. </li></ul><ul><li>H 02 : There is no statistically significant difference in Mathematics and Language Arts grade point average (G.P.A.) of transfer and non-transfer students in grades 6-8. </li></ul><ul><li>H 03 : There is no statistically significant difference in the attendance rate of transfer and non-transfer students in grades 6-8. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Qualitative Research Questions <ul><li>Qualitative research questions to be answered are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>4. What behaviors/habits do counselors observe from transfer students in grades 6-8? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Which factors in the school of choice schools do counselors perceive are the most helpful in assisting transfer students in grades 6-8? </li></ul>
    15. 15. Literature Review
    16. 16. Diagrammatic format of the Conceptual Framework A graph format of Omrod’s (1999) findings developed from Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory Describing the consequences of behavior can effectively increase appropriate behaviors and decrease inappropriate ones
    17. 17. Existing Studies <ul><li>A comprehensive set of information regarding school choice has been provided in The National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) (Bielick & Chapman, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>The NHES data indicated that the proportionate number of students enrolled in specifically assigned public schools decreased between 1993 and 2003 due to more students enrolling in chosen public schools. </li></ul><ul><li>The study further indicated that the proportionate number of students enrolled in private schools remained stable between 1993 and 2003 (Bielick & Chapman). </li></ul>
    18. 18. Existing Studies <ul><li>The United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) conducted a study in December of 2004 to provide Congress with a report reviewing the first 2 years of implementation of the NCLBA school choice. </li></ul><ul><li>The United States GAO considered the following factors: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) the number of Title I schools and students that have been affected nationally, </li></ul><ul><li>(2) the experiences of selected school districts in implementing choice, </li></ul><ul><li>(3) the guidance and technical assistance that education provided (p. 1). </li></ul>
    19. 19. Existing Studies <ul><li>The GAO found “(a)bout 1 in 10 of the nation’s 50,000 Title I schools were identified for school choice in each of the first 2 years since enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act . . .” (United States Government Accountability Office, 2004, p.1). </li></ul><ul><li>“ The proportion of schools identified for choice varied by state” and “(a)bout 1 percent of eligible children, or 31,000 students, transferred in school year 2003-2004” (GAO, p. 1). </li></ul>
    20. 20. Existing Studies <ul><li>Eight hundred families were surveyed by Researchers at the Center on Reinventing Public Education. </li></ul><ul><li>The families had earnings less than $50,000 a year and were located in three cities, Denver, Milwaukee, and Washington, with recent or established school choice programs (Viadero, 2007). </li></ul><ul><li>Parents in lower socioeconomic categories complete the process for selected campuses in an altogether different manner than parents in higher income brackets even though both groups of parents report equal satisfaction with the process (Viadero, 2007). </li></ul>
    21. 21. Existing Studies <ul><li>45% Quality of the academic program </li></ul><ul><li>19% Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>11% Location of the school </li></ul><ul><li>The study concluded that most families expressed satisfaction with their choice and satisfaction increased when students were an integral part of making the decision (Viadero, 2007). </li></ul>
    22. 22. Description of research methods Research Methods: Mixed Methods Study Quantitative Data Descriptive Statistics Causal-Comparative Qualitative Data Interviews
    23. 23. Description of research methods (continued) <ul><li>Quantitative Data </li></ul><ul><li>For the quantitative portion of the study, the researcher will use the following data: </li></ul><ul><li>2005/2006 and 2006/2007 Mathematics and Reading Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) scores </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics and Language Arts grade point averages </li></ul><ul><li>Attendance rates </li></ul>
    24. 24. Description of research methods (continued) <ul><li>Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>Independent variable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School Choice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transfer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>non-transfer students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependent variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics and Reading TAKS scores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics and Language Arts grade point averages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attendance rates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Descriptive statistics will include the following information about the sample population: gender, grade level, ethnicity, socio-economic status, educational placement (special education, regular education, gifted and talented, English Language Learners), at-risk status and chronological age. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Description of research methods (continued) <ul><li>Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive Statistics for the following variables: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grade level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>socio-economic status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>educational placement (special education, regular education, gifted and talented, English Language Learners) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>at-risk status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chronological age </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Description of research methods (continued) <ul><li>T-tests for independent means will be calculated to determine if differences exists with: </li></ul><ul><li>the Mathematics and Reading TAKS scores between transfer and non-transfer students in grades 6-8 </li></ul><ul><li>(2) the Mathematics and Language Arts grade point average (G.P.A.) between transfer and non-transfer students in </li></ul><ul><li>grades 6-8 </li></ul><ul><li>(3) the attendance rate between transfer and non-transfer students in grades 6-8 </li></ul>
    27. 27. Description of research methods (continued) <ul><li>Population and Sample </li></ul><ul><li>6 th – 8 th grade students from one large school district in Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Criterion Sampling – Transfer students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School A = 153 transfer students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School B = 156 transfer students. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total number of transfer students = 309 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stratified random sampling – Non-transfer students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of non-transfer students will equal to the number of cases of transfer students and will be similar in certain demographics </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Description of research methods (continued) Instrumentation Extant data from the 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 Mathematics and Reading TAKS Test will be used to determine if differences exists between the 2005/2006 Mathematics and Reading TAKS scores and the 2006/2007 Mathematics and Reading TAKS scores of transfer students and non-transfer students in grades 6-8.
    29. 29. Description of research methods (continued) <ul><li>Research Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>A database of all transfer students will be obtained through school records and developed using Excel. A database of students who elected to remain at their home campus using school records will also be created, the non-transfer students. The database will also contain the Mathematics and Reading Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills scores, Mathematics and Language Arts G.P.A. and attendance rates of transfer and non-transfer students. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Description of research methods (continued) <ul><li>Research Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher will develop two groups: transfer students and non-transfer students. </li></ul><ul><li>Each student will receive a code to protect his or her anonymity. </li></ul><ul><li>Once the spreadsheets have been developed using Excel software, the data will be imported to SPSS 13.0 to complete descriptive statistics and t-tests for independent means. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Description of research methods (continued) <ul><li>Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive statistics will include demographic information about the transfer and non-transfer students. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive statistics will be analyzed and frequencies and percentages will be presented in table format. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Description of research methods (continued) <ul><li>Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>T-tests for independent means will be used to compare means to answer the research questions for the quantitative portion of the study. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply the standard alpha level: 0.05. </li></ul><ul><li>The rejection rule will be applied. </li></ul>
    33. 33. Description of research methods (continued) Qualitative The qualitative data will consist of responses from participants. Counselors will be interviewed and asked questions that correlate with the theoretical framework, which is taken from Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory.
    34. 34. Description of research methods (continued) <ul><li>Research Design </li></ul><ul><li>For the qualitative portion of the study, the independent variables will be the transfer students. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The dependent variables will be the counselors’ perception. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demographic information from school counselors from two schools, School A and School B, will be collected using structured interviews. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Counselor participants will be interviewed using structured and semistructured interviews during telephone survey or personal sessions. </li></ul><ul><li>Each counselor participant will be asked feeling and sensory questions. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Description of research methods (continued) Instrumentation Extant data from the 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 Mathematics and Reading Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Test will be used to determine if differences exists between the 2005/2006 Mathematics and Reading Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills scores and the 2006/2007 Mathematics and Reading Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills scores of transfer students and non-transfer students in grades 6-8.
    36. 36. Description of research methods (continued) <ul><li>Pilot Study </li></ul><ul><li>The researcher will pilot the structured and semistructured interview questions to determine if the interview questions are clearly worded with a panel of experts. </li></ul>
    37. 37. Description of research methods (continued) <ul><li>Population and Sample </li></ul><ul><li>Counselors that had the opportunity to observe and interact directly with transfer students. </li></ul><ul><li>This sample population is a criterion case and will consist of six participants. Each participant must be a certified counselor. </li></ul>
    38. 38. Description of research methods (continued) <ul><li>Instrumentation </li></ul><ul><li>Interview questions will be structured and semistructured. </li></ul><ul><li>The panel of experts will consist of counselors that have been confirmed and certified according to the standards established by the Texas State Board of Education for Certification. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Description of research methods (continued) <ul><li>Research Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Eligible counselor participants will be called to schedule an appointment. </li></ul><ul><li>After confirmation of the appointment, the researcher will conduct a face-to face or telephone survey with counselor participant. </li></ul><ul><li>Upon completion of the interview session, counselor participants will be mailed a thank you letter for their willingness to participate in the study. </li></ul><ul><li>Each returned consent form would be assigned an identification number to be used in a coding system for management of data collection. </li></ul>
    40. 40. Description of research methods (continued) <ul><li>Data Collection and Recording </li></ul><ul><li>Structured demographic questions will be asked of each counselor participant who agreed to take part in the research. </li></ul><ul><li>The demographic questions will address the following: gender, age, education level, and years of experience in education and total years of counseling experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Semistructured interview questions </li></ul>
    41. 41. Description of research methods (continued) <ul><li>Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative data will be coded according to related themes and analyzed for recurring and emergent themes correlating with the theoretical framework. </li></ul><ul><li>Emergent category designation, cross-case analysis, peer debriefing and triangulation will be used to support the statistical data gathered from the quantitative portion of the study. </li></ul>
    42. 42. References Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28 , 117-148. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall . Bielick, S, & Chapman, C. (2003). Trends in the use of school choice: 1993-1999 (NCES 2003-031). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Fraenkel, J., & Wallen, N. (2006). How to design and evaluate research in education. 6th ed. New York: McGraw Hill. Isaac, S. & Michael, W. (1997). Handbook in Research and Evaluation for Education and the Behavioral Sciences (3rd ed.) San Diego, CA: EdiTs/Educational and Industrial Testing Services.
    43. 43. References Ormrod, J. E. (1999). Human learning (3rd ed) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Public Agenda, 1999). Schneider, M., Teske, P., Marschall, M., Mintrom, M., & Roch, C. (1997). Institutional Arrangements and the Creation of Social Capital: The Effects of Public School Choice. The American Political Science Review, 91 (1), 82-93. Sirkin, R. (2006). Statistics for the social sciences. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 45    Texas Education Agency (2008). Retrieved June 14, 2008, from http://www.tea.state.tx.us/data.html United States Government Accountability Office. (2004). No child left behind act: Education needs to provide additional technical assistance and conduct Implementation studies for school choice provision. (Highlights of GAO-05-7, a report to the Secretary of Education).
    44. 44. References Viadero, D. (2007, January). Researchers Examine School Choice Picks.  Education Week, 26 (19), 9.  Retrieved July 21, 2008, from Research Library database. (Document ID: 1197232011).
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