Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICANAMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN    HISTORI...
Abstract       The purpose of this study was to conduct a phenomenological investigation that gavevoice to seven African A...
Dedication       To Michael, my darling husband of 20 years…you have stood by my side from thebeginning of our union to th...
Acknowledgements       Along life‘s highway, God sends special individuals in one‘s life that will have aneverlasting impa...
Table of ContentsAbstract ...................................................................................................
Chapter II Literature Review ................................................................................................
Critical Race Theory ........................................................................................................
Participant F ...............................................................................................................
Chapter 5 Findings, Implications and Recommendations ...........................................................159    Int...
Revisiting the Mission of HBCUs ...................................................................................181    ...
List of TablesTable 1 Data Collection .......................................................................................
List of FiguresFigure 1 Common Themes........................................................................................
Chapter I                                           Introduction       For centuries, African American males have had a hi...
2Woodson, 1933/2005), it was not surprising that the statistics describing this group werealarming and contributed to perp...
3opportunities for promotions. This malady is related to hiring selections for executive positionswhere Anglo American mal...
4       The conceptual frameworks used for this study were based on Critical Race Theory(CRT), Resiliency Theory, and Ment...
5and collectively. The researcher utilized the centrality of race component of the theory toexamine the impact of racism a...
61981 where a multimillionaire, Eugene Lang, promised to pay for the college education of agroup of sixth graders (in an i...
7transition into society for youths who were ex-slaves. The demand for education of AfricanAmerican youth created a void f...
8American community fought to keep school doors open for African American youth. Aseducation among HBCU‘s was on the rise,...
9       According to Green (2001), the escalation of African American male drop-out rates hasbecome a major concern for po...
10on their journey toward leadership.       The researcher utilized search engines such as ProQuest, Sage Publications, an...
11   African American male educational leaders from a Southwestern Historically Black College   and University?5. What is ...
12men by decreasing their influence and visibility at the social, political, economical, andeducational levels (Stupak, 20...
13(p. 235). The researcher therefore shared her experiences with risk and protective factors thathave framed her interpret...
14White people to help them buy food when they only had little for survival. The separation of mydad‘s mother and father h...
15lack of black-owned gas stations, convenience stores, and Blacks in public offices at the time,left me few examples of A...
16       While I attended Bellville High, Advanced Placement courses were geared towardsWhites, with one or two Black stud...
17better life for me and my family. As a means of escape from my family‘s present condition, Ifollowed the advice of the A...
18culture. While attending the university, I saw African American males dressed in fine suits,neatly groomed hair, articul...
19leadership in action. That experience made me proud to see an African American man stand withboldness and power in the m...
20African American representations at leadership conferences were members of the AfricanAmerican major leader‘s organizati...
21to sense the air of inferiority that the dominate race was attempting to inflict upon her. Theauthor decided to attend a...
22the university with years of service and contribution. The challenge of obtaining this informationwould be their accessi...
23protocol asks for occupational information that could potentially reveal the participants identity.The participants were...
24    and wants to let things speak for themselves; it is interpretive (hermeneutic) methodology    because lived experien...
Chapter II                                        Literature Review       In order to understand the phenomenon of African...
26War,‖ 2009).       No matter how challenging slave masters made the acquisition of education, slaves foundcreative ways ...
27were inferior to Whites; therefore, Blacks were excluded from PWIs.       In Schexnider‘s (2008) article on the signific...
28recruited, nurtured, and retained African American students and leaders. Bennett and Xie (2003)argue that HBCUs have gre...
29unconstitutional and the Jim Crow Laws were dismantled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 andthe Voting Rights Act of 1965 ...
30Black church and its focal leader, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Although the movement caused thedeath of Dr. King, it pro...
31contributed to the rise of the Baptist and Methodist faiths. It appears that the nature of theAfrican American struggle ...
32educators in the teaching profession from grades K to 12. The study revealed that AfricanAmerican males who always had t...
33groups, and secondary principles.                         Leadership Styles of African American Men       During the Ant...
34powerful orator who spoke for the rights of people of color, as well as women. FrederickDouglass continued to fight for ...
35formed two organizations and a newspaper that spread throughout the world regarding theinjustices experienced by Blacks....
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICA...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY IN TEXAS

1,481

Published on

Published in: News & Politics
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,481
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICAN AMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORICALLY BLACK COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY IN TEXAS"

  1. 1. LIVING LEGACIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY OF SEVEN AFRICANAMERICAN MALE EDUCATIONAL LEADERS FROM A SOUTHWESTERN HISTORIALLY BLACK COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY IN TEXAS A Dissertation Submitted to the Whitlowe R. Green College of Education Prairie View A&M University In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy By Mary Ann Springs July 2011 Prairie View A&M University
  2. 2. Abstract The purpose of this study was to conduct a phenomenological investigation that gavevoice to seven African American male leaders. The study examined the emergence ofeducational leadership and its impact on African American males as perceived, experienced, andexercised by African American male administrators of a Historically Black College andUniversity HBCU in Southwest Texas. The analysis of the data yielded six common themes that were identified as protectivefactors to the success of the seven participants of the study: (a) recognition of and opportunitiesfor leadership, (b) recognition of the negative and positive impacts of segregation andintegration, (c) community, family, and national leaders as mentors, (d) negative risk factors notacknowledged as roadblocks, (e) African American males continued service to impact youth, and(f) influence inside and outside of the school community. iii
  3. 3. Dedication To Michael, my darling husband of 20 years…you have stood by my side from thebeginning of our union to the present. Through your leadership and God‘s guidance, Godcommanded the steps I should take from the beginning of this process to the finish. I neverwould have made it without the two of you. While striving to obtain my doctoral degree, Godwas my guiding light. Your loving support was the ―pot of gold‖ at the end of the rainbow. I loveyou…with every beat of my heart. iv
  4. 4. Acknowledgements Along life‘s highway, God sends special individuals in one‘s life that will have aneverlasting impact. Such was my dissertation chair, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis. He waspredestined to serve as an integral part of my life. You have been more than a mentor; you havebeen like a father to me. I‘m searching deep to find the words to humbly express my gratitude toyou and Dr. Mary Alice Kritsonis, who wanted my success just as much as I did. Mother MaryAlice, I can‘t thank you enough for the endless hours you devoted to the formatting of thishistorical document, your commitment to academic excellence, and your example of strong workethics and teamwork. Thank you for giving yourselves to us, the doctoral students. I cannot truly express my sincere gratitude to my parents, who were my first mentors androle models. Mom and dad, I thank God for you because you brought seven children into theworld and kept us together as a family through hard work and integrity. To my dynamic committee: Dr. Douglas Hermond, Dr. Patricia Hoffman-Miller, Dr. CarlGardiner, and Dr. Solomon Osho…thank you for your encouragement and guidance during thisprocess. You‘re timely feedback was instrumental in filling-in the missing pieces of the puzzle. To Dr. Teresa Hughes, my dissertation coach, mentor, and friend...you were with mefrom the beginning to the end. Thank you for believing I had what it took to make it to this point. Much gratitude to you, Mr. Grundy and Patrice, for your constructive feedback in helpingme edit my dissertation. I appreciate your hard work. Finally, to the participants of the study…thank you for sharing precious moments in yourlife that were the embodiment of the powerful icons you represent today. May all who read thisdissertation, extract not only your timeless words of wisdom, but absorb the essence of anAfrican American male leader. v
  5. 5. Table of ContentsAbstract .......................................................................................................................................... iiiDedication ...................................................................................................................................... ivAcknowledgements ..........................................................................................................................vTable of Contents ........................................................................................................................... viList of Tables ................................................................................................................................ xiiList of Figures .............................................................................................................................. xiiiChapter I Introduction ......................................................................................................................1 Barriers to African American Male Leadership at Predominately White Institutions...............3 Critical Race Theory ..................................................................................................................4 Resiliency Theory ......................................................................................................................5 Mentorship .................................................................................................................................5 Background of the Problem .......................................................................................................6 The History of African American Education .......................................................................6 The Significance of HBCUs and African American Male Leadership................................8 Research Questions ..................................................................................................................10 Purpose of the Study ................................................................................................................11 Significance of the Study .........................................................................................................11 Personal Statement ...................................................................................................................12 Delimitations of the Study .......................................................................................................22 Limitations ...............................................................................................................................22 Definition of Terms..................................................................................................................23 Organization of the Study ........................................................................................................24 vi
  6. 6. Chapter II Literature Review .........................................................................................................25 History of Black Education in the South .................................................................................25 Rise and Significance of the HBCU ........................................................................................26 Critical Moments in African American History ......................................................................28 Black Leaders and Politics .................................................................................................28 The Jim Crow Laws and Segregation ................................................................................29 The Black Power and Civil Rights Movements .................................................................29 The Black Family and Community ....................................................................................30 The Rise of African American Leadership and National Leaders ...........................................31 Leadership Styles of African American Men ..........................................................................33 Frederick Douglass ............................................................................................................33 Henry Highland Garnet ......................................................................................................34 Marcus Garvey ...................................................................................................................34 Booker T. Washington .......................................................................................................35 William Edward Burghardt DuBois...................................................................................36 Malcolm X .........................................................................................................................37 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ................................................................................................38 Educational Leaders of African American HBCUs .................................................................39 Black Faculty in Higher Education ....................................................................................39 African American Male Administrators in Higher Education ...........................................40 A Brief History of HBCU Educational Leaders ................................................................41 Leadership Demands ................................................................................................................44 The Significance of Mentorship for African American Males ................................................46 vii
  7. 7. Critical Race Theory ................................................................................................................48 Resiliency Theory ....................................................................................................................49 Risk Factors that Threaten African American Male Youth .....................................................53Chapter III Methodology ...............................................................................................................55 Purpose of the Study ................................................................................................................55 Methodology ............................................................................................................................56 Research Design.......................................................................................................................58 Subjects of the Study ...............................................................................................................60 Instrumentation ........................................................................................................................60 Validity and Reliability of the Data .........................................................................................64 Procedures ................................................................................................................................65 Data Analysis ...........................................................................................................................69 Summary ..................................................................................................................................72Chapter IV Data Analysis ..............................................................................................................73 The Purpose of the Study .........................................................................................................74 Data Analysis ...........................................................................................................................75 The Participants .......................................................................................................................76 Research Participants: Individual/Participant Profiles……………………………………….78 Participant A ......................................................................................................................78 Participant B.......................................................................................................................80 Participant C.......................................................................................................................81 Participant D ......................................................................................................................84 Participant E .......................................................................................................................85 viii
  8. 8. Participant F .......................................................................................................................86 Participant G ......................................................................................................................88Participant Observations ..........................................................................................................90 Participant A ......................................................................................................................90 Participant B.......................................................................................................................91 Participant C.......................................................................................................................93 Participant D ......................................................................................................................94 Participant E .......................................................................................................................95 Participant F .......................................................................................................................96 Participant G ......................................................................................................................97Narrative Responses.................................................................................................................97 Research Question 1 ..........................................................................................................99 Research Question 2 ........................................................................................................106 Research Question 3 ........................................................................................................119 Research Question 4 ........................................................................................................128 Research Question 5 ........................................................................................................134 Research Question 5 ........................................................................................................139 Research Question 6 ........................................................................................................142 Research Question 6 ........................................................................................................147Conceptual Frameworks ........................................................................................................154Summary ................................................................................................................................156Mentorship .............................................................................................................................157Conclusion .............................................................................................................................158 ix
  9. 9. Chapter 5 Findings, Implications and Recommendations ...........................................................159 Interview Process ...................................................................................................................161 Data Analysis .........................................................................................................................161 Common Themes ...................................................................................................................162 Recognition and Opportunities for Leadership ................................................................162 Recognized Negative and Positive Impacts of Segregation and Integration ...................165 Community, Family, and National Leaders as Mentors ..................................................167 Negative Risk Factors Not Acknowledged as Roadblocks..............................................170 African American Males Continued Service to Impact Youth ........................................171 Influence Inside and Outside of the School Community .................................................172 Theoretical Frameworks ........................................................................................................174 HBCUs Helped Prepare Students for Success .................................................................174 Dedication to Excellence and Strong Work Ethics ..........................................................175 Injustice Gave Birth to the Demand to be Successful......................................................176 Taking Risks for What One Believes is Fair and Just .....................................................176 Faith in God, Education and Role Models .......................................................................177 Summary ................................................................................................................................177 Conclusions/ Impact on Researcher .................................................................................177 Implications for Practice ........................................................................................................179 Opportunities to Demonstrate Leadership .......................................................................179 African American Mentorship Program ..........................................................................179 Impact and Influence/ ―Dual Role in Education‖ ............................................................180 Reflection .........................................................................................................................180 x
  10. 10. Revisiting the Mission of HBCUs ...................................................................................181 Recommendations for Further Study .....................................................................................181References ....................................................................................................................................183Appendices...................................................................................................................................193 Appendix A: Demographic Instrument ..................................................................................194 Appendix B: Interview Questions Instrument .......................................................................198 Appendix C: Interview Protocol ............................................................................................201 Appendix D: Observational Protocol .....................................................................................204 Appendix E: IRB Approval for Research Study ....................................................................206 Appendix F: Consent Form....................................................................................................208 Appendix G: Informed Consent Permission to Audio Tape Interview..................................212 Appendix H: Revised Interview Instrument ..........................................................................214 Appendix I: Interview Transcription .....................................................................................216 Interview with Participant A ............................................................................................217 Interview with Participant B ............................................................................................241 Interview with Participant C ............................................................................................264 Interview with Participant D ............................................................................................294 Interview with Participant E ............................................................................................321 Interview with Participant F.............................................................................................335 Interview with Participant G ............................................................................................348Vita...............................................................................................................................................360 xi
  11. 11. List of TablesTable 1 Data Collection ................................................................................................................71Table 2 Demographic Information................................................................................................77 xii
  12. 12. List of FiguresFigure 1 Common Themes...........................................................................................................163Figure 2 Resilience Factors ..........................................................................................................174 xiii
  13. 13. Chapter I Introduction For centuries, African American males have had a history of fighting for their basic rightsafforded by the American Constitution which were life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.Since the arrival of African American slaves to the shores of North America during the 18th/19thCentury, they were forced to deny the existence and practice of their culture in exchange forthinking, working, and living like a slave until their death. This life of servitude was inescapableand, inevitably passed down from generation to generation (DuBois, 1903/2003). Life for African Americans, especially African American males, has continued to lookdismal. According to DuBois (1903/2003), the American society has stereotyped AfricanAmericans as lazy, insolent, aggressive, and unintelligent as compared to the dominant race.While these views are often opinionated and over-rated, such speculation has caused a negativeview of African American males to permeate throughout society. This negative aura has leftAfrican American males marginalized, criminalized, and dehumanized (DuBois). According to the African American Initiative statistical report published by Child‘s AidSociety (2006), more than 29% of African American male youth 15 years and older wereincarcerated as compared to 4.4% Anglo American boys. In this report, African American malesrepresented 49% of the inmate population, while only 4% of African American males attendedcollege, and 3% actually graduated. Less than one-half of African American males wereemployed and 50% who attended metropolitan schools did not finish. The report also revealed that homicide was the number one killer among AfricanAmerican male youth. In lieu of the research on the societal, political, and educationaldisplacement of African American males (Bashi, 1991; DuBois, 1903/2003; Smith, 2004; & 1
  14. 14. 2Woodson, 1933/2005), it was not surprising that the statistics describing this group werealarming and contributed to perpetuating the stereotype. In the area of education, the Child‘s Aid Society (2006) report showed that AfricanAmerican males were over-represented in areas of suspension, discipline referrals, and specialeducation programs. Conversely, African American male representation in Gifted and Talentedor Advanced Placement programs were minimal in the literature. The report further indicatedthat African American male‘s failure in these areas served as a precursor to other societalproblems such as incarceration, homicide, drugs, gang violence, and persistent drop-out rates ineducation. In Tillman‘s (2004) study of African American males enrolled in community colleges,many males contended that their educational experience was one in which they experiencedisolation, little support, and resources, which included an underrepresentation of role-models anda lack of mentorship programs. College environments which were non-supportive and failed tomeet the needs of African American males may have contributed to their transferring ordropping- out of the program (Tillman). Cuyjet (2006) postulated that the low performance andunderrepresentation of African American males has become a growing concern for HistoricallyBlack Colleges and Universities (HBCU) as well. Factors that prevented African Americanmales from attending college were the obligation of being the provider for the family, thenegative influence of pop culture, and the lack of educated role models (Cuyjet). While these problems held true for a plethora of African American male youth, AfricanAmerican males who succeeded at the collegiate and leadership levels in higher education facedsimilar race-related barriers (Frazier, 2009). According to Jackson (2008), African Americanmales lagged behind Anglo American males economically and are less likely to receive
  15. 15. 3opportunities for promotions. This malady is related to hiring selections for executive positionswhere Anglo American males are more likely to be selected over African American males inleadership positions (Jackson). Barriers to African American Male Leadership at Predominately White Institutions As Smith, Turner, Kofi, and Richards (2004) assert, African American males inleadership roles at Predominantly White Institutions (PWI) experienced similar many challenges.Risk factors that impacted these leaders included voicelessness, tokenism, isolation from one‘sculture, and stress when forced to adopt mainstream ideals that were inconsistent with theirvalues. In addition, African American faculty at PWIs experienced fewer opportunities fortenure, promotions, and scholarships. In some cases, exploration of studies regarding AfricanAmerican phenomenon was not considered scholarship worthy and was scarce in mainstreamreview of literature (Smith et al.). These negative factors spoke to the relevance of HBCUs in thedevelopment of African American male leadership (King & Watts, 2004). One study was conducted on African American educational leadership at an HBCU,however, all participants of the study were female (Green, 2009). Relatively few studiespurported the experiences of African American male educational leaders at PWIs, who becamesuccessful in spite of barriers such as racism, discrimination, and inequality (Daniel, 2006;Ellison, 2007; Frazier, 2009). While there are many African American males in leadershippositions at HBCUs, their voice is absent in the literature. Therefore, the purpose of this studywas to give voice to seven African American male educational leaders, by conducting aphenomenological research study that examined the emergence of educational leadership asperceived, experienced, and exercised by African American male administrators of an HBCU inSouthwest Texas.
  16. 16. 4 The conceptual frameworks used for this study were based on Critical Race Theory(CRT), Resiliency Theory, and Mentorship. CRT seeks to counter traditional theories andpractices that marginalize people of color. It attempts to give voice to the oppressed throughstories concerning experiences related to racial discrimination and inequality that have served ascontributing factors to their lack of life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness (Creswell, 2007). The study sought to establish the background for the participants experience with andexposure to inequality and/or discrimination in society through the lens of CRT (Lee 2008).Resiliency was used to determine if protective factors contributed to the overcoming of barriersand led to the success of seven African American male educational leaders at a SouthwesternHBCU in Texas (Daniel, 2006; Frazier, 2009). The significance of mentorship by AfricanAmerican males has gained recognition as a viable solution to societal problems that faceAfrican American students and administrators (Bacon (2002); Scott (2011). Critical Race Theory According to Delgado (1999) and Bell (1995), much of one‘s own reality is sociallyconstructed and that reliving the experience can be medicinal to the wounds caused byoppression and racism. Through the understanding of how race and discrimination negativelyimpact marginalized groups, oppressors are challenged to reflect on their practices and behaviortoward the oppressed. In Delgado‘s model of CRT, as cited by Lee (2008), the central tenets of CRT involvefive elements: the centrality of race and racism in society, the challenge to dominant ideology,the centrality of experimental knowledge, interdisciplinary, and the commitment to social justice.Lee (2008) asserts that race and racism are ideals that have historically identified andcharacterized the American society. Racism has had a negative impact on minorities individually
  17. 17. 5and collectively. The researcher utilized the centrality of race component of the theory toexamine the impact of racism among seven African American male educational leaders, throughthe re-telling of their lived experiences. Resiliency Theory While CRT exposes racial and discriminatory practices through lived experiences of thevictim, Resiliency Theory seeks to identify factors that contributed to the rise and success ofindividuals experiencing oppression (Zimmerman, Ramirez-Valles, & Maton, 1999). Accordingto Fergus and Zimmerman (2005), researchers have developed three models of resilience(compensatory, protective, and challenge) to analyze how promotive or protective factors helpoff-set the individual from risk factors that have negative outcomes. For the purpose of the study,the researcher utilized the protective-stabilizing model. The protective stabilizing model isapplied when protective factors help neutralize the impact of the risk and the negative outcome;when the protective factor is absent, the greater the relationship between the level of risk and thenegative outcome. The researcher examined protective factors that helped seven AfricanAmerican male educational leaders develop the resilience to overcome political, social, andcultural barriers throughout their journey toward leadership (Fergus & Zimmermann, 2005). Mentorship According to Bashi (1991), mentoring first began as a tool used by corporate executivesto successfully navigate the journey up the corporate ladder. The research of mentoring inbusiness settings indicated that two-thirds of successful corporate executives had a mentor.These same executives with mentors were more likely to earn more and experience higher jobsatisfaction. The author further implies that mentoring expanded into the academic settings in K-12 schools and college programs. It was ignited by the ―I Have a Dream‖ (IHAD) program in
  18. 18. 61981 where a multimillionaire, Eugene Lang, promised to pay for the college education of agroup of sixth graders (in an inner-city school) if they graduated from high school. This programmentored the students in addition to paying for their college tuition. Bashi further asserts that mentoring is incorporated into every aspect of the academicjourney: K-12 schools, colleges & universities, graduate and professional schools. Manyprograms are incorporated to work with diverse students: gifted, disadvantaged, at-risk, andunderrepresented minorities. The effectiveness of mentoring programs for at-risk ordisadvantaged students, however, is unclear in the field of educational. Background of the ProblemThe History of African American Education African Americans, historically, have had a difficult journey navigating through thesocial, political, economical, and educational systems of America. These systems were in placeand controlled by the dominate culture during the Southern Antebellum; as such, the benefits ofthese systems were not privileged to people held as slaves. As it pertains to education, slaveswere usually taught by the mistress or children of slave owners who went to school, though suchacts were prohibited by law (―Slavery and the Civil War,‖ 2009). At the sunset of slavery and thedawn of public education in the South, newly freed slaves sought education as a means of accessto these systems which they felt could enhance their lives and the lives of their families.(DuBois, 1903/2003; Woodson, 1933/2005; Woolfolk, 1986). According to Palmer (2010), HBCUs emerged as a social contract between freedmen andthe American society that would reflect a number of people working together for mutual gain.The contract was designed to decrease racial tension and inequality by created laws,amendments, and HBCUs. The mission of HBCUs was to provide education and a successful
  19. 19. 7transition into society for youths who were ex-slaves. The demand for education of AfricanAmerican youth created a void for African American teachers, thus, HBCUs added teacherpreparation and missionary education (service to the community) to their missions. With the rise of institutions of higher education for Negroes, it was clear to the AfricanAmerican community that education played a critical role in the entrance into public educationwith their White counterparts. The dream was often challenging due to the lack of funding andinadequate facilities at Black colleges. With the aid of the Freedman‘s Bureau, Whitephilanthropy, missionaries, and personal savings of the Black community, African Americanscolleges survived a turbulent beginning. It wasn‘t until the Morrill Land Grant Act that states inthe South actually began funding public schools of Higher Education (Allen & Jewel, 2002;DuBois, 1903/2003; Woolfolk, 1986). African American leaders such as W. E. B. DuBois andhis contemporary, Booker T. Washington, emerged this time to add voice to the development ofHigher education institutions for African American students. For many decades, a remnant of African American male leaders began to surface as theirright to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness were challenged by the status quo. Although theefforts of DuBois and Washington were noble, equity of education between Blacks and Whiteswas not reached. The nation‘s leaders sought to equalize the playing field of education throughthe efforts of the Freedman‘s Bureau (1865), desegregation through the Supreme Court‘s rulingof Brown vs. the Board of Education (1954), and the rise of the Civil Rights Movement (1955-1968), yet the nation‘s schools were still segregated (Allen & Jewel, 2002; DuBois, 1903/2003). As a result of Plessy v Ferguson in 1896, separate but equal included the establishment ofseparate educational institutions for African Americans from Anglo American institutions. MostHBCUs were poorly funded and underdeveloped, but leaders of HBCUs and the African
  20. 20. 8American community fought to keep school doors open for African American youth. Aseducation among HBCU‘s was on the rise, by 1915 the majority of students in Black highereducation were males (Palmer 2010; Woolfolk, 1986).The Significance of HBCUs and African American Male Leadership Since the inception of HBCUs, many African American males were given theopportunity to exercise leadership by serving as teachers/administrators. The birth of AfricanAmerican males as academic and managerial leaders of institutions created a sense of self-respect with their Anglo American counterparts who were overseeing the fiscal and maintenanceaffairs of public schools (Woolfolk, 1986). Leaders of HBCUs and teachers were highlyrespected and served as role models of success for the African American community (DuBois1903/2003; Jackson, 2007; Woolfolk, 1986). Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. DuBoisinfluenced the leadership and educational direction of many HBCUs. Although African American males were in the majority in the pursuit of education andeventually leadership in the early 1900s, African American males of today have not continuedthis legacy. Risk factors such as racism, inequality, single parent homes, and the lack ofmentorship contribute to the negative outcomes that confront African American male youth(Daniel, 2006; Delgado, 1999). In order to cultivate and nurture African American maleeducational leaders of the future, African American males can benefit by having access to andcommunication with successful African American male educational leaders/teachers (Bacon,2002; Boswell, 2010). The desire for autonomy in decision-making and the need to raise leadersto continue the mission of HBCUs remains a critical issue. A growing body of research arguesthat African American males are missing in action significantly at the public post-secondarylevels of education (Green, 2001; Jackson, 2001; Wiley, 2001).
  21. 21. 9 According to Green (2001), the escalation of African American male drop-out rates hasbecome a major concern for policy-makers and the educational community across the nation, yetthe problem continues to persist. All factors for this decline in graduation rates have not beenspecifically identified, but some factors may include political, social, and cultural barriers. Theimplication is that if drop-out rates among African American males continue to increase, thecritical presence of future leadership among Black men in public and higher education willcontinue to remain marginal (DuBois, 1903/2003; Eatman, 2000; Green, 2001). African American male leadership is crucial to the African American community becauseof the rise of Black-on-Black crime, poor academic performance, the overrepresentation of Blackmales in special education, and disproportionate numbers of African American maleincarceration in comparison to other races (Child‘s Aid Society, 2006; Ladson-Billings, 1999).Without proper guidance programs and the necessary mentors and coaches to help young AfricanAmerican males, this group may lack the resilience to work hard and become productive citizensthat will carry the legacy of African American male leadership (Child‘s Aid Society, 2006). Theconsistent decline of African American male participation and contribution to the AfricanAmerican community could lead to the absence of future leaders of HBCUs and public schoolsin general (Jackson, 2001; Wiley, 2001; Woodson, 1933/2005). Despite these social, political, and cultural barriers that impede African American males,many do succeed. In fact, African American male educational leaders at HBCUs are successfuland have a significant influence on African American male students through mentorship. Theliterature tells us little about the impact and influence of such men; therefore, the researcherconducted a study that would describe the impact of the centrality of CRT, what made thesubjects of the study resilient in overcoming societal barriers, and the significance of mentorship
  22. 22. 10on their journey toward leadership. The researcher utilized search engines such as ProQuest, Sage Publications, and EBSCOHost search engines to locate studies on the emergence, essence, and influence of AfricanAmerican male educational leaders who survived societal barriers and became successful at anHBCU in Texas. After an exhaustive search, no dissertation study or literature review was foundaddressing the specificity of the type of institution and geographical location. Consequently, theresearcher decided to conduct a phenomenological study devoted to examining the emergence ofAfrican American male educational leadership as perceived, experienced, and exercised byAfrican American male administrators of an HBCU in Southwest Texas Research Questions The following research questions guided the study. According to Marshall and Rossman,as cited in Creswell (2007), the central question of a phenomenological study should beexplanatory in nature when little is known about a particular phenomenon and descriptive whendescribing patterns related to the phenomenon. Therefore, the researcher developed the followingresearch questions for the study:1. What is the evolution of leadership over the past three decades of seven African American male educational leaders from a Southwest Historically Black College and University?2. What critical moments in history have impacted the educational leadership style(s) of seven African-American male educational leaders from a Southwest Historically Black College and University?3. Which leaders from the past have left an impression on seven African American male educational leaders from a Southwestern Historically Black College and University?4. In the face of social, political, or racial adversities, what influenced the decisions of seven
  23. 23. 11 African American male educational leaders from a Southwestern Historically Black College and University?5. What is the essence of the leadership of seven African American male educational leaders at a Southwestern Historically Black College and University?6. How has the leadership of seven senior African American male educational leaders influenced policy over the years/ helped develop program, strategies, curriculum, or theories? Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to conduct a phenomenological investigation that gavevoice to the seven African American male leaders. The study examined the emergence ofeducational leadership and its impact t on African American males as perceived, experienced andexercised by African American male administrators of a Historically Black College andUniversity HBCU in Southwest Texas. Significance of the Study The constant decline of African American male drop-out rates in public and highereducation has posed a serious threat to the recruitment and retention of African American maleleadership (Cuyjet, 2006). With the internal and external pressure from policy makers todiversify their student body, faculty, and staff, public institutions in higher education aregradually acknowledging the low entrance college rates of African American males (Smith et al.,2004). Diversity initiatives have been developed, yet appear to be futile when considering thegrowth of academic marginalization and the impact of negative risk factors on the lives ofminorities (Wiley, 2001). Absence of Black leadership and Black mentors will not only negatively impact publicand post-secondary schools that educate African American males but will impact these young
  24. 24. 12men by decreasing their influence and visibility at the social, political, economical, andeducational levels (Stupak, 2008). Failure in these areas could ultimately affect the nation as awhole when considering true and timely reformation. Designing a hermeneutical phenomenological study that focuses on the life experiencesof seven senior African American male educational leaders at an HBCU may serve as a tool torestore what ―excellence in action‖ looked like in the form of phenomenology. Data collectionincluded interviews, documents, and artifacts designed to capture the essence of each participant. The desired outcome was four-fold: (1) to foster the meaningful paternal relationshipsfrom senior educational leaders to succeeding generations; (2) to teach and share leadershipcharacteristics with young male youth of all backgrounds; (3) to encourage African Americanmales to graduate; and (4) to inspire and motivate African American males aspiring leadershippositions in public and higher education. The study highlighted seven African American male educational leaders and gave themopportunity to be heard with minimal interpretation from the researcher. This study did notreflect the thoughts and opinions of the entire African American male educational leadershippopulation; neither was the narrative experiences of the participants germane to all AfricanAmerican male educational leaders but included the unique experiences of the seven participantsof the study. Essentially, the study added to the limited body of research on African Americanmale educational leadership among HBCUs in the Southwest region of the United States. Personal Statement According to Moustakas, as cited by Creswell (2007), ―the first step toward―phenomenological reduction‖ in the analysis of the data is for the researcher to set aside allpreconceived ideas or experiences in order to best understand the experiences of the participants‖
  25. 25. 13(p. 235). The researcher therefore shared her experiences with risk and protective factors thathave framed her interpretation of leadership. While growing-up in Bellville, Texas, a small town with a population of less than tenthousand residents, I learned to appreciate my father as the leader of our family. His outstandingwork ethic served as a model that helped me cope with discrimination, inequality, and a negativeself-concept that I would have to overcome in order to take my place in society and servehumanity. I am the second product of the union of a 13 year old Black female, Dorothy Gilmoreand a 17 year old Black male, Howard Palmer. Although they were relatively young, my motherand father made the commitment to stay together and raise a family. My father‘s life set the stage for my quest for strong leadership as a guide in overcomingpre-existing barriers I would face and continue to face in the ―game of life‖ in America. As thesecond oldest of seven children, I loved my father because he was my hero, the person I lookedto for strength within the fragile world of my imagination. My father became my first point ofreference as I began to frame my definition of leadership. He often shared stories and experiences of how hard life was for African Americansduring his adolescent years. He told me about his job as a young share-cropper picking a hundredpounds of cotton a day to help provide food for the family. While he had an eighth gradeeducation and my mother a third, the owners of the crop fields made it clear (to the principals ofthe colored school) that education was secondary to the planting and picking of cotton. Blackstudents spent half the school year in the cotton fields. Daddy‘s family prided themselves on strong work ethics. A few years later, when hisfather decided to desert his wife and eight children, my dad and his siblings became the breadwinners for the family. Dad told me of many occasions in which a ―good‖ family name caused
  26. 26. 14White people to help them buy food when they only had little for survival. The separation of mydad‘s mother and father hurt him as a child, so he vowed that if he ever had a family, he wouldnot repeat the decision his father made. It was in the cotton plantation that my dad met my mother. The two formed a union andstarted their family. My parents had no home of their own, so they resided with my grandmotherand step-father. My mother had her first child, Shirley, and I was born a year and a half later.Due to my mother‘s step-father‘s attempt to sexually molest Shirley, my parents were kicked-outof the house and forced to find shelter in an old abandoned car until they could find a place tolive. Although his education was limited, dad found odd jobs by utilizing his ability to workhard to support his young family. One day an affluent White cattle owner by the name of CalvertMewis (whom my dad worked for on a few occasions), saw my dad walking on the road andasked him where he was going. My dad told him that he and his family had no place to stay andwere hungry. Mr. Mewis had empathy for his situation and made a deal that if my dad wouldfaithfully serve him, he would provide land, a home, and food for the rest of his life. With thedesire to show his appreciation, dad became the ―John Henry‖ of cattle wrestling for Mr. C.A.Mewis‘ Livestock business. Dad spoke of how at the young age of 18, he would throw 200 to 300 pound cows andbulls with his bare hands. While his strong inner-drive and undaunted work ethic won the favorof Mr. Mewis, it created animosity among the sons of Mr. Mewis and his other hired hands. Mr.Mewis often referred to my dad as his ―Black‖ son. There wasn‘t a need that my dad had thatMr. Mewis did not meet. Because of his strong determination, unwavering courage, and moralcode of ethics, my dad emerged as an outstanding African American male leader in my eyes. The
  27. 27. 15lack of black-owned gas stations, convenience stores, and Blacks in public offices at the time,left me few examples of African American male leadership. As the years passed, my mom had five more children where she remained a stay-at-homemom until our teenage years. It was during middle school at Bellville where I began to see thedeadly blow of the lack of empowerment of African Americans at the social, political, andeconomical levels. There was an understood divide that existed between the Black and Whiteresidents of Bellville. This divide was apparent in the types of housing available to Blacks,which were mostly the ―Projects.‖ Other homes owned by Blacks looked like run-down shacks,compared to the nice brick houses that many of my non-Black peers resided. In lieu of embedded racism, the social structure of the town was fragmented with Whitesand Blacks perpetuating the values of their respective race. Economically, I saw more Blacksworking for Whites or White-owned businesses than working for themselves. Occasionally, mymother would clean houses for White women, which I detested. I attempted to show my disdainby referring to her type of work as ―slavery.‖ Observing my parents constant subjection anddependence on White people served as my motivation to pursue a singing career inCountry/Western music. Blacks and Whites were divided educationally. Black families that lacked the homestructure and educational tools to help their children with academics were prone to teacherreferrals that placed Black children in special education programs, services in which I received.None of the Palmer children (including myself) have attended Bellville schools without beingretained. Almost 95% of my siblings‘ children that attend schools in Bellville have been retained,and 100% of boys in our family who attended these schools were retained and placed in specialeducation. This stigmatism placed upon my family by Bellville I.S.D. still exists today.
  28. 28. 16 While I attended Bellville High, Advanced Placement courses were geared towardsWhites, with one or two Black students. The staff was predominately White with two AfricanAmerican female teachers, one who taught special education and the other taught Spanish.Absent was the presence of any Black male leaders at Bellville High School during my years as astudent. These programs only reinforced the thought that gradually developed in my mind … thatWhite people were better than Black people. I wanted the life that Whites had, so I began to talklike them, sing like them, and even attempted to date them. I became so obsessed in trying todate White guys that Black boys began to call me ―White boy lover.‖ Consequently, White guyswere afraid to date Black girls because of the prejudice and racism that engulfed the town. Politically, as I recollect, no Blacks held a political position in Bellville. I didn‘t seeBlacks gathering at voting booths or being solicited to vote for a particular political party. Myparents never exercised their right to vote because voting wasn‘t an important factor for them atthe time. Mom and dad didn‘t consider themselves intellects; they were laborers and didn‘t feelthe need to voice their political views. We spent the majority of our lives working for Mr. Mewisby hauling-hay, picking pecans, raking leaves, and manicuring their lawns. Because I lacked theawareness of the power of voting and the price that the Black community paid to acquire it, Ididn‘t practice voting until I became a student at an HBCU. Needless to say, while my familylearned the value of hard work, which was modeled by my father, I began to desire mentors androle-models who could lead me beyond the dismal life that I saw un-educated African Americansbecome victims. I was determined not to fall prey to the poverty and hopelessness that permeatedthroughout the African American community. The only solace I could find was my relationshipwith Christ. When I obeyed the Gospel at 17 years of age, the word of God became my hope of a
  29. 29. 17better life for me and my family. As a means of escape from my family‘s present condition, Ifollowed the advice of the African American special education teacher who not only encouragedme to go to college but drove me there. My high school guidance counselor, on the other hand,pushed me toward a trade school rather than college. I admit that I harbored distrust and hatredtoward Whites who mistreated Blacks while living in Bellville. It was at this point in my life thatI knew that only a relationship with God could free me from this pessimistic attitude I haddeveloped. Through prayer, attending church, and working-out my soul‘s salvation, my greatestleader, Jesus took control of my life. Although the painful memories were still there, I was ableto forgive and move-on with my life. When I stepped on campus of this particular HBCU, I had never seen so many AfricanAmericans at one time. It was intimidating because I only remembered negative stories andimages about African American people and how they were prone to violence, especially amongeach other. Upon my enrollment in the fall of 1987, I saw young people just like me striving forthe only equalizer for the Black community - education. My high school G.P.A. was a 2.7, and Ihad no intentions of going to college; therefore, I took my grade point average for granted. I had no knowledge of the SAT or ACT college entrance exams. In order to complete theadmissions process, I had to take the Texas Higher Education Assessment (THEA) and basedupon my scores in math, I needed some additional coursework. It didn‘t matter amount ofcourses I needed to take because this university was giving me a chance to receive an education,and I was grateful for the opportunity. The faculty at the university took me under their wingsand helped me navigate through the financial aid process and over time, I was the first and onlymember of my immediate family who went to college and graduated. As I took the educational route, I was happy to be free from the influence of the dominant
  30. 30. 18culture. While attending the university, I saw African American males dressed in fine suits,neatly groomed hair, articulating eloquent speech, and taking charge as leaders. Seeing Blackmen in this light really excited me because I rarely saw such examples in my hometown anddefinitely not in such abundance. During my sophomore year in college, I entered and won a scholarship Pageant. Thisevent allowed me to represent my university on national television at The Miss Texas Pageant inFort Worth, Texas. My reign afforded me the opportunity to demonstrate my ability to lead andserve the school community. My new role as one of the campus leaders meant the critical eye ofsociety would be upon me. This thought raised a level of self-awareness of the leader I wasattempting to become. As previously mentioned, my strategy for overcoming social and economical oppressionwas to become the first Black female ―Charley Pride‖ in Country/Western music. This was goingto be my ticket out of poverty and feelings of inferiority. So I began writing songs and recordingin studios with Mr. Fredrick V. Roberts, who later became my manager. While pursuing mycareer and education, I served the university and various campus organizations withperformances for the next three years and still today. Mr. Roberts and I experienced racism in themusic industry whether in local country music and nationally-televised competitions. My leadership opportunities were further advanced when I represented my university asMiss Collegiate African American among twenty five HBCUs across the nation. Danny Gloverintroduced my Country & Western performance who later invited me to perform for a celebritygala, where he offered me moral support. Danny Glover became a giant in my eyes on anoccasion in which he stepped-in to handle some miscommunication with my hotel reservations. Iwas impressed at how expediently the situation was corrected; it was great witnessing Black
  31. 31. 19leadership in action. That experience made me proud to see an African American man stand withboldness and power in the midst of a Predominately White society. This encounter served as thecatalyst of my paradigm shift regarding African American male leadership. These two pivotal moments of my history took me out of a small town which practiceddiscrimination and racism, to a larger platform which instituted similar acts as well. I eventuallybecame discouraged in pursuing the music industry and focused my attention toward educatingyoung minds in the public education system and temporarily suspended my dreams of stardom. During my educational pursuit at the doctoral level, I often wondered what obstacles orracial barriers generations before me had to endure. If only I had a mentor who utilized certainstrategies in overcoming discrimination, perhaps I would have stood my ground in the pursuit ofmy career goal. Providentially redirected from my goal as a Country/Western star, I chose toenter the teaching profession. While working my way toward certification, I fell in love with theidea of cultivating young minds and making a difference in the lives of children. By this time,my husband and I started a network marketing business with about 100 business associates.Although we didn‘t earn much money, we invested thousands of dollars into leadershipconferences, books, audio-tapes, and CDs on attitude, skills with people, and the art ofleadership. As a teacher, I was able to take the success principles from great authors such asNapoleon Hill, Dale Carnegie, Les Giblin, Dennis Kimbro, Robert Schuller, Mason Weaver,John Maxwell, and Frederick K. Price and transform my students from having a ―negative‖ self-concept to having a ―positive‖ self-concept. We rubbed shoulders with multi-millionaires who practiced the dynamics of leadershipwithin a network of thousands of people. The majority of the men who held the highest level ofleadership were White males and only few were African Americans. In fact, the majority of
  32. 32. 20African American representations at leadership conferences were members of the AfricanAmerican major leader‘s organizations. My up-line leaders were predominately African American; the experience of learninghow to train and develop leaders was invaluable. As I observed these men, I sensed their sinceredesire to pass the torch of leadership to our generation. They were not afraid to talk about theirchallenges and triumphs that allowed them to accomplish their goals as leaders of megaorganizations. Although our marketing business gradually dissolved, 10 years of leadership experiencehelped me to form a concept of what servant leadership was about. After my business ownershipexperience, I began to focus more on education. I have worked at three different school districtsand have become quite disturbed in the lack of African American male teachers and leaderrepresentation. As I sat in data disaggregation meetings with the superintendent of schools, it wasclear that the African American male population performed the lowest among all groups on statemandated tests. I felt like a failure as a teacher in 4th grade because they were the students whofilled the in-school suspension room daily. I knew that our African American boys were introuble. Similar to my experiences of growing up in a segregated town, a study by Fraizer (2009)speaks of her life, set-backs, and triumphs in overcoming racial and gender barriers. Like me, theresearcher‘s father was a critical role-model and mentor in the development of her life. Herfather instilled within her as well, the idea of strong work ethics and the faith that she could sether mind to accomplish anything as a child. However, as she began attending public schools, shetoo began to feel the negative effect of the lack of African American male teachers andadministrators. Due to the absence of African American male role models, the researcher began
  33. 33. 21to sense the air of inferiority that the dominate race was attempting to inflict upon her. Theauthor decided to attend an HBCU as well and developed the desire to help improve the lives ofAfrican American male youth through education. In Green‘s (2009) study on African Americanfemale executive leaders at HBCUs, African American women have been victims of racism, aswell as, gender bias. The participants of the study found that while obstacles such as the glassceiling and social injustices at HBCUs had a negative impact on their rise to power, they becameexamples of success through resilience. In addition to funding issues among, the study found thatthe major challenge of HBCUs was the lack of leadership and models of effective leadership. AsI have gone back to my Alma Mata after 20 years, I have observed that the face of leadershipscarcely changed. It appears that senior educational leaders at HBCUs have a need andresponsibility to recruit and train new leaders to fill their positions. In 2007, I witnessed the appointment of the first Black superintendent for HempsteadIndependent School District. He challenged the district to change the direction of its AfricanAmerican male population. I accepted his challenge by desiring to conduct a research study onmen who have experienced the challenges of living as an African American male in the UnitedStates of America. I knew that I needed to find men who were experts in leadership, who hadovercome even greater barriers than generations to follow could imagine. This quest led me backto my university, where I could now study the lives of men who understood what leadership wasall about in the face of adversity. My intention was to conduct a study that would reveal factorsthat made these men resilient and perhaps utilize the information gleaned from the study to helpdevelop African American male leadership and demonstrate the phenomenon‘s relevance tosociety. I knew such models existed because I had known and watched great leaders give back to
  34. 34. 22the university with years of service and contribution. The challenge of obtaining this informationwould be their accessibility and willingness to share their lived experiences. , so, I wanted toconduct a study that would chronicle the lives of these men and their contributions and influenceas African American male educational leaders at an HBCU for over thirty years . Delimitations of the Study For the purpose of this study, the researcher chose the following criterion for participantselection: This study looked at seven African American male administrators, thereforeeliminating the experiences and contributions of African American female administrators. Theparticipants of the study have all served as educational leaders at a Southwestern HBCU. In addition, the participants of the study are currently serving as a professor oradministrator at the university chosen for the study. The participants of the study have served theHBCU for 30 or more years in the College of Education. Based on the criterion, seven AfricanAmerican male educational leaders emerged as participants for the study. Limitations The study may include the following limitations: First, the participant‘s narrativeexpressions may be limited to the researcher‘s ability to use strong and descriptive language inorder to accurately report the experience. Second, since the study and experiences are specific tothe participants in question, the reproduction of this study for a larger population with differentdemographic and racial make-up could change the outcome. Third, since participants sharedexperiences from the past, their expressions may be limited to their capacity to recollectinformation. Fourth, the study depended upon the honest responses of the participants whilesharing their experiences. Fifth, since the four participants are actively serving as leaders or asteachers, their availability was limited when scheduling interviews. Finally, the observational
  35. 35. 23protocol asks for occupational information that could potentially reveal the participants identity.The participants were given the liberty to answer or not answer any portion of the questionnaire. Definition of Terms Creswell (2008) distinguishes between qualitative and quantitative research. Quantitativeresearch definition of key terms is listed as a critical component of the format, whereas withqualitative research, key terms derive as the study progresses. A general definition of key termswill be used until further terms develop throughout the study. For the purpose of the study, the following terms will be used: African American-A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as ―Black, African American, or Negro,‖ or provide written entries such as African American, Afro American, Kenyan, Nigerian, or Haitian (U.S. Census Bureau, 2001). Educational Leadership- the office or position of a leader (www.merriam-webster.com). An operational definition (Creswell, 2008; Fraenkel & Wallen, 2006) would include the effective use of human and financial resources by an educational administrator, through a spirit of teamwork, toward the mission of the school. Historically Black College and University - any college or university that was established prior to 1964, whose principal mission was, and is, the education of Black Americans (Higher Education Act of 1965). Predominately White Institution (PWI) - ―the term used to describe institutions of higher learning in which Whites account for 50% or greater of the student enrollment.‖ (Lomotey, 2009, p.523). Hermeneutic Phenomenology - ―a descriptive methodology attentive to how things appear
  36. 36. 24 and wants to let things speak for themselves; it is interpretive (hermeneutic) methodology because lived experiences are always already meaningfully experienced‖ (Manen, 1990, p.180). Leadership style - ―how a leader confronts himself or herself, perceives their environment, and acts upon their worldview‖ (Barber, 1985, p. 37). Mentor - a trusted friend or guide (http://merriam-webster.com/dictionary/mentor). Organization of the Study Chapter one details the problem, need, and significance of the study; identifies CriticalRace, Resiliency, and Mentorship theories referenced in the study; and provides a summary ofthe chapters. Chapter two provides a review of related literature. Chapter three describes themethodology and rationale of the study. The researcher provides an analysis of the data, theresearcher‘s role, and a summary. Chapter four presents an analysis of the data. Chapter fiveculminates with the summary, conclusions, and recommendations for further research.
  37. 37. Chapter II Literature Review In order to understand the phenomenon of African American male leadership, it isimportant to understand their history as a people. The aftermath of slavery, racism, andinequality has left a negative impact on the plight of African American males at the educational,social, and political levels (Woodson, 2005). It is important to note that these risk factors havesignificantly decreased the pool of African American males as future leaders in society (Eatman,2000; Green, 2001; Wiley, 2001). Racism and inequality has had a major impact on AfricanAmericans and continues to affect many aspects of their lives. The literature review will begin with the history of Black education in the South. The riseand significance of Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) have led to theestablishment of African American male leaders at the national level. Leadership styles ofAfrican American men will be discussed in addition to their barriers in higher education. Thischapter will also discuss the significance of mentorship for future generations of AfricanAmerican males and discuss critical race and resilience theories. The chapter will conclude byidentifying risk factors that potentially threaten African American males. History of Black Education in the South Unlike Predominately White Institutions (PWI) in the Northern region of America,HBCUs grew out of the aftermath of the Civil War from 1860-1865 (Allen & Jewel, 2002). Thedawn of slavery gave rise to the birth of education for African Americans, who since their arrivalto southern plantations were denied access to education. From the freedman‘s perspective,education held the keys to political, economical, and social mobility. Violation of the laws toread and write resulted in negative and sometimes fatal consequences (―Slavery and the Civil 25
  38. 38. 26War,‖ 2009). No matter how challenging slave masters made the acquisition of education, slaves foundcreative ways to possess the coveted ability to read and write. Before, and certainly after theCivil War, slaves in the South demonstrated their bold desire for education by setting-up theirown churches and informal schools. Many slaves were educated through the telling of stories,singing of songs, and gospel messages by religious leaders in the community (―Slavery and theCivil War,‖ 2009). The Rise and Significance of the HBCU According to Woolfolk (1986), the fall of slavery led to the establishment of schools foryoung newly freed slaves. In less than a decade, over 100 schools for people of color wereestablished. The majority were day schools, while some serviced students at night. These schoolswere heavily underfunded and lacked adequate facilities for teaching, but nevertheless, AfricanAmerican male leaders (with the help of state government, philanthropists, and White religiousgroups) demonstrated resilience in managing to keep school doors open for business in the Blackcommunity (Allen & Jewel, 2002). It was within the walls of HBCUs that African Americansfound a degree of solace. HBCUs focused on preparing young African Americans for educationand a successful transition into society. In 1878, the first public HBCU was established in Southwest Texas. The Alta VistaNormal College for Negroes became the first Black public school for freed slaves. The schoolwas built upon the ruins of a slave plantation owned by Jared and Helen Kirby in Waller Countyin 1876. Many public schools of Higher Education in the South became training grounds forteachers who served in the field teaching uneducated former slaves (Woolfolk, 1986). Accordingto Bennett and Xie (2003), HBCUs were an answer to the racial reprise that African Americans
  39. 39. 27were inferior to Whites; therefore, Blacks were excluded from PWIs. In Schexnider‘s (2008) article on the significance and survival of HBCUs, the sustainingof African American male youth is critical in the pursuit of exceptional talent for further leadersin education. The article stated the historical inequalities between PWIs and HBCUs. AlthoughBlack schools were considered inferior in terms of building and financial support, school leaderswere diligent in keeping the doors open to the Black community (Jackson, 2007; Woolfolk,1986). The Black community valued education and believed it served as a path to overcomingpolitical, economical, and social inequality. HBCUs were responsible for the rise of national leaders such as W. E. B. DuBois,Booker T. Washington, and Dr. Martin Luther King. In Benett and Xie‘s (2003) study on the roleof HBCUs in education, collective data showed that HBCUs accounted for a significant numberof college degrees awarded to African American students than other institutions. The researchfurther asserts that African American students preferred HBCUs over PWIs because Blackuniversities had a more nurturing environment, which made them to feel connected to theuniversity. Students also felt the faculty and staff were more supportive at HBCUs by providingacademic and financial assistance (Bennett & Xie, 2003). Carter‘s (2010) study investigated the engagement of White undergraduate students at anHBCU. The qualitative study explored the experiences of 22 White undergraduate studentsattending two HBCUs in the southeastern and mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Thestudy revealed that staff-student interactions, faculty-student interactions, co-curricularactivities/university programs, and prior diversity experience were factors that contributed toWhite students‘ growth and engagement at an HBCU. Black Colleges and Universities have historically served as institutions that have
  40. 40. 28recruited, nurtured, and retained African American students and leaders. Bennett and Xie (2003)argue that HBCUs have greater success in nurturing students through race pride, the value ofAfrican American history, and social interactions among the school community. HBCUs havemade contributions to American Education by producing a large professional workforce andadvocates for the cause of racial equity for minorities (Bennett & Xie, 2003). Critical Moments in African American HistoryBlack Leaders and Politics In the late 1800s, the poor economical plight of Blacks in the South did not victimize all.There were remnants of Blacks who rose to power and leadership in spite of laws that workedagainst them. According to DuBois (1903/2003), leadership had to come from Blacks themselvesbecause they felt their White counterparts did not have their best interest in mind. During the50s, emerging Black leaders needed the power of the ballot in order to make political changes fortheir race. DuBois (1903/2003) further purported that the Black vote became a threat to the Northand South, therefore, the ignorant, as well as many of the established Blacks, were deterred fromexercising their right to vote. In the final analysis, Blacks viewed politics as a vice for personalgain by those who participated. As a result of non-participation in politics, Blacks becamevictims of dehumanization with no protection under the law. From 1876 to 1965, the Jim Crow Laws were mandated as local and state laws across theUnited States. These laws were designed to create artificial separation between Blacks andWhites, especially in the South. Blacks were disadvantaged at the political, economical,educational, and social levels. Civil rights and civil liberties were also denied to Blacks. In theBrown vs. Board of Education in 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled segregation
  41. 41. 29unconstitutional and the Jim Crow Laws were dismantled by the Civil Rights Act of 1964 andthe Voting Rights Act of 1965 (DuBois, 1903/2003; Harper, 2008; Woodson, 1933/2005).The Jim Crow Laws and Segregation The Jim Crow Laws were designed to reinforce political, economical, and socialsuppression among African Americans (Woodson, 1933/2005). In the face of challenges andadversity experienced by African Americans, some have developed the mental fortitude to riseabove temporary setbacks. DuBois (1903/2003) and Woodson (1933/2005) articulated that whilesegregation was prevalent throughout the South, soldiers of the United States Army (throughWorld War 1) were segregated as well. African American males played supportive roles in thearmy, but most did not see combat.The Black Power and Civil Rights Movements The Black Power Movement of the 1960s and the Civil Rights Movement became twocritical moments in African American history and leadership. In the fight for an end to racismand the quest for equality, the Black Power Movement took a militant approach to assuage theproblem of African Americans living in America. Their political ideology involved race pride,political and cultural institutions, and Black interests. The movement sought to separate AfricanAmericans from the mainstream and build a self-sufficient race (Herton, 1996). The Civil Rights Movement has had a long history in the United States. The movement,though mostly fought through non-violence, opened the door to social and legal acceptance forAfrican Americans. It also exposed the existence and price of racism in American history. TheCivil Rights Movement refers to the political struggles and the need for reformation for AfricanAmericans between 1945 and 1970. The movement‘s purpose was to end discriminationexperienced by disadvantaged groups in America. The key players in the movement were the
  42. 42. 30Black church and its focal leader, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Although the movement caused thedeath of Dr. King, it provided marginalized groups access to civil rights (―Biographical Profiles,‖2010).The Black Family and Community During slavery, it was not uncommon for slaves to be separated from family members.As slavery ended, many longed to reunite and find displaced members of their families.According to DuBois (1903/2003), the separation of male slaves from their households leftsingle mothers the burden of leadership in a paternalistic society. African American family andcommunity considered strong family bonds, great respect for elders, and the acceptance of othersas a major part of their value system. The family structure gradually deteriorated due to povertyand the lack of education. Chessson‘s (2009) study was conducted to gain more insight on how pre-collegiate andcollegiate experiences of African-American males affect their pursuit of higher education. Thestudy focused on the impact of critical variables such as high school counselors, teachers, studentinvolvement, faculty members, and mentors played in the college success of African-Americanmales. Emerging themes included participation and precollegiate leadership programs, relatingand associating with other successful African-American males, building report and socialnetworks. Segregation became a social tool that brought the African American community together.The African American community has been pivotal in the development of the African Americanculture (Woodson, 1933/2005). Although African American communities suffer with poorhousing, inadequate schools, and less law enforcement protection, the Black church was itsnucleus. DuBois (1903/2003) confirmed that the religious growth of millions of male slaves
  43. 43. 31contributed to the rise of the Baptist and Methodist faiths. It appears that the nature of theAfrican American struggle has set Black churches as a cornerstone of spirituality for AfricanAmericans who experience racism and inequality. Mitchell (2010) explored the influence of community, institutions, and personalbackground had on African American administrators serving at Western Interstate Commissionfor Higher Education (WICHE). The role of ethnicity as it related to career development,recruitment and retainment of African American administrators divulged several themes thatwere critical to African American leaders such as job opportunity, strong support groups,community, and family upbringing. The Rise of African American Leadership and National Leaders Strong and effective leadership is imperative to any organization that desires to remaincompetitive in a global society. Research cannot deny that disparities among racial groups exist.Berry (2001) asserts that organizational and societal factors such as income, education, andoccupation, health, and environment impact the quality of life for an individual. The researcherfurther argues that leaders who are democratic, nurturing, and culturally sensitive create aclimate that is conducive for racial diversity in leadership (Berry, 2001). In spite of fierce opposition, there were those of the African American community whowould rise from the ashes. Although the United States has had a history of racial discriminationand inequality, these barriers did not silence the voice of pivotal African American leaders.Through a militant and a persistent faith, Black leaders began to rise and define leadership stylesthat served as guides in how the African community would respond to social injustices inmainstream society (DuBois, 1903/2003; Woodson, 1933/2005). Boswell (2010) conducted a study to determine the lack of African-American male
  44. 44. 32educators in the teaching profession from grades K to 12. The study revealed that AfricanAmerican males who always had the desire to teach early in life came from the influence of closefamily ties and teachers. Other participants entered the teaching profession because of the needfor employment and job stability. Regardless of the reasons for choosing teaching as aprofession, a passion to touch the lives of students was ignited. The recommendation was thatAfrican American males should give the teaching profession serious consideration. Walker (2007) explored how the lived experiences of 12 African-American communitycollege leaders exercised their leadership and service to their campuses. The study revealed thatparticipant actively sought to climb the educational ladder, utilized social and academicknowledge to enhance their leadership skills, were active in public organizations, and workedclosely with a mentor for career advancement. Findings revealed that African-American maleleadership was relevant in that they promoted equity, improved academic performance forminorities, destroyed negative stereotyping, and served as role models to African-American maleyouth. Berry (2008) explored the lived experiences of three African-American femaleelementary principles and their leadership style that helped create and sustain academicexcellence among minority students. The study divulged spirituality as the foundation for theparticipants‘ career achievement as educational administrators. Each participant exercised theirleadership philosophy in the form of service to their respective campuses with the expresspurpose of promoting social, emotional, and academic success. The service of the participants ofthe study deemed them not only as leaders of their campuses but as motherly figures tounderrepresented populations. Their leadership was demonstrative of the love for God andhumanity. Recommendations included: studies on the example of spiritual males, various ethnic
  45. 45. 33groups, and secondary principles. Leadership Styles of African American Men During the Antebellum, Civil War, Reconstruction, and Civil Rights Eras, AfricanAmerican male leaders took different approaches as to how they would respond to the harshtreatment of the American society. Some leaders chose the militant or non-violence approach,while others promoted nationalism.Frederick Douglass In ―Biographical Profiles‖ (2010), Fredrick Douglass was an activist, who spoke-outagainst racism and discrimination. Douglass was born around 1817 and was acclaimed as thefirst African American leader in United States history. Frederick Douglass was raised by a singlemother around 1817; he never knew his father. Through his literary work, he characterized hislife as a slave, as one filled with hard work, family detachment, and incredulous inhumanity.Despite the push to withhold education from slaves, Frederick Douglass practically educatedhimself. His resilience not only spread through his quest for education, but through his longingfor freedom as well (―Biographical Profiles,‖ 2010). Upon several attempts to escape, he disguised himself as an American sailor, and marrieda free African American woman from the South while in New York. Douglass finally purchasedhis freedom and traveled to England to expose the cruelty of slavery through speaking andwriting. Douglass‘ political activism awarded him the title of the unofficial spokesperson for theAfrican American community. During the Civil War, he was asked by President Lincoln to helprecruit Black soldiers into the army. His courage to speak-out against racism and discriminationagainst Black soldiers influenced the decisions of Lincoln, who provided better treatment ontheir behalf. Douglass displayed a charismatic and servant leadership style in that he was a
  46. 46. 34powerful orator who spoke for the rights of people of color, as well as women. FrederickDouglass continued to fight for the rights of his people until his death in 1895 (―BiographicalProfiles,‖ 2010).Henry Highland Garnet In direct opposition to Frederick Douglass‘ leadership style, was his contemporary,Henry Highland Garnet. In ―Biographical Profiles‖ (2010), Henry Garnet was born in 1815-1882to the Garnet family. Garnet‘s parents were slaves but eventually escaped to Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania where they were later separated. Garnet, considered an activist and great orator aswell, advocated slave rebellion and emancipation through militant abolitionism. He urged Blacksto take action against social injustice through politics and claim their own destiny, even if itmeant by force. Garnet‘s form of leadership style caused tension between him and Douglass,which developed into political debates. Garnet also formed the idea of Black emigration out ofAmerica and into Mexico, Liberia, and the West Indies. Although Garnet gained some politicalinfluence in America, the movement lost momentum. He died and was buried in Liberia(―Biographical Profiles,‖ 2010).Marcus Garvey According to ―Marcus Garvey Biography‖ (2010), Garvey was born in 1887 in St.Anna‘s Bay, Jamaica. His leadership style began as a result of the influence of Africannationalism, which contested that African Americans should establish their own states andpolitical power by leaving America in place of safer havens. Garvey‘s father had a tremendousinfluence on him. Upon leaving the printing business in Jamaica, Garvey came to America. Theracial tension that Garvey experienced inspired him to join the fight by speaking openly againstracism; his passion for equality ignited a spark in the African American community. In 1914, he
  47. 47. 35formed two organizations and a newspaper that spread throughout the world regarding theinjustices experienced by Blacks. Garvey advocated for the Black Nationalism and the returnback to Africa. He encouraged African Americans to enterprise and build social and politicalclout (―Marcus Garvey Biography,‖ 2010). After a bad business deal, Garvey was imprisoned then shipped back to Jamaica. Garveyhad a strong spiritual connection with God. He was married twice and fathered two sons. Hislegacy included various Black symbols, a forerunner of liberation and nationalism amongAfrican American youth (―Marcus Garvey Biography,‖ 2010). The two most influential African American male educational leaders of the late 19th andearly 20th Centuries were Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. DuBois. According to the―Biographical Profiles‖ (2010), both men graduated from HBCUs and were highly respectedamong the African American community. Washington‘s influence afforded him the job as theprincipal of Tuskegee Institute while W. E. B. DuBois‘ scholarship on the lived experiences ofAfrican Americans in the United States gained national attention.Booker T. Washington Booker T. Washington was raised by a single mother. His father was a slave owner of anearby plantation. While growing-up, Washington desired education so much that he worked asa janitor for room and board. After receiving his degree, he began teaching at HamptonUniversity (―Biographical Profiles,‖ 2010). DuBois (2003) described Washington‘s leadership style as the politics of accommodation,which suggested that African Americans should not rush to demand their rights fresh out ofslavery, but should demonstrate their usefulness to White America through strong work ethics.While Washington publicly endorsed White supremacy, he secretly funded activities which

×