An Examination of Factors Related to the Job Satisfaction and Retention of Alternatively Certified Teachers A Dissertation...
Introduction <ul><li>The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) requires that all academic teachers be highly qualified. ...
Introduction <ul><li>Teacher attrition and job shortages are largely due to teacher dissatisfaction and pursuit of other j...
Background of the Problem <ul><li>Statistics gathered over a five year period indicated that approximately 25,000 people, ...
Statement of the Problem <ul><li>Due to the teacher shortage and the influx of new teachers from alternative certification...
Purpose of the Study <ul><li>The purpose of this study is to examine factors related to the job satisfaction and retention...
Research Question <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>1.  What trends are occurring in the  comparative numbers of alte...
Research Question <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Is there a relationship between the  </li></ul><ul><li>percen...
Research Questions <ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>1.  What do alternatively certified teachers report to be the rea...
Research Questions <ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>3.  What do alternatively certified teachers perceive to be the f...
Research Questions <ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>5.  What do alternatively certified teachers report about their e...
Null Hypothesis <ul><li>Ho1:  There is no statistically significant relationship in the comparative numbers of alternative...
Null Hypothesis <ul><li>Ho2:  There is no statistically significant relationship between the percentage of alternatively c...
Theoretical Framework <ul><li>One theory guiding this study is derived from the economic labor market theory of supply and...
Theoretical Framework Retention Employment Opportunities Job  Satisfaction Dearth  of  Teachers Alternatively  Certified T...
Significance of the Study <ul><li>Provide alternative certification programs with information regarding areas of concern t...
Assumptions <ul><li>Interviews will provide information with reasons why alternatively certified teachers remain in the te...
Limitations of the Study <ul><li>Research will reflect only on one urban school district in Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>Data ...
Chapter II <ul><li>Review of Literature </li></ul>
No Child Left Behind <ul><li>The language in the bill states schools are expected to hire only “highly qualified” teachers...
Alternative Certification Programs <ul><li>Alternative teacher certification has become an increasingly popular strategy f...
Recruitment of Teachers <ul><li>Principals are often reluctant to hire alternatively certified teachers because of the amo...
Recruitment of Teachers <ul><li>Improving working conditions and salaries are helpful steps toward recruiting an adequate ...
Induction / Mentoring <ul><li>A number of studies have found that well-designed mentoring programs raise retention rates f...
Professional Development <ul><li>Essential for teachers to receive current information in the field of education.  </li></...
Teacher Retention <ul><li>According to Greiner & Smith (2004), studies found links between teacher retention and state man...
Job Satisfaction <ul><li>The main contributors to high levels of teacher job satisfaction are working with children (parti...
Chapter III <ul><li>Methodology </li></ul>
Research Design <ul><li>Research Method – Mixed methods using a complementary design. This includes descriptive and correl...
Research Design <ul><li>Trend analysis will be used to identify the staffing patterns comparing alternatively certified te...
Subjects of the Study <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Question 1:  </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatively and Traditionall...
Instrumentation <ul><li>The researcher developed a questionnaire that will be used to collect data related to the attitude...
Validity and Reliability <ul><li>A pilot study will be conducted for the questionnaire and interview guide to ensure relia...
Data Collection and Recording <ul><li>The questionnaires will be delivered via electronic mail to the alternatively certif...
Quantitative Qualitative Qualitative <ul><li>Demographic Data of Alternatively Certified Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Compar...
Analysis of Data (Quantitative) Correlational Research Question 1 Hypothesis Independent Variables Dependent Variable Stat...
Analysis of Data (Quantitative) Correlational Research Question 2 Hypothesis Independent Variables Dependent Variable Stat...
Analysis of Data (Qualitative) Surveys/Questionnaire & Interviews Data will be presented in tabular form to show categorie...
References <ul><li>Darling-Hammond, L. (2000).  Solving the dilemmas of  teacher supply, demand, and quality. New York:  N...
References <ul><li>Gray, D.L. & Smith, A.E. (2005).  No teacher left behind.  Kappa  Delta Pi Record, 42 (1), 7-9 . </li><...
References <ul><li>Rosenow, D. (2005).  Stress, burnout and self-esteem  among educators.  Journal of Border Educational  ...
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Jennifer T. Butcher, PhD Proposal Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair

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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Jennifer T. Butcher, PhD Program in Educational Leadership, PVAMU, Member of the Texas A&M University System.

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Jennifer T. Butcher, PhD Proposal Defense, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, Dissertation Chair

  1. 1. An Examination of Factors Related to the Job Satisfaction and Retention of Alternatively Certified Teachers A Dissertation Proposal Presented by Jennifer Butcher Dissertation Committee William Allan Kritsonis, PhD., Chair Donald R. Collins, PhD., Member David Herrington, PhD., Member Ronald Howard, PhD., Member October 2008
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) requires that all academic teachers be highly qualified. </li></ul><ul><li>Taking proactive steps to prepare and retain highly qualified teachers requires systematic effort of education, mentorship, and motivation (Rosenow, 2005). </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Teacher attrition and job shortages are largely due to teacher dissatisfaction and pursuit of other jobs (Ingersoll, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Studies have shown that higher employee satisfaction leads to increased customer satisfaction (Rosenow, 2005). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background of the Problem <ul><li>Statistics gathered over a five year period indicated that approximately 25,000 people, per year, were certified to teach through alternative routes (Feistritzer & Chester, 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Effective alternative teacher certification programs should have a strong academic course work component, field–based learning in the classroom, and support from qualified mentors (Feistritzer & Chester, 2003). </li></ul>
  5. 5. Statement of the Problem <ul><li>Due to the teacher shortage and the influx of new teachers from alternative certification programs, it is important to address the problem of attrition and identify strategies that focus on the retention of alternatively certified teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a need to determine if current alternative certification programs and school districts are providing the training, support, and continued monitoring of alternatively certified teachers. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Purpose of the Study <ul><li>The purpose of this study is to examine factors related to the job satisfaction and retention of alternatively certified teachers. This study will examine factors related to alternatively certified teachers’ decision to enter and remain in the teaching profession. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Research Question <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>1. What trends are occurring in the comparative numbers of alternatively certified teachers and the numbers of traditionally certified teachers over a period of five years within a selected urban district? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Research Question <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>2. Is there a relationship between the </li></ul><ul><li>percentage of alternatively certified teachers and the percentage of traditionally certified teachers in the elementary schools of a selected urban school district? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Research Questions <ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>1. What do alternatively certified teachers report to be the reasons for entering the teaching profession? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What do alternatively certified teachers perceive to be the factors that assisted in their development as teachers? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Research Questions <ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>3. What do alternatively certified teachers perceive to be the factors that hindered their development as teachers? </li></ul><ul><li>4. What do alternatively certified teachers report to be the reasons that they have remained in the teaching profession? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Research Questions <ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>5. What do alternatively certified teachers report about their early educator preparation experiences? </li></ul><ul><li>6. What strategies does the selected urban school district employ to identify and utilize factors that encourage teacher job satisfaction and retention? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Null Hypothesis <ul><li>Ho1: There is no statistically significant relationship in the comparative numbers of alternatively certified teachers and the numbers of traditionally certified teachers over a period of five years within a selected urban district. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Null Hypothesis <ul><li>Ho2: There is no statistically significant relationship between the percentage of alternatively certified teachers and the percentage of traditionally certified teachers in the elementary schools of a selected urban school district. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Theoretical Framework <ul><li>One theory guiding this study is derived from the economic labor market theory of supply and demand. </li></ul><ul><li>I n the same vein, Frederick Herzberg’s theory of motivation and job satisfaction which was developed from his studies of engineers and accountants complements the supply and demand theory. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Theoretical Framework Retention Employment Opportunities Job Satisfaction Dearth of Teachers Alternatively Certified Teachers
  16. 16. Significance of the Study <ul><li>Provide alternative certification programs with information regarding areas of concern that can be incorporated into their programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide mentors with information on how they can better guide the novice teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide administrators with information regarding the critical role that alternatively certified teachers have on their campus. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide district human resources directors with information regarding the needs of alternatively certified teachers. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Assumptions <ul><li>Interviews will provide information with reasons why alternatively certified teachers remain in the teaching profession. </li></ul><ul><li>Respondents of the study will honestly give the reasons for alternatively certified teachers job satisfaction and retention. </li></ul><ul><li>Data will be recorded and analyzed accurately by the investigator. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Limitations of the Study <ul><li>Research will reflect only on one urban school district in Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>Data will only be obtained from elementary schools within the selected urban school district. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Chapter II <ul><li>Review of Literature </li></ul>
  20. 20. No Child Left Behind <ul><li>The language in the bill states schools are expected to hire only “highly qualified” teachers, ensure that all teachers are assigned to teach in their field, are fully licensed, and meet other criteria outlined in the law (Trahan, 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative route certification programs are one example of states’ and cities’ attempts to fill urban classrooms with highly qualified teachers (Easley, 2006). </li></ul>
  21. 21. Alternative Certification Programs <ul><li>Alternative teacher certification has become an increasingly popular strategy for addressing both teacher quality and teacher shortages (Darling-Hammond, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>One out of four Texas teachers hired in the last three years came into the teaching workforce through alternative certification (May, Katsinas, and Moore, 2003). </li></ul>
  22. 22. Recruitment of Teachers <ul><li>Principals are often reluctant to hire alternatively certified teachers because of the amount of work and support required and problems that these teachers may have with regard to discipline, lesson planning, student interaction, assessments, and instructional strategies in their first one to two years in the classroom (Wang, 2007). </li></ul>
  23. 23. Recruitment of Teachers <ul><li>Improving working conditions and salaries are helpful steps toward recruiting an adequate number of teachers, but giving them chances to learn and grow as they practice their craft is the best way to retain quality teachers in our nation’s classrooms (Gray & Smith, 2005). </li></ul>
  24. 24. Induction / Mentoring <ul><li>A number of studies have found that well-designed mentoring programs raise retention rates for new teachers by improving their attitudes, feelings of efficacy, and instructional skills (Darling-Hammond, 2003). </li></ul>
  25. 25. Professional Development <ul><li>Essential for teachers to receive current information in the field of education. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows an opportunity for teachers’ to strengthen weak areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be a priority in developing a campus plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities to enhance one’s teaching ability will lead to meeting the needs of the students (Trahan, 2002). </li></ul>
  26. 26. Teacher Retention <ul><li>According to Greiner & Smith (2004), studies found links between teacher retention and state mandated teacher certification scores and teacher education preparation programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers’ feelings about administrative support, resources for teaching, and teacher input into decision making are strongly related to their plans to stay in teaching and to their reasons for leaving (Darling-Hammond, 2000; Ingersoll, 2001). </li></ul>
  27. 27. Job Satisfaction <ul><li>The main contributors to high levels of teacher job satisfaction are working with children (particularly where teachers can develop strong professional relationships), the intellectual challenge of teaching and employee autonomy and independence (Spear, Gould, and Lee, 2000). </li></ul>
  28. 28. Chapter III <ul><li>Methodology </li></ul>
  29. 29. Research Design <ul><li>Research Method – Mixed methods using a complementary design. This includes descriptive and correlational analysis of existing data as well as data obtained from open-ended interview questions and surveys. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Research Design <ul><li>Trend analysis will be used to identify the staffing patterns comparing alternatively certified teachers to traditionally certified teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Trend analysis refers to the concept of collecting information and attempting to spot a pattern, or trend, in the information. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive trends will be used to examine emerging trends. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Subjects of the Study <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Question 1: </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatively and Traditionally Certified </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers from 65 schools in a selected district </li></ul><ul><li>Question 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatively and Traditionally Certified </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers from 30 elementary campuses in a selected </li></ul><ul><li>district </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatively Certified Teachers with 3 or more years of teaching experience from 30 elementary campuses in a selected district </li></ul><ul><li>15 Mentors </li></ul><ul><li>15 Administrators </li></ul><ul><li>2 Human Resources Directors </li></ul>
  32. 32. Instrumentation <ul><li>The researcher developed a questionnaire that will be used to collect data related to the attitudes of alternatively certified teachers in regards to their retention in the field. </li></ul><ul><li>A semi-structured interview technique will be used to collect data from selected alternatively certified teachers, mentors, administrators, and human resources directors. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Validity and Reliability <ul><li>A pilot study will be conducted for the questionnaire and interview guide to ensure reliability. Items will be reviewed for logical validity. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Data Collection and Recording <ul><li>The questionnaires will be delivered via electronic mail to the alternatively certified participants. Information pertaining to distribution and due dates will also be included with the delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>Responses will be coded to assure identity protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Data from the questionnaires will be placed in tables and graphs. </li></ul><ul><li>Data from the district and respondents will be secured in a bank vault for seven years. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Quantitative Qualitative Qualitative <ul><li>Demographic Data of Alternatively Certified Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative Numbers of Alternatively Certified Teachers and Traditionally Certified Teachers (Over a five year period as reported by a selected urban district) </li></ul><ul><li>Percentages of Alternatively Certified Teachers and Traditionally Certified Teachers (In the elementary schools of a selected urban district) </li></ul>Interviews of Alternatively Certified Teachers, Mentors, School Administrators, and Human Resources Directors Questionnaires of Alternatively Certified Teachers Analysis of Data
  36. 36. Analysis of Data (Quantitative) Correlational Research Question 1 Hypothesis Independent Variables Dependent Variable Statistical Measurement What trends are occurring in the comparative numbers of alternatively certified teachers and the numbers of traditionally certified teachers over a period of five years within a selected urban district? There is no statistically significant relationship in the comparative numbers of alternatively certified teachers and the numbers of traditionally certified teachers over a period of five years within a selected urban district. Two Groups: 1) Alternatively Certified Teachers 2) Traditionally Certified Teachers Pearson’s r coefficient of correlation Number of Alternatively Certified Teachers and Traditionally Certified Teachers
  37. 37. Analysis of Data (Quantitative) Correlational Research Question 2 Hypothesis Independent Variables Dependent Variable Statistical Measurement Is there a relationship between the percentage of alternatively certified teachers and the percentage of traditionally certified teachers in the elementary schools of the selected urban district? There is no statistically significant relationship in the percentage of alternatively certified teachers and the percentage of traditionally certified teachers in the elementary schools of the selected urban district. Two Groups: 1) Alternatively Certified Teachers 2) Traditionally Certified Teachers Pearson’s r coefficient of correlation Percentage of Alternatively Certified Teachers and Traditionally Certified Teachers
  38. 38. Analysis of Data (Qualitative) Surveys/Questionnaire & Interviews Data will be presented in tabular form to show categories & frequencies. The weighted mean will be computed for retention factors. Responses for questions will be categorized into emergent themes. These will be presented in tabular form showing the categories with corresponding frequencies and percentages. Inputs from the selected teachers, mentors, administrators, and HR directors will be identified, summarized and explained.
  39. 39. References <ul><li>Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Solving the dilemmas of teacher supply, demand, and quality. New York: National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future. </li></ul><ul><li>Darling-Hammond, L. (2003). Keeping good teachers: Why it matters, what leaders can do. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 7-13. </li></ul><ul><li>Darling-Hammond, L. (2005). Prepping our teachers for teaching as a profession. The Education Digest , 22- 27. </li></ul><ul><li>Easley, J. (2006). Alternative route urban teacher retention and implication for principals’ moral leadership. Educational Studies, 32 (3), 241-249. </li></ul><ul><li>Feistritzer, C.E., and Chester, D. T. (2003). Alternative teacher certification. National Center for Education Information . </li></ul>
  40. 40. References <ul><li>Gray, D.L. & Smith, A.E. (2005). No teacher left behind. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 42 (1), 7-9 . </li></ul><ul><li>Greiner, C.S. & Smith, B.S. (2004). Determining the effect of selected variables on teacher retention. Education, 126 (4), 653 -659. </li></ul><ul><li>Hoy, W.K. and Miskel, C.G. (2005). Educational administration: Theory, research, and practice . New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. </li></ul><ul><li>Ingersoll, R. (2001). Teacher turnover and teacher shortages: an organizational analysis. American Educational Research Journal , 38 (3), 499-534. </li></ul><ul><li>May, P.B., Katsinas, S.G., and Moore, L. (2003). Alternative teacher certification programs and Texas community colleges. New Directions for Community College, 121 . </li></ul>
  41. 41. References <ul><li>Rosenow, D. (2005). Stress, burnout and self-esteem among educators. Journal of Border Educational Research, 4 , 87-90. </li></ul><ul><li>Spear, M., Gould, K., and Lee, B. (2000). Who would be a teacher? A review of factors motivating and demotivating prospective and practicing teachers (Slough, UK, NFER). </li></ul><ul><li>Trahan, C. (2002). Implications of the no child left behind act of 2001 for teacher education . Washington, DC. (Eric Document Reproduction Service No. ED477723). </li></ul><ul><li>Wang, C. (2007). The alternate route teachers’ transition to the classroom: Preparation, support, and retention. NASSP Bulletin 91 (1) 98-113. </li></ul>

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