Grace Thomas Nickerson
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Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Grace Thomas Nickerson, PVAMU, Member of the Texas A&M University System

Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PhD Dissertation Chair for Grace Thomas Nickerson, PVAMU, Member of the Texas A&M University System

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  • 1. FACTORS THAT IMPACT THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF MINORITY STUDENTS: A COMPARISON AMONG ASIAN-AMERICAN, AFRICAN-AMERICAN, AND HISPANIC STUDENTS IN LARGE URBAN SCHOOL DISTRICTS Grace Thomas Nickerson Dr. William Kritsonis- Dissertation Chair Spring 2008
  • 2. CHAPTER I
  • 3. INTRODUCTION
    • Bridging the achievement gap between Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students has been a well discussed topic within America. Research gained in the study will identify the factors that must be considered in order to effectively bridge the achievement gap between Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students, thus allowing all students to learn at their optimal level.
  • 4. BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM
    • Performance levels among minority groups in the United States are in sharp contrast across all academic subjects. AsianAmericans perform higher than any other minority group, and sometimes above their white counterparts.
  • 5. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
    • There is an achievement gap between Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students. Discovering what factors contribute or inhibit the high academic performance of Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students will give educational leaders insight on how to bridge the academic achievement gap.
  • 6. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
    • Discovering what causes the disparities in performance between Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students may assist us in finding ways to improve the educational performance of low performing minority students.
  • 7. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    • The study will aim to answer the following questions:
    • How does frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent doing homework, and parental involvement affect the academic achievement of African American students in an urban high school?
    • How does frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent doing homework, and parental involvement affect the academic achievement of Hispanic students in an urban high school?
    • How does frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent doing homework, and parental involvement affect the academic achievement of Asian American students in an urban high school?
  • 8. NULL HYPOTHESES
    • H o1.1 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of African American students and the frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on English homework, and parental involvement.
    • H o1.2 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of African American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on Math homework, and parental involvement.
    • H o1.3 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of African American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on Science homework, and parental involvement.
    • H o1.4 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of African American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on Social Studies homework, and parental involvement.
  • 9. NULL HYPOTHESES cont.
    • H o2.1 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of Hispanic students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on English homework, and parental involvement.
    • H o2.2 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of Hispanic students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on Math homework, and parental involvement.
    • H o2.3 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of Hispanic students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on Science homework, and parental involvement.
    • H o2.4 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of Hispanic students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on Social Studies homework, and parental involvement.
  • 10. NULL HYPOTHESES cont.
    • H o3.1 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of Asian American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on English homework, and parental involvement.
    • H o3.2 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of Asian American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on Math homework, and parental involvement.
    • H o3.3 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of Asian American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on Science homework, and parental involvement.
    • H o3.4 - There are no statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of Asian American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on Social Studies homework, and parental involvement.
  • 11. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
    • The study seeks to find what factors contribute or hinder the academic achievement among Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students. Discovering the factors that contribute to the academic achievement of each minority group will increase the effectiveness of American education.
  • 12. DEFINITION OF TERMS
    • Frequency of study modes (group study and individual study) explain how often and what methods are used by students to study. This can include study groups and individual studying (Yan, 2005).
    • Time on homework explains the amount of time spent on studying, doing school work, and/or anything dealing with the student’s education and academic success (Yan, 2005).
    • Parental involvement explains the amount of interaction and involvement the parent has in their children’s education. This ranges from attending school functions, reading to their child, helping with the child homework, calling teachers and providing curfews for the children’s academics. This is a broad area because it can also include talking to other parents about education which does not involve the student (Yan, 2005).
  • 13. DEFINITION OF TERMS cont.
    • Asian- American are people of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States (Wikipedia, 2006).
    • African Americans (also Afro-American or Black American, or Black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. In general, the cultural assumption in the U.S. is that if a person is Black, native English-speaking and living in the United States, he or she is "African American (Wikipedia, 2006).
    • Hispanic as used in the United States, is one of several terms used to categorize persons whose ancestry hails either from Spain, the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America, or the original settlers of the traditionally Spanish-held Southwestern United States. The term is used as a broad form of classification in the U.S. census, local and federal employment, and numerous business market researches (Wikipedia, 2006).
    • Success is measured by students’ mastery on the Exit-Level TAKS (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills) test.
  • 14. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
    • A possible limitation may exist in the difference of cultures and traditions within each minority group.
    • Socio-economic status may also be bias among minority groups regarding education.
    • The learning styles among the cultures may vary.
    • Racially and culturally diverse schools may yield different results than predominately Asian American, African American, and Hispanic schools.
  • 15. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY cont.
    • The study is limited to urban school districts in Texas.
    • The size of the ethnic groups present in the participating high schools may give disproportionate results.
    • 7. There may be a difference in academic achievement in minority students in rural school districts.
  • 16. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FREQUENCY OF STUDY MODES PRACTICED PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT TIME SPENT ON HOMEWORK MINORITY STUDENTS (Asian American, African American, and Hispanic Students)
  • 17. CHAPTER II Review of Literature
  • 18. PROBLEM FORMULATION
    • Overview of the Subject
      • Discover the factors that contribute to or hinder the academic achievement among Asian Americans, African Americans, and Hispanics students.
        • Parental Involvement
        • Frequency of individual study modes
        • Frequency of group study modes
        • Time spent on Homework
  • 19. SUPPORTING LITERATURE: The Minorities’ Academic History
    • Curtis Crawford, 2000
      • At the advanced reading level, Whites and Asians were ahead of Hispanics and Blacks. In proficient reading, whites led the other minority groups. However, at the advanced math level, Asians were ahead of whites (Crawford, 2000, p.38).
    • College Board, 1999
      • the elimination of racial inequalities in academic achievement is a moral and pragmatic imperative (College Board, 1999, p. 1-2).
    • Bhattacharyya, 2000
      • Researchers have been perplexed at the academic and professional success of Asian Americans as compared to other ethnic minority groups
  • 20. SUPPORTING LITERATURE: American Education vs. Asian Education
    • L. Ellington, 2005
      • The content of Japanese textbooks is based upon the national curriculum, while most American texts tend to cover a wider array of topics (Ellington, 2005, p. 3) .
    • Elaine Wu, 2005
      • The only way we ( the United States) measure how well students do is through testing, teachers end up teaching how to take the test and not necessarily the subject matter (Wu, 2005, p. 2).
    • Gary Decoker, 2002
      • America has tried to mimic the Japanese systems by overemphasizing its homogeneity and equating national curriculum guidelines with national standards (Decoker, 2002, p. 21).
  • 21. SUPPORTING LITERATURE: Parental Involvement
    • Joyce Epstein, 2002
      • Involve families with their children in academic learning at home, including homework, goal-setting, and other curriculum-related activities. Encourage teachers to design homework that enables students to share and discuss interesting tasks (Epstein, 2002, p.14 ) .
    • S. Gregory, 2000
      • The more roles parents’ play in their children’s education, at home and at school, the more successful children will be academically and socially (Gregory, 2000, p. 164).
    • W. Yan, 2005
      • Family obligation is related to parents’ intensive investment in the well-being of the school outcome in particular and the value of education in general (Yan, 2005, p. 116-117).
  • 22. SUPPORTING LITERATURE: Time Spent on Homework
    • Rosanne Paschal, 1984
      • Extensive classroom research on “time on homework” and international comparisons of year-round time for study suggest that additional homework might promote U. S. students’ achievement (Paschel, 1984, p. 97) .
    • John Lofty, 1995
      • Students need to know the time values and practices of academic life, and that their difficulties accommodating the timescapes of the academy can become good reason for their exclusion (Lofty, 1995, p. 33).
    • Steven Ingles, 2002
      • Asians spend more time on homework outside of school than Blacks, Hispanics and Whites (Ingles, 2002, p. 4).
  • 23. Cont. of SUPPORTING LITERATURE: Frequency of Individual Study Modes &Frequency of Group Study Modes
    • Robert Slavin, 1980
      • Learning team techniques have generally had positive effects on such student outcomes as academic achievement, mutual attraction among students (Slavin, 1980, p. 253).
    • Gary Decoker, 2002
      • Rapid learners can help those who are slower, and students who do not understand the lesson can ask questions of the fast learners. (Decoker, 2002, p. 98-99).
    • Monica Lambert, 2006
      • Although secondary level teachers often assume that all students have acquired sufficient study skills by the time they reach high school, many have not (Lambert, 2006, p. 241).
  • 24. OPPOSING LITERATURE
    • F. Elsmary, 2005
      • Asian parents can learn something from non-Asian parents by expressing that their child’s happiness does mean as much as any educational achievements (Elsmary, 2005, p. 2).
    • D. Kuhn, 2006
      • Asian parents can inculcate in their children the belief that excellence in their schoolwork leads to family pride, material wealth and social status, and failure to achieve excellence leads to the opposite – shame and disgrace (Kuhn , 2006, p. 29).
    • E. Shrake, 2004
      • Overshadowed by the popular model minority image of Asian American students and high levels of academic achievement among a portion of this group, their problem behaviors have often been overlooked in educational as well as research communities (Shrake, 2004, 602).
  • 25. SUMMARY: CHAPTER II
    • After researching this topic, the factors that are most noted to contribute to the success of Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students is parental involvement, time spent on homework, the frequency of individual study modes, and frequency group study modes. There are many other factors that contribute to the academic success of Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students; however, this study is focusing on the three, common components mentioned above.
  • 26. CHAPTER III Methodology
  • 27. PROBLEM STATEMENT
    • The problem of the study is what factors best contribute and what factors hinder the academic achievement of Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students.
  • 28. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
      • The purpose of the study is to determine the relationships between parental involvement, frequency of individual study, frequency of group study, time spent on homework, and the academic achievement of Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students.
  • 29. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
    • How does frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent doing homework, and parental involvement affect the academic achievement of African American students in an urban high school?
    • How does frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent doing homework, and parental involvement affect the academic achievement of Hispanic students in an urban high school?
    • How does frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent doing homework, and parental involvement affect the academic achievement of Asian American students in an urban high school?
  • 30. HYPOTHESES
    • H 1.1 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of African American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on English homework, and parental involvement.
    • H 1.2 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of African American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on Math homework, and parental involvement.
    • H 1.3 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of African American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on Science homework, and parental involvement.
    • H 1.4 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of African American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on Social Studies homework, and parental involvement.
  • 31. HYPOTHESES cont.
    • H 2.1 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of Hispanic students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on English homework, and parental involvement.
    • H 2.2 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of Hispanic students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on Math homework, and parental involvement.
    • H 2.3 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of Hispanic students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on Science homework, and parental involvement.
    • H 2.4 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of Hispanic students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on Social Studies homework, and parental involvement.
  • 32. HYPOTHESES cont.
    • H 3.1 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of Asian American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on English homework, and parental involvement.
    • H 3.2 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of Asian American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on Math homework, and parental involvement.
    • H 3.3 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of Asian American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on Science homework, and parental involvement.
    • H 3.4 - There are statistically significant relationships between the academic achievement of Asian American students and frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, time spent on Social Studies homework, and parental involvement.
  • 33. RESEARCH DESIGN
    • Variables
      • Independent Variable
        • Student Race
          • Asian American
          • African American
          • Hispanic
      • Dependent Variables
        • Parental involvement
        • Frequency of individual study modes
        • Frequency of group study modes
        • Time spent on Homework (hours per week)
  • 34. RESEARCH DESIGN cont.
    • Quanitative Design
      • The Causal Correlational statistical method, utilizing the statistical analysis of Multiple Regression, will be used to note relationships between the factors of frequency of individual study modes, frequency of groups study modes, time spent on homework, and parental involvement on academic achievement of Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students.
    • Qualitative Design
      • Questionnaire
      • Closed-end, Likert-type questions
  • 35. SAMPLE SELECTION
    • Sample Selection
      • High school senior students
    • How selected
      • The students will complete the questionnaire during their Social Studies classes. All students will have the opportunity to participate in the study because Social Studies is a required course.
    • Expert Case
      • The participants will be Asian American, African American, and Hispanic high school senior students.
  • 36. INSTRUMENTATION
    • Qualitative
      • Questionnaire
        • The instrument used is a Likert-style questionnaire. The questionnaire will be based on parental involvement, frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, and time spent on homework.
  • 37. INSTRUMENT cont.
    • Quanitative
      • Results from the questionnaire on parental involvement, time spent on homework, and frequency of study modes (group study and individual study) practiced will be ranked from 1-4 (4: having more influence and 1: having least influence). An average will be taken from each section of the questionnaire.
      • The average from each section will be placed in SPSS and the Casual Correlational statistical method of multiple regression will be used to determine the relationship of the parental involvement, time spent on homework, frequency of individual study modes, frequency of group study modes, and the academic achievement of the three minority groups using their Exit-Level TAKS scores.
  • 38. DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURES
    • Confidentiality
      • To assure confidentiality, the student completing the questionnaire will not have to log on to the computer to complete the questionnaire.
      • The results on the demographic section of the questionnaire will be used to correlate the TAKS scores based on demographics.
      • After the data has been collected, it will be stored in a secure location in bank safe deposit box for 7 years. After 7 years, the data will be destroyed by way of incineration.
    • Validity
      • A pilot questionnaire will be conducted to ensure the questions on the questionnaire are clear and pertinent to the study.
    • Credibility
      • A peer debriefing will be conducted to ensure the participants’ responses have not changed.
    • Confirmability
      • Findings will be confirmed with the data from NCES (National Center of Educational Statistics) that details relationships between the tested racial groups and the frequency of study modes (individual and group study), parental involvement, and time spent on task.
  • 39. DATA ANALYSIS
    • Multiple Regression statistics will be used to analyze the information gathered from the respondents’ answers to the questionnaire.
    • Each answer will be coded with a particular number to be entered into SPSS to determine which factor predicts the most success from the three minority groups.
    • The Exit-Level TAKS scores will be used to measure and connect success to the respondents’ answers on the questionnaire.
    • The data from NCES that details the factors being investigated will be used to confirm the SPSS results of the respondents’ answers.
  • 40. SUMMARY: CHAPTER III
    • The procedure detailed in this chapter will establish relationships between Asian American, African American, and Hispanic students and parental involvement, time spent on homework, and frequency of individual study modes, and frequency of group study modes. Determining which factors have the greatest impact for each minority group will establish guidelines for educational leaders to follow to produce academically successful students.
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