Frances Worthey, Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M University System
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Frances Worthey, Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M University System

Frances Worthey, Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M University System

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Frances Worthey, Dissertation, Dr. William Allan Kritsonis, PVAMU/Member of the Texas A&M University System Presentation Transcript

  • 1. MIXED METHOD INVESTIGATION OF THE RETENTION AND PLACEMENT OF WOMEN IN NON-TRADITONAL FIELDS OF STUDY IN HIGHER EDUCATION A Dissertation Defense by Frances Craig Worthey Major Professor William Allan Kritsonis, PhD PhD Program in Educational Leadership
  • 2. Dissertation Committee
    • William Allan Kritsonis, PhD
    • Dissertation Chair
    •  
    • David E. Herrington, PhD
    • Committee Member
    •  
    • Wanda M. Johnson, PhD
    • Committee Member
    •  
    • Donald R. Collins, PhD
    • Committee Member
  • 3. Defense Format
    • I. Statement of Problem
    • II. Purpose of the Study
    • III. Research Design
    • IV. Instrumentation
    • V. Subjects of the Study
    • VI. Pilot Study
    • VII. Research Questions
    • VIII. Null Hypotheses
    • IX. Presentation of Data- Data Analysis
    • X. Findings of Study-
    • Quantitative
    • XI. Conclusions - Quantitative
    • XII. Qualitative Findings/ Interview Support/ Related Literature
    • XIII. Implications
    • XIV. Recommendations for Further Study
    • XV. End Notes
  • 4. Statement of the Problem
    • Lack of success among women in non-
    • traditional careers could be attributed to a
    • number of factors, including age, marital
    • and family status, career choice and
    • extracurricular involvement, and student
    • support services (Roe, 1994).
  • 5. Statement of the Problem
    • Research focused on these factors in
    • conjunction with motivations, barrier
    • and classroom experiences of the
    • identified population (Sullivan, 1998).
  • 6. Purpose of the Study
    • This study examined the factors that
    • affected the entry and retention of
    • women pursuing non-traditional fields
    • of study in higher education and their
    • placement in a non-traditional
    • workforce. The results of this investigation
    • will help administrators provide leadership for
    • women in non-traditional fields of study.
  • 7. Research Design
    • Explanatory Mixed Method Design
    • In an explanatory design , the researcher first
    • collects and analyzes quantitative data, and
    • then obtains qualitative data to follow up and
    • refine the quantitative findings (Fraenkel &
    • Wallen, 2003).
  • 8. Instrumentation
    • Structured Survey
    • Interview Questions
    • Survey and interview questions adapted from:
    • Sullivan, Mary A. (1998). A Qualitative Inquiry of Women’s Experiences in a Male-Dominated Vocational Technical College, Pennsylvania State University.
  • 9. Subjects of the Study
    • 187 Female Students Enrolled in Different Majors in Non-Traditional Fields of Study Responded to the Survey
    • 25 Female Students in Different Majors
    • in Non-Traditional Fields of Study from Different Colleges Were Interviewed
  • 10. Subjects of the Study College Majors 0f Respondents in the Non- Traditional Fields of Study
    • College Major Frequency Percent (%)
    • Computer-Related Courses 45 24.07
    • Advertising Design & Print 23 12.30
    • Pharmacy Courses 21 11.23
    • Automotive/Auto Collision 17 9.09
    • Environmental Health & Safety 15 8.02
    • Media Communication & Info 13 6.95
    • Engineering-Related Courses 13 6.95
    • Culinary Industry 13 6.95
    • Electrical/Electronics 12 6.42
    • BioMed Technology 7 3.74
    • Aircraft Pilot 4 2.14
    • Landscape Design 4 2.14
    • Total 187 100.00
  • 11. Subjects of the Study-Marital Status
    • Marital Status Frequency Percent (%)
    • Married 53 28.3
    • Single 107 57.2
    • Divorced 25 13.4
    • No Response 2 1.1
    • Total 187 100.0
  • 12. Pilot Study
    • Survey Given to 20 Females Majoring
    • in Non-Traditional Fields of Study
    • (Respondents Not Included in Regular Study)
    • Test-Retest Yielded Reliability Coefficient of 0.80
  • 13. Research Questions
    • 1.What are the reasons why females
    • choose to enter non-traditional fields
    • of study?
    • 2.What are the career choices that
    • affect the retention of females
    • in non-traditional fields of study?
  • 14. Research Questions
    • 3.What are the personal elements
    • that affect the retention of females in
    • non-traditional fields of study?
    • 4.What are the institutional factors
    • that affect the retention of females in
    • non-traditional fields of study ?
  • 15. Null Hypotheses
    • H 01 :There is no statistically significant difference in the reasons that affect the entry of married versus single or divorced females into non-traditional fields of study.
    • H 02 :There is no statistically significant difference in career choice between married versus single or divorced females who enter non-traditional fields of study.
  • 16. Null Hypotheses
    • H 03 :There is no statistically significant difference in personal elements between married versus single or divorced females who enter non-traditional fields of study.
    • H 04 :There is no statistically significant difference in the institutional factors between married versus single or divorced females in non-traditional fields of study.
  • 17. Presentation of Data - Data Analysis
    • Tabular Presentation
    • Categories
    • Frequencies
    • Percentages
    • Statistical Computations
    • t-test for two (2) independent samples
  • 18. Findings of the Study Research Question No. 1 - Reason for Entering Non-Traditional Field of Study
    • 1.Non-traditional jobs afford women the opportunity to gain high-skilled employment.(17)
    • Responses Frequency Percent (%)
    • Disagree/Strongly Disagree 3 1.6
    • Undecided 37 19.8
    • Agree/Strongly Agree 143 76.5
    • No Response 4 2.1
    • Total 187 100.0
    • Mean Scores:
    • Married 4.10
    • Single/Divorced 3.96
    • t 1.08 * (*Not Significant)
    • Significance 0.283
    • Decision: Failed to Reject the Null Hypothesis
  • 19. Findings of the Study Research Question No.2- Career Choice Affecting Retention in Non-Traditional Field of Study
    • 2.What society thinks about women in non-traditional occupations can affect their career choices.(5b)
    • Responses Frequency Percent (%)
    • Disagree/Strongly Disagree 43 23.0
    • Undecided 29 15.5
    • Agree/Strongly Agree 110 58.8
    • No Response 5 2.7
    • Total 187 100.0
    • Mean Scores:
    • Married 3.46
    • Single/Divorced 3.48
    • t -0.11 * (*Not Significant)
    • Significance 0.913
    • Decision: Failed to Reject the Null Hypothesis
  • 20. Findings of the Study Research Question No.3- Personal Element Affecting Retention in Non-Traditional Field of Study
    • 3.Women who pursue non-traditional occupations are considered emotionally unstable by men and women who do not support the idea of changing occupational gender roles.(6)
    • Responses Frequency Percent (%)
    • Disagree/Strongly Disagree 96 51.3
    • Undecided 40 21.4
    • Agree/Strongly Agree 48 25.7
    • No Response 3 1.6
    • Total 187 100.0
    • Mean Scores:
    • Married 2.54
    • Single/Divorced 2.63
    • t -0.48 * (*Not Significant)
    • Significance 0.630
    • Decision: Failed to Reject the Null Hypothesis
  • 21. Findings of the Study Research Question No.4- Institutional Factor Affecting Retention in Non-Traditional Field of Study
    • 4.Women in non-traditional fields encounter more difficulties in the classroom environment.(15)
    • Responses Frequency Percent (%)
    • Disagree/Strongly Disagree 72 38.5
    • Undecided 43 23.0
    • Agree/Strongly Agree 67 35.8
    • No Response 5 2.7
    • Total 187 100.0
    • Mean Scores:
    • Married 3.08
    • Single/Divorced 3.00
    • t 0.36 * (*Not Significant)
    • Significance 0.717
    • Decision: Failed to Reject the Null Hypothesis
  • 22. Conclusions- Quantitative
    • 1. Married, single and divorced women included in the study had the same standpoint that the main reason to go into non-traditional education is to gain employment.
    • 2. The aspect of career choice that the researcher considered was whether what society thinks about women in non-traditional occupations can affect their career choice. Both groups of women gave similar weight to what society had to say regarding non-traditional education.
  • 23. Conclusions - Quantitative
    • 3. For personal element, the issue compared was whether women who pursue non-traditional occupations are considered emotionally unstable by men and women who do not support the idea of changing occupational gender roles. People had similar opinions regarding women regarding their personal elements, i.e., motivations and behaviors, regardless of their marital status.
    • 4. For the institutional factors, the issue considered was whether married women in non-traditional fields encountered more difficulties compared to the single or divorced group. Regardless of marital status women may possibly encounter similar level of difficulties.
  • 24. Findings - Qualitative
    • Females are usually advised by parents to choose traditional
    • occupational courses (e.g. nursing, teaching, home economics, etc.).
    • Responses Frequency Percent (%)
    • Disagree/Strongly Disagree 53 28.3
    • Undecided 19 10.2
    • Agree/Strongly Agree 112 59.9
    • No Response 3 1.6
    • Total 187 100.0
  • 25. Interview Support
    • One of the respondents who was in Instrumentation/Electrical Power Control stated that: “I was most concerned with what is best for me and my family…at first concerned about being the only female in the class, then came the notion that I can do it”.
  • 26. Related Literature
    • Choosing a non-traditional career path does have its price beyond pay alone. For women who tend to be drawn toward work that is seen as fulfilling, the drawback is less meaningful work. The labor involved is frequently more physical than mental; and outdated yet persistent perceptions about what’s appropriate for women still linger, influencing the choices women make (Lowen, 2007).
  • 27. Findings - Qualitative
    • Education and training programs at an early age will encourage
    • women to enter non-traditional fields of study.
    • Responses Frequency Percent (%)
    • Disagree/Strongly Disagree 29 15.5
    • Undecided 35 18.7
    • Agree/Strongly Agree 118 63.1
    • No Response 5 2.7
    • Total 187 100.0
  • 28. Related Literature
    • The classroom environment, retention, and placement continue to be the focus for improving non-traditional occupations. Acquisition and application of new skills is important to the learning process in both the classroom and work environment. Practice and use of these new skills at an early period will lend to addressing the concerns of labor force productivity. All of the aforementioned myths set the stage early on for young girls, who nurture these ‘untruths’ and later abort the idea of seeking the non-traditional path which might have been directed toward fulfilling their dream (Kerka, 2001).
  • 29. Findings - Qualitative
    • Skill shortages in the labor force can be met by the placement of women pursuing non-traditional fields.
    • Responses Frequency Percent (%)
    • Disagree/Strongly Disagree 6 3.2
    • Undecided 30 16.1
    • Agree/Strongly Agree 147 78.6
    • No Response 4 2.1
    • Total 187 100.0
  • 30. Interview Support
    • A piece of advice given by a Computer Maintenance major in order for a female to succeed and fill up the labor shortage was: “Don’t stress too much, the knowledge will come to you. Don’t give up, save your money and keep looking forward to complete your goal!”
  • 31. Related Literature
    • Education and training are paramount to
    • developing strategies for aiding women to
    • gain access to non-traditional jobs.Developing
    • strategies for preparing women is troubling at
    • the national level. Despite 20 years of equity
    • legislation and programming, many barriers
    • remain. (Kerka, 2001).
  • 32. Findings - Qualitative
    • Mentoring programs in the workplace can make a difference in the retention and placement of females in non-traditional fields.
    • Responses Frequency Percent (%)
    • Disagree/Strongly Disagree 4 2.2
    • Undecided 24 12.8
    • Agree/Strongly Agree 155 82.9
    • No Response 4 2.1
    • Total 187 100.0
  • 33. Interview Support
    • Another female majoring in Electrical Power Control and Instrumentation had this experience in her class: “The other students (male) started making me feel comfortable. Students and professors did not shut me out. They encouraged me”. Consequently she did not even think of dropping out since the male classmates encouraged her and the boost kept her going.
  • 34. Findings - Qualitative
    • Women should be given equal opportunity with men for apprenticeship training in various trades (e.g. carpentry, welding, drafting, etc.).
    • Responses Frequency Percent (%)
    • Disagree/Strongly Disagree 35 18.7
    • Undecided 25 13.4
    • Agree/Strongly Agree 123 65.8
    • No Response 4 2.1
    • Total 187 100.0
  • 35. Interview Support
    • A female student in Automotive had this reaction: “The school provides the required training. Job placement is good. Lots of resources are there to help you. I want to achieve my ultimate goal of completing my education and have a healthy career”.
  • 36. Findings - Qualitative
    • Women who work in the non-traditional areas will encourage other women to enter into these programs.
    • Responses Frequency Percent (%)
    • Disagree/Strongly Disagree 5 2.7
    • Undecided 10 5.3
    • Agree/Strongly Agree 169 90.4
    • No Response 3 1.6
    • Total 187 100.0
  • 37. Interview Support
    • A female student enrolled in Computer Network System because her mother and aunt were also in non-traditional occupations.
  • 38. Findings - Qualitative
    • In your opinion the physical facilities (laboratory space, classrooms, lighting, lounge, etc.) available at your institution are adequate for women in non-traditional education courses.
    • Responses Frequency Percent (%)
    • Disagree/Strongly Disagree 2 1.1
    • Undecided 10 5.4
    • Agree/Strongly Agree 171 91.4
    • No Response 4 2.1
    • Total 187 100.0
  • 39. Interview Support
    • A Web Design major suggests open labs since she can work in her own space. A Media Communication and Information Technology major said this: “Labs are quiet and very good. I enjoy the work atmosphere ”.
  • 40. Findings - Qualitative
    • The support services (teaching aides, library, Women’s Resource Center, daycare, etc.) available at your institution is appropriate for women in non-traditional education courses.
    • Responses Frequency Percent (%)
    • Disagree/Strongly Disagree 4 2.2
    • Undecided 23 12.3
    • Agree/Strongly Agree 156 83.4
    • No Response 4 2.1
    • Total 187 100.0
  • 41. Interview Support
    • A respondent with three kids, who was studying Computer Network System as her major mentioned this: “My age and being female along with having been in the workforce for so long made me different. But the instructors and students were very respectful. Even the instructors called me ‘Miss’. They opened the door for me; started watching their language around me…somewhat of a strain on the regular way they do things with just men in the class”.
  • 42. Findings - Qualitative
    • Most school counselors have limited knowledge concerning non-traditional education courses (e.g. welding, drafting, electricity/electronics, computer, etc.).
    • Responses Frequency Percent (%)
    • Disagree/Strongly Disagree 48 25.7
    • Undecided 58 31.0
    • Agree/Strongly Agree 76 40.6
    • No Response 5 2.7
    • Total 187 100.0
  • 43. Related Literature
    • Counselors, vocational educators, and case managers contribute to females’ access to non-traditional programs and occupations. Since these helping professionals are involved in providing guidance and direction, their perceptions and attitudes can influence a students’ career decision in the selection of a non-traditional occupation (Burge & Culver, 1990).
  • 44. Findings - Qualitative
    • Lack of training is a barrier that impedes the process for women entering non-traditional fields.
    • Responses Frequency Percent (%)
    • Disagree/Strongly Disagree 35 18.7
    • Undecided 30 16.1
    • Agree/Strongly Agree 116 62.0
    • No Response 6 3.2
    • Total 187 100.0
  • 45. Related Literature
    • A major issue to be considered when addressing
    • women joining the labor market is the lack of training.
    • When women in non-traditional fields enter the
    • workforce and they have not been adequately trained,
    • on the job programs will be essential to ensure the
    • appropriate placement, retention and maintenance of
    • productive workers. Preparation will enable more
    • women to become more productive citizens and
    • contributors to society (Lowen, 2007).
  • 46. Related Literature
    • Based on the increasing number of females entering the non-traditional workplace, it is imperative to address their training needs to ensure retention and placement of females pursuing non-traditional fields of study in higher education. Possessing this ability allows them to visualize the perfect job then work to develop the skills to acquire it (Wenniger, 1995).
  • 47. Implications
    • The merging of an established environment comprised of technically-oriented males with an unenlightened female student population suggests the need to sensitize campus groups and individuals to a variety of specifics that include, but are not limited to gender differences, social and classroom barriers, specified female needs as they relate to single-parent demands, and adult learning styles (Roe, 1994).
  • 48. Implications
    • Activities to promote student attainment should be incorporated in career and technical education curriculum on both elementary and secondary levels. Taking the first step is crucial to extending a welcome and changing the culture (Kossuth &Leger-Hornby, 2004).
  • 49. Implications
    • Those administrative leaders responsible for the retention and placement of women in non-traditional fields of study in higher education may consider the reasons, career choice, personal elements, and institutional factors that lead to completion of this pursuit.
  • 50. Recommendations for Further Study
    • A study should be conducted with more colleges that offer non-traditional fields of study for women, like across the whole country, to have more comprehensive coverage.
    • A study should be conducted to compare
    • the status of men versus women in the
    • non-traditional occupations.
  • 51. Recommendations for Further Study
    • A study should be conducted to compare curricula in several major non-traditional fields of study for women (examples- automotive, computer-related courses, etc.) offered in several colleges.
    • A study should be conducted to determine the placement of female graduates from colleges that offer non-traditional fields of study.
  • 52. Recommendations for Further Study
    • A study should be conducted to compare the career paths of men versus women who get employed after graduating from specific non-traditional fields of study.
    • A study should be conducted on how elementary, middle and high schools foster entry awareness of female students into non-traditional fields of study.
  • 53. Concluding Remarks
    • Technical education has played a tremendous part in helping women change employment roles in today’s society. In an effort to fine their niches in life, women have expanded their minds and abilities to perform jobs that were once male-dominated. With that comes an increase in the number of women enrolling and completing studies in non-traditional fields (Roe, 1994).
  • 54. Concluding Remarks
    • All students should be encouraged by society to explore career options based on their abilities and interest, not their gender. Taking the first step is crucial to extending a welcome and changing the culture. (Kossuth & Leger-Hornby, 2004).
  • 55. Concluding Remarks
    • “ That which cannot change, will not survive.” My friend has had
    • this plaque on display in her office. The plaque is a rock in which
    • a fossil was embedded. I have thought about this quote often and
    • concluded that as much as change is difficult and fearful at times,
    • it is necessary and should be embraced. For me, graduation from
    • school, starting a new degree at a new school, beginning a new
    • job, marriage and having children all represented major life
    • changes. There are also numerous day-to-day changes in our
    • lives that can have significant effects on us. It is so important to
    • be able and willing to accept changes for the benefit of our inner
    • peace and our personal and professional success (Dever, 2002).
  • 56.